Union Membership, Coverage, Density and Employment by State, 1991 (details in table note)
State
Code State Sector Obs Employment Members Covered %Mem %Cov
63 Alabama Total 2,205 1,592,663 212,411 247,943 13.3 15.6
63 Alabama Private 1,774 1,285,127 139,521 155,104 10.9 12.1
63 Alabama Public 431 307,536 72,891 92,840 23.7 30.2
63 Alabama Priv. Construction 124 90,415 10,946 12,360 12.1 13.7
63 Alabama Priv. Manufacturing 531 388,421 92,923 102,331 23.9 26.3
94 Alaska Total 2,543 201,910 43,512 48,689 21.6 24.1
94 Alaska Private 1,776 142,351 17,150 18,936 12.0 13.3
94 Alaska Public 767 59,559 26,362 29,753 44.3 50.0
94 Alaska Priv. Construction 127 10,077 2,290 2,371 22.7 23.5
94 Alaska Priv. Manufacturing 100 8,434 1,371 1,702 16.3 20.2
86 Arizona Total 1,710 1,387,011 107,095 136,429 7.7 9.8
86 Arizona Private 1,406 1,138,410 56,055 67,581 4.9 5.9
86 Arizona Public 304 248,601 51,040 68,848 20.5 27.7
86 Arizona Priv. Construction 92 76,747 7,717 9,476 10.1 12.3
86 Arizona Priv. Manufacturing 228 184,371 9,488 11,080 5.1 6.0
71 Arkansas Total 2,202 885,625 89,976 110,984 10.2 12.5
71 Arkansas Private 1,824 731,663 63,203 73,365 8.6 10.0
71 Arkansas Public 378 153,962 26,773 37,619 17.4 24.4
71 Arkansas Priv. Construction 76 31,664 2,568 2,958 8.1 9.3
71 Arkansas Priv. Manufacturing 537 217,041 35,959 41,032 16.6 18.9
93 California Total 14,155 11,817,273 2,156,966 2,470,496 18.3 20.9
93 California Private 11,908 9,892,075 1,235,580 1,374,346 12.5 13.9
93 California Public 2,247 1,925,198 921,386 1,096,150 47.9 56.9
93 California Priv. Construction 637 558,802 136,070 142,175 24.4 25.4
93 California Priv. Manufacturing 2,693 2,185,091 313,637 341,782 14.4 15.6
84 Colorado Total 2,112 1,455,967 143,494 172,086 9.9 11.8
84 Colorado Private 1,721 1,189,020 89,774 96,148 7.6 8.1
84 Colorado Public 391 266,947 53,721 75,938 20.1 28.4
84 Colorado Priv. Construction 82 56,930 8,679 8,679 15.2 15.2
84 Colorado Priv. Manufacturing 297 206,407 15,177 16,546 7.4 8.0
16 Connecticut Total 1,902 1,513,920 287,166 305,089 19.0 20.2
16 Connecticut Private 1,648 1,311,888 148,467 160,592 11.3 12.2
16 Connecticut Public 254 202,032 138,699 144,497 68.7 71.5
16 Connecticut Priv. Construction 70 55,115 12,203 12,203 22.1 22.1
16 Connecticut Priv. Manufacturing 463 363,658 61,361 68,958 16.9 19.0
51 Delaware Total 1,688 309,401 51,940 57,700 16.8 18.6
51 Delaware Private 1,459 268,736 35,915 39,484 13.4 14.7
51 Delaware Public 229 40,665 16,025 18,216 39.4 44.8
51 Delaware Priv. Construction 99 17,756 4,094 4,293 23.1 24.2
51 Delaware Priv. Manufacturing 383 71,814 20,127 21,458 28.0 29.9
53 D.C. Total 1,577 239,447 35,948 45,412 15.0 19.0
53 D.C. Private 1,048 158,308 17,230 21,589 10.9 13.6
53 D.C. Public 529 81,139 18,719 23,824 23.1 29.4
53 D.C. Priv. Construction 29 4,580 859 1,084 18.8 23.7
53 D.C. Priv. Manufacturing 52 8,061 541 752 6.7 9.3
59 Florida Total 7,673 5,136,189 448,063 620,363 8.7 12.1
59 Florida Private 6,339 4,243,792 177,540 238,645 4.2 5.6
59 Florida Public 1,334 892,397 270,524 381,719 30.3 42.8
