Union Membership, Coverage, Density and Employment by State, 1990 (details in table note)
State
Code State Sector Obs Employment Members Covered %Mem %Cov
63 Alabama Total 2,130 1,586,252 194,571 229,965 12.3 14.5
63 Alabama Private 1,731 1,294,294 135,157 146,698 10.4 11.3
63 Alabama Public 399 291,958 59,414 83,267 20.4 28.5
63 Alabama Priv. Construction 116 84,486 9,414 10,894 11.1 12.9
63 Alabama Priv. Manufacturing 558 417,461 92,099 98,661 22.1 23.6
94 Alaska Total 2,611 202,787 46,879 52,587 23.1 25.9
94 Alaska Private 1,816 140,475 19,684 22,009 14.0 15.7
94 Alaska Public 795 62,312 27,196 30,578 43.6 49.1
94 Alaska Priv. Construction 119 9,181 3,137 3,285 34.2 35.8
94 Alaska Priv. Manufacturing 107 9,028 2,808 3,249 31.1 36.0
86 Arizona Total 1,856 1,424,040 111,552 135,466 7.8 9.5
86 Arizona Private 1,526 1,170,491 56,846 66,799 4.9 5.7
86 Arizona Public 330 253,549 54,706 68,667 21.6 27.1
86 Arizona Priv. Construction 96 76,149 8,992 8,992 11.8 11.8
86 Arizona Priv. Manufacturing 265 201,148 8,437 9,142 4.2 4.5
71 Arkansas Total 2,117 883,638 91,384 107,572 10.3 12.2
71 Arkansas Private 1,731 723,271 62,837 74,027 8.7 10.2
71 Arkansas Public 386 160,367 28,547 33,544 17.8 20.9
71 Arkansas Priv. Construction 86 36,905 2,613 3,658 7.1 9.9
71 Arkansas Priv. Manufacturing 491 205,104 34,760 40,620 16.9 19.8
93 California Total 14,786 12,068,500 2,219,378 2,569,059 18.4 21.3
93 California Private 12,456 10,128,541 1,313,681 1,463,185 13.0 14.4
93 California Public 2,330 1,939,959 905,697 1,105,874 46.7 57.0
93 California Priv. Construction 805 683,389 170,910 179,306 25.0 26.2
93 California Priv. Manufacturing 2,823 2,254,286 354,785 398,459 15.7 17.7
84 Colorado Total 2,108 1,465,828 153,647 176,590 10.5 12.0
84 Colorado Private 1,695 1,179,419 86,084 95,285 7.3 8.1
84 Colorado Public 413 286,410 67,564 81,305 23.6 28.4
84 Colorado Priv. Construction 91 65,517 7,840 7,840 12.0 12.0
84 Colorado Priv. Manufacturing 297 206,348 17,073 17,880 8.3 8.7
16 Connecticut Total 1,988 1,534,536 272,042 303,301 17.7 19.8
16 Connecticut Private 1,738 1,339,188 156,270 176,483 11.7 13.2
16 Connecticut Public 250 195,348 115,772 126,819 59.3 64.9
16 Connecticut Priv. Construction 87 68,438 11,149 14,036 16.3 20.5
16 Connecticut Priv. Manufacturing 486 369,877 65,519 70,301 17.7 19.0
51 Delaware Total 1,901 313,908 46,799 52,717 14.9 16.8
51 Delaware Private 1,632 269,004 30,372 33,465 11.3 12.4
51 Delaware Public 269 44,904 16,428 19,251 36.6 42.9
51 Delaware Priv. Construction 119 19,194 3,643 3,643 19.0 19.0
51 Delaware Priv. Manufacturing 420 70,534 16,273 17,459 23.1 24.8
53 D.C. Total 1,748 257,724 41,449 50,699 16.1 19.7
53 D.C. Private 1,152 170,043 19,797 23,209 11.6 13.6
53 D.C. Public 596 87,680 21,652 27,490 24.7 31.4
53 D.C. Priv. Construction 54 9,039 2,665 2,987 29.5 33.0
53 D.C. Priv. Manufacturing 57 8,473 1,501 1,501 17.7 17.7
59 Florida Total 8,336 5,178,285 416,929 545,653 8.1 10.5
59 Florida Private 6,922 4,306,705 183,311 226,978 4.3 5.3
59 Florida Public 1,414 871,580 233,618 318,675 26.8 36.6
59 Florida Priv. Construction 477 297,900 15,540 16,902 5.2 5.7
59 Florida Priv. Manufacturing 976 618,087 50,120 61,064 8.1 9.9
58 Georgia Total 2,084 2,727,133 186,878 230,665 6.9 8.5
58 Georgia Private 1,718 2,250,410 127,496 146,880 5.7 6.5
58 Georgia Public 366 476,723 59,382 83,785 12.5 17.6
58 Georgia Priv. Construction 90 111,076 9,749 9,749 8.8 8.8
58 Georgia Priv. Manufacturing 438 577,748 49,382 52,748 8.5 9.1
95 Hawaii Total 1,836 448,964 130,769 141,359 29.1 31.5
95 Hawaii Private 1,427 347,901 74,524 81,882 21.4 23.5
95 Hawaii Public 409 101,063 56,246 59,477 55.7 58.9
95 Hawaii Priv. Construction 133 31,528 15,357 16,419 48.7 52.1
95 Hawaii Priv. Manufacturing 99 23,935 9,684 9,684 40.5 40.5
82 Idaho Total 2,252 392,263 36,952 43,020 9.4 11.0
82 Idaho Private 1,826 317,985 23,323 25,110 7.3 7.9
82 Idaho Public 426 74,278 13,629 17,910 18.3 24.1
82 Idaho Priv. Construction 117 20,613 1,685 1,685 8.2 8.2
82 Idaho Priv. Manufacturing 397 70,196 12,607 13,368 18.0 19.0
33 Illinois Total 7,917 5,080,391 1,059,128 1,155,588 20.8 22.7
33 Illinois Private 6,702 4,307,137 711,610 763,681 16.5 17.7
33 Illinois Public 1,215 773,254 347,517 391,907 44.9 50.7
33 Illinois Priv. Construction 324 209,102 95,188 99,094 45.5 47.4
33 Illinois Priv. Manufacturing 1,637 1,059,644 295,246 308,781 27.9 29.1
32 Indiana Total 2,232 2,415,905 479,979 516,188 19.9 21.4
32 Indiana Private 1,917 2,096,303 389,374 405,593 18.6 19.3
32 Indiana Public 315 319,602 90,605 110,596 28.3 34.6
32 Indiana Priv. Construction 107 123,735 36,993 37,748 29.9 30.5
32 Indiana Priv. Manufacturing 637 644,340 240,776 243,982 37.4 37.9
42 Iowa Total 2,347 1,185,467 183,627 238,578 15.5 20.1
42 Iowa Private 1,870 944,797 109,439 127,391 11.6 13.5
42 Iowa Public 477 240,670 74,188 111,187 30.8 46.2
42 Iowa Priv. Construction 90 45,369 9,228 10,170 20.3 22.4
42 Iowa Priv. Manufacturing 472 239,495 69,435 78,338 29.0 32.7
47 Kansas Total 2,373 1,052,818 119,017 154,551 11.3 14.7
47 Kansas Private 1,893 839,421 78,621 91,975 9.4 11.0
47 Kansas Public 480 213,397 40,396 62,575 18.9 29.3
47 Kansas Priv. Construction 90 39,798 7,685 7,685 19.3 19.3
47 Kansas Priv. Manufacturing 443 197,486 38,749 47,526 19.6 24.1
61 Kentucky Total 1,954 1,445,217 206,368 223,606 14.3 15.5
61 Kentucky Private 1,595 1,182,653 147,579 152,865 12.5 12.9
61 Kentucky Public 359 262,564 58,789 70,742 22.4 26.9
61 Kentucky Priv. Construction 77 56,745 13,593 13,593 24.0 24.0