59 Florida Priv. Construction 440 300,639 14,565 16,585 4.8 5.5
59 Florida Priv. Manufacturing 863 583,925 38,821 46,851 6.6 8.0
58 Georgia Total 1,977 2,686,854 182,183 236,844 6.8 8.8
58 Georgia Private 1,606 2,185,132 130,436 150,942 6.0 6.9
58 Georgia Public 371 501,721 51,747 85,901 10.3 17.1
58 Georgia Priv. Construction 78 101,025 5,540 5,540 5.5 5.5
58 Georgia Priv. Manufacturing 406 560,328 56,453 63,081 10.1 11.3
95 Hawaii Total 1,873 480,206 139,130 149,533 29.0 31.1
95 Hawaii Private 1,428 365,804 77,902 84,514 21.3 23.1
95 Hawaii Public 445 114,402 61,228 65,019 53.5 56.8
95 Hawaii Priv. Construction 138 35,805 18,479 19,414 51.6 54.2
95 Hawaii Priv. Manufacturing 75 18,709 7,177 7,312 38.4 39.1
82 Idaho Total 2,177 399,862 35,452 42,870 8.9 10.7
82 Idaho Private 1,760 322,471 21,935 25,524 6.8 7.9
82 Idaho Public 417 77,391 13,517 17,346 17.5 22.4
82 Idaho Priv. Construction 106 19,612 909 1,104 4.6 5.6
82 Idaho Priv. Manufacturing 367 67,084 10,549 12,397 15.7 18.5
33 Illinois Total 7,833 5,040,915 1,056,661 1,139,652 21.0 22.6
33 Illinois Private 6,645 4,281,833 695,414 741,161 16.2 17.3
33 Illinois Public 1,188 759,081 361,248 398,492 47.6 52.5
33 Illinois Priv. Construction 314 207,545 91,111 100,422 43.9 48.4
33 Illinois Priv. Manufacturing 1,683 1,084,947 286,405 294,472 26.4 27.1
32 Indiana Total 2,103 2,368,321 457,518 495,560 19.3 20.9
32 Indiana Private 1,806 2,038,895 375,198 389,929 18.4 19.1
32 Indiana Public 297 329,427 82,320 105,631 25.0 32.1
32 Indiana Priv. Construction 86 97,097 36,061 36,061 37.1 37.1
32 Indiana Priv. Manufacturing 624 664,385 240,482 245,048 36.2 36.9
42 Iowa Total 2,445 1,190,167 163,684 208,243 13.8 17.5
42 Iowa Private 1,985 966,500 98,289 113,395 10.2 11.7
42 Iowa Public 460 223,667 65,396 94,848 29.2 42.4
42 Iowa Priv. Construction 110 54,184 15,809 16,319 29.2 30.1
42 Iowa Priv. Manufacturing 475 231,336 53,998 62,789 23.3 27.1
47 Kansas Total 2,335 1,054,000 126,468 160,630 12.0 15.2
47 Kansas Private 1,860 842,607 82,564 99,638 9.8 11.8
47 Kansas Public 475 211,393 43,904 60,992 20.8 28.9
47 Kansas Priv. Construction 105 48,425 9,660 9,660 19.9 19.9
47 Kansas Priv. Manufacturing 423 192,645 40,412 53,841 21.0 27.9
61 Kentucky Total 1,942 1,371,233 182,036 205,449 13.3 15.0
61 Kentucky Private 1,620 1,144,223 139,894 148,421 12.2 13.0
61 Kentucky Public 322 227,010 42,142 57,027 18.6 25.1
61 Kentucky Priv. Construction 87 61,857 8,813 8,813 14.2 14.2
61 Kentucky Priv. Manufacturing 374 265,503 76,501 80,036 28.8 30.1
72 Louisiana Total 1,738 1,561,916 122,147 147,269 7.8 9.4
72 Louisiana Private 1,395 1,254,673 75,574 89,605 6.0 7.1
72 Louisiana Public 343 307,244 46,573 57,664 15.2 18.8
72 Louisiana Priv. Construction 110 98,937 16,069 17,925 16.2 18.1
72 Louisiana Priv. Manufacturing 211 193,575 34,823 36,235 18.0 18.7
11 Maine Total 1,752 492,325 90,241 103,380 18.3 21.0
11 Maine Private 1,425 401,249 42,306 48,271 10.5 12.0
11 Maine Public 327 91,075 47,935 55,110 52.6 60.5
11 Maine Priv. Construction 78 22,549 2,048 2,309 9.1 10.2