61 Kentucky Priv. Manufacturing 365 269,713 72,761 74,690 27.0 27.7
72 Louisiana Total 1,641 1,502,400 116,071 141,438 7.7 9.4
72 Louisiana Private 1,323 1,213,547 69,813 81,392 5.8 6.7
72 Louisiana Public 318 288,853 46,258 60,046 16.0 20.8
72 Louisiana Priv. Construction 100 95,595 13,779 13,779 14.4 14.4
72 Louisiana Priv. Manufacturing 184 171,745 28,467 31,820 16.6 18.5
11 Maine Total 1,898 506,123 88,493 107,457 17.5 21.2
11 Maine Private 1,551 413,196 39,904 48,421 9.7 11.7
11 Maine Public 347 92,928 48,589 59,035 52.3 63.5
11 Maine Priv. Construction 109 29,269 1,944 1,944 6.6 6.6
11 Maine Priv. Manufacturing 383 101,861 25,127 27,502 24.7 27.0
52 Maryland Total 2,066 2,201,567 319,904 374,163 14.5 17.0
52 Maryland Private 1,537 1,634,640 171,640 185,054 10.5 11.3
52 Maryland Public 529 566,927 148,264 189,109 26.2 33.4
52 Maryland Priv. Construction 132 147,547 17,260 18,910 11.7 12.8
52 Maryland Priv. Manufacturing 233 241,215 47,407 49,483 19.7 20.5
14 Massachusetts Total 7,549 2,679,710 471,719 505,122 17.6 18.8
14 Massachusetts Private 6,467 2,301,027 246,845 267,084 10.7 11.6
14 Massachusetts Public 1,082 378,683 224,874 238,038 59.4 62.9
14 Massachusetts Priv. Construction 309 110,711 23,317 24,317 21.1 22.0
14 Massachusetts Priv. Manufacturing 1,534 541,406 87,323 90,261 16.1 16.7
34 Michigan Total 7,796 3,834,908 974,033 1,038,768 25.4 27.1
34 Michigan Private 6,577 3,244,083 653,757 693,287 20.2 21.4
34 Michigan Public 1,219 590,825 320,276 345,481 54.2 58.5
34 Michigan Priv. Construction 254 125,807 37,270 40,664 29.6 32.3
34 Michigan Priv. Manufacturing 2,094 1,042,189 371,301 383,495 35.6 36.8
41 Minnesota Total 2,168 1,950,746 395,747 429,654 20.3 22.0
41 Minnesota Private 1,814 1,635,141 229,070 248,350 14.0 15.2
41 Minnesota Public 354 315,605 166,677 181,304 52.8 57.4
41 Minnesota Priv. Construction 90 83,708 36,687 36,687 43.8 43.8
41 Minnesota Priv. Manufacturing 401 362,674 75,914 81,115 20.9 22.4
64 Mississippi Total 2,266 960,668 75,653 91,986 7.9 9.6
64 Mississippi Private 1,828 779,505 58,850 65,919 7.5 8.5
64 Mississippi Public 438 181,163 16,802 26,067 9.3 14.4
64 Mississippi Priv. Construction 94 41,096 3,415 3,957 8.3 9.6
64 Mississippi Priv. Manufacturing 536 229,243 34,025 37,103 14.8 16.2
43 Missouri Total 2,037 2,184,546 299,193 342,811 13.7 15.7
43 Missouri Private 1,759 1,896,779 248,215 275,196 13.1 14.5
43 Missouri Public 278 287,767 50,978 67,615 17.7 23.5
43 Missouri Priv. Construction 81 91,390 36,487 38,075 39.9 41.7
43 Missouri Priv. Manufacturing 442 464,677 92,637 99,499 19.9 21.4
81 Montana Total 2,213 301,469 54,534 61,746 18.1 20.5
81 Montana Private 1,660 224,773 27,887 30,634 12.4 13.6
81 Montana Public 553 76,697 26,647 31,112 34.7 40.6
81 Montana Priv. Construction 87 11,920 3,187 3,464 26.7 29.1
81 Montana Priv. Manufacturing 172 23,048 6,484 6,612 28.1 28.7
46 Nebraska Total 2,434 678,377 74,703 104,124 11.0 15.3
46 Nebraska Private 1,958 546,305 39,195 53,679 7.2 9.8
46 Nebraska Public 476 132,071 35,508 50,445 26.9 38.2
46 Nebraska Priv. Construction 90 25,638 2,773 3,306 10.8 12.9
46 Nebraska Priv. Manufacturing 395 111,605 19,713 24,899 17.7 22.3
88 Nevada Total 2,172 527,754 85,878 96,877 16.3 18.4
88 Nevada Private 1,874 458,111 60,564 66,204 13.2 14.5
88 Nevada Public 298 69,643 25,314 30,673 36.3 44.0
88 Nevada Priv. Construction 155 37,301 8,964 9,246 24.0 24.8
88 Nevada Priv. Manufacturing 116 28,666 3,304 3,304 11.5 11.5
12 New Hampshire Total 1,748 517,627 59,557 67,426 11.5 13.0
12 New Hampshire Private 1,509 448,567 29,668 32,897 6.6 7.3
12 New Hampshire Public 239 69,060 29,890 34,529 43.3 50.0
12 New Hampshire Priv. Construction 90 26,569 3,700 3,996 13.9 15.0
12 New Hampshire Priv. Manufacturing 474 142,123 12,340 14,031 8.7 9.9
22 New Jersey Total 7,926 3,427,242 827,155 902,849 24.1 26.3
22 New Jersey Private 6,636 2,872,986 496,407 549,047 17.3 19.1
22 New Jersey Public 1,290 554,256 330,748 353,802 59.7 63.8
22 New Jersey Priv. Construction 364 158,635 66,255 66,667 41.8 42.0
22 New Jersey Priv. Manufacturing 1,529 662,373 164,922 176,267 24.9 26.6
85 New Mexico Total 1,934 546,230 38,363 52,162 7.0 9.5
85 New Mexico Private 1,400 397,520 26,553 29,698 6.7 7.5
85 New Mexico Public 534 148,709 11,810 22,464 7.9 15.1
85 New Mexico Priv. Construction 105 29,215 3,098 3,430 10.6 11.7
85 New Mexico Priv. Manufacturing 160 45,906 5,255 5,491 11.4 12.0
21 New York Total 12,985 7,390,091 2,083,688 2,270,194 28.2 30.7
21 New York Private 10,422 5,944,819 1,080,033 1,201,397 18.2 20.2
21 New York Public 2,563 1,445,272 1,003,655 1,068,797 69.4 74.0
21 New York Priv. Construction 563 329,103 115,346 125,364 35.0 38.1
21 New York Priv. Manufacturing 2,102 1,193,065 301,481 327,828 25.3 27.5
56 North Carolina Total 8,145 2,896,033 150,608 187,244 5.2 6.5
56 North Carolina Private 6,887 2,451,434 93,336 110,691 3.8 4.5
56 North Carolina Public 1,258 444,599 57,272 76,554 12.9 17.2
56 North Carolina Priv. Construction 448 161,823 1,772 2,883 1.1 1.8
56 North Carolina Priv. Manufacturing 2,473 879,263 48,070 52,200 5.5 5.9
44 North Dakota Total 2,297 246,870 29,592 37,755 12.0 15.3
44 North Dakota Private 1,719 185,322 13,777 16,458 7.4 8.9
44 North Dakota Public 578 61,547 15,815 21,297 25.7 34.6
44 North Dakota Priv. Construction 84 9,217 1,494 1,581 16.2 17.2
44 North Dakota Priv. Manufacturing 180 19,702 4,134 4,249 21.0 21.6
31 Ohio Total 8,334 4,618,168 968,506 1,076,743 21.0 23.3
31 Ohio Private 7,097 3,937,225 692,998 739,173 17.6 18.8