11 Maine Priv. Manufacturing 351 99,412 25,492 28,386 25.6 28.6
52 Maryland Total 2,023 2,157,848 306,586 364,930 14.2 16.9
52 Maryland Private 1,481 1,573,259 178,117 190,781 11.3 12.1
52 Maryland Public 542 584,589 128,469 174,149 22.0 29.8
52 Maryland Priv. Construction 113 121,551 12,677 12,677 10.4 10.4
52 Maryland Priv. Manufacturing 211 220,441 60,347 65,227 27.4 29.6
14 Massachusetts Total 7,085 2,528,170 441,776 475,498 17.5 18.8
14 Massachusetts Private 6,049 2,160,147 216,513 239,710 10.0 11.1
14 Massachusetts Public 1,036 368,023 225,264 235,788 61.2 64.1
14 Massachusetts Priv. Construction 215 78,076 19,111 19,815 24.5 25.4
14 Massachusetts Priv. Manufacturing 1,374 488,762 66,014 73,271 13.5 15.0
34 Michigan Total 7,625 3,736,947 924,302 978,607 24.7 26.2
34 Michigan Private 6,417 3,154,444 601,690 629,285 19.1 19.9
34 Michigan Public 1,208 582,503 322,612 349,321 55.4 60.0
34 Michigan Priv. Construction 272 134,435 45,064 45,995 33.5 34.2
34 Michigan Priv. Manufacturing 2,002 987,870 342,690 353,743 34.7 35.8
41 Minnesota Total 2,141 1,985,248 426,386 454,552 21.5 22.9
41 Minnesota Private 1,805 1,676,363 251,465 268,188 15.0 16.0
41 Minnesota Public 336 308,885 174,921 186,363 56.6 60.3
41 Minnesota Priv. Construction 73 68,493 30,199 31,076 44.1 45.4
41 Minnesota Priv. Manufacturing 384 354,018 70,622 73,878 19.9 20.9
64 Mississippi Total 2,281 975,211 79,543 96,729 8.2 9.9
64 Mississippi Private 1,830 786,923 61,518 69,268 7.8 8.8
64 Mississippi Public 451 188,288 18,025 27,462 9.6 14.6
64 Mississippi Priv. Construction 85 37,405 1,853 1,853 5.0 5.0
64 Mississippi Priv. Manufacturing 499 215,567 41,358 44,900 19.2 20.8
43 Missouri Total 2,023 2,183,702 308,765 341,565 14.1 15.6
43 Missouri Private 1,727 1,871,702 244,614 259,617 13.1 13.9
43 Missouri Public 296 311,999 64,151 81,949 20.6 26.3
43 Missouri Priv. Construction 72 83,559 31,014 32,352 37.1 38.7
43 Missouri Priv. Manufacturing 405 423,712 80,469 89,483 19.0 21.1
81 Montana Total 2,126 289,743 50,036 58,772 17.3 20.3
81 Montana Private 1,585 216,471 25,940 28,368 12.0 13.1
81 Montana Public 541 73,272 24,095 30,404 32.9 41.5
81 Montana Priv. Construction 78 11,239 3,604 3,604 32.1 32.1
81 Montana Priv. Manufacturing 153 21,167 5,676 6,001 26.8 28.3
46 Nebraska Total 2,478 687,205 73,973 109,350 10.8 15.9
46 Nebraska Private 2,000 554,701 37,430 54,168 6.7 9.8
46 Nebraska Public 478 132,504 36,543 55,182 27.6 41.6
46 Nebraska Priv. Construction 80 22,638 1,753 2,742 7.7 12.1
46 Nebraska Priv. Manufacturing 368 102,079 19,079 24,205 18.7 23.7
88 Nevada Total 2,196 549,694 100,623 117,654 18.3 21.4
88 Nevada Private 1,838 460,815 65,400 74,245 14.2 16.1
88 Nevada Public 358 88,879 35,223 43,409 39.6 48.8
88 Nevada Priv. Construction 167 42,538 7,542 9,181 17.7 21.6
88 Nevada Priv. Manufacturing 93 22,986 1,771 1,771 7.7 7.7
12 New Hampshire Total 1,592 516,961 59,949 68,468 11.6 13.2
12 New Hampshire Private 1,353 441,848 28,641 32,481 6.5 7.4
12 New Hampshire Public 239 75,113 31,308 35,988 41.7 47.9
12 New Hampshire Priv