31 Ohio Public 1,237 680,942 275,508 337,570 40.5 49.6
31 Ohio Priv. Construction 339 194,795 55,655 59,192 28.6 30.4
31 Ohio Priv. Manufacturing 2,130 1,183,288 397,969 413,232 33.6 34.9
73 Oklahoma Total 2,047 1,228,155 130,345 158,719 10.6 12.9
73 Oklahoma Private 1,589 954,179 67,328 73,626 7.1 7.7
73 Oklahoma Public 458 273,976 63,017 85,092 23.0 31.1
73 Oklahoma Priv. Construction 77 45,323 4,734 5,300 10.4 11.7
73 Oklahoma Priv. Manufacturing 350 212,076 32,133 32,499 15.2 15.3
92 Oregon Total 1,874 1,166,034 237,336 273,352 20.4 23.4
92 Oregon Private 1,555 969,631 130,589 145,041 13.5 15.0
92 Oregon Public 319 196,403 106,747 128,311 54.4 65.3
92 Oregon Priv. Construction 72 46,042 13,687 14,208 29.7 30.9
92 Oregon Priv. Manufacturing 363 229,594 55,395 58,862 24.1 25.6
23 Pennsylvania Total 7,978 5,014,845 1,022,997 1,136,939 20.4 22.7
23 Pennsylvania Private 6,887 4,334,640 676,514 745,195 15.6 17.2
23 Pennsylvania Public 1,091 680,205 346,483 391,744 50.9 57.6
23 Pennsylvania Priv. Construction 430 277,357 70,972 75,695 25.6 27.3
23 Pennsylvania Priv. Manufacturing 1,769 1,113,826 316,212 333,827 28.4 30.0
15 Rhode Island Total 1,766 431,268 78,601 84,584 18.2 19.6
15 Rhode Island Private 1,509 369,049 39,743 43,995 10.8 11.9
15 Rhode Island Public 257 62,219 38,857 40,589 62.5 65.2
15 Rhode Island Priv. Construction 82 20,534 4,114 5,389 20.0 26.2
15 Rhode Island Priv. Manufacturing 426 102,505 13,959 14,469 13.6 14.1
57 South Carolina Total 2,661 1,468,624 67,316 89,477 4.6 6.1
57 South Carolina Private 2,221 1,227,172 45,044 55,062 3.7 4.5
57 South Carolina Public 440 241,452 22,271 34,415 9.2 14.3
57 South Carolina Priv. Construction 171 95,241 4,193 4,870 4.4 5.1
57 South Carolina Priv. Manufacturing 749 418,524 27,131 32,088 6.5 7.7
45 South Dakota Total 2,464 266,110 22,336 30,197 8.4 11.3
45 South Dakota Private 1,941 209,307 9,643 12,228 4.6 5.8
45 South Dakota Public 523 56,802 12,692 17,969 22.3 31.6
45 South Dakota Priv. Construction 89 9,713 422 422 4.3 4.3
45 South Dakota Priv. Manufacturing 300 32,565 3,375 4,476 10.4 13.7
62 Tennessee Total 2,182 2,008,456 235,546 283,153 11.7 14.1
62 Tennessee Private 1,846 1,700,251 166,914 187,083 9.8 11.0
62 Tennessee Public 336 308,205 68,632 96,070 22.3 31.2
62 Tennessee Priv. Construction 94 87,384 9,272 9,272 10.6 10.6
62 Tennessee Priv. Manufacturing 637 586,690 104,089 118,807 17.7 20.3
74 Texas Total 8,524 6,982,150 446,850 589,826 6.4 8.4
74 Texas Private 7,019 5,777,715 273,439 348,390 4.7 6.0
74 Texas Public 1,505 1,204,435 173,411 241,436 14.4 20.0
74 Texas Priv. Construction 481 397,630 23,335 27,344 5.9 6.9
74 Texas Priv. Manufacturing 1,392 1,171,767 109,984 137,039 9.4 11.7
87 Utah Total 2,119 655,706 61,482 85,296 9.4 13.0
87 Utah Private 1,676 519,362 27,585 37,848 5.3 7.3
87 Utah Public 443 136,344 33,897 47,448 24.9 34.8
87 Utah Priv. Construction 81 25,710 3,912 4,835 15.2 18.8
87 Utah Priv. Manufacturing 364 113,671 5,436 6,307 4.8 5.5
13 Vermont Total 1,583 237,137 29,940 35,933 12.6 15.2
13 Vermont Private 1,331 200,093 13,041 15,016 6.5 7.5
13 Vermont Public 252 37,044 16,899 20,917 45.6 56.5
13 Vermont Priv. Construction 101 15,506 1,430 1,628 9.2 10.5
13 Vermont Priv. Manufacturing 278 42,046 6,717 6,983 16.0 16.6
54 Virginia Total 3,017 2,744,304 230,434 298,603 8.4 10.9
54 Virginia Private 2,311 2,106,331 132,786 157,686 6.3 7.5
54 Virginia Public 706 637,973 97,648 140,916 15.3 22.1
54 Virginia Priv. Construction 171 159,470 9,778 11,571 6.1 7.3
54 Virginia Priv. Manufacturing 467 424,345 57,402 64,579 13.5 15.2
91 Washington Total 2,273 2,046,142 466,410 530,980 22.8 26.0
91 Washington Private 1,850 1,667,035 282,119 317,662 16.9 19.1
91 Washington Public 423 379,107 184,292 213,318 48.6 56.3
91 Washington Priv. Construction 122 111,114 26,684 26,684 24.0 24.0
91 Washington Priv. Manufacturing 398 359,936 111,466 125,370 31.0 34.8
55 West Virginia Total 1,892 630,354 121,799 137,981 19.3 21.9
55 West Virginia Private 1,545 515,035 96,068 102,855 18.7 20.0
55 West Virginia Public 347 115,319 25,732 35,125 22.3 30.5
55 West Virginia Priv. Construction 108 37,290 10,429 11,126 28.0 29.8
55 West Virginia Priv. Manufacturing 297 98,911 40,298 42,566 40.7 43.0
35 Wisconsin Total 2,871 2,194,771 451,171 474,042 20.6 21.6
35 Wisconsin Private 2,399 1,836,932 276,948 290,827 15.1 15.8
35 Wisconsin Public 472 357,839 174,223 183,216 48.7 51.2
35 Wisconsin Priv. Construction 113 86,299 31,251 32,516 36.2 37.7
35 Wisconsin Priv. Manufacturing 692 536,236 154,990 158,778 28.9 29.6
83 Wyoming Total 1,594 196,520 26,503 33,076 13.5 16.8
83 Wyoming Private 1,153 142,737 12,522 15,791 8.8 11.1
83 Wyoming Public 441 53,783 13,981 17,285 26.0 32.1
83 Wyoming Priv. Construction 80 9,958 1,104 1,104 11.1 11.1
83 Wyoming Priv. Manufacturing 76 8,924 872 1,565 9.8 17.5
                   
Data Sources: Current Population Survey (CPS) Outgoing Rotation Group (ORG) Earnings Files, 1990. Sample includes
employed wage and salary workers, ages 16 and over. Variable definitions are: State Code=Census state code used
in CPS, Obs=CPS sample size, Employment=wage and salary employment, Members=employed workers who are union
members, Covered=workers covered by a collective bargaining agreement, %Mem=percent of employed workers who
are union members, and %Cov=percent of employed workers who are covered by a collective bargaining agreement.
2002 by Barry T. Hirsch and David A. Macpherson. The use of data requires citation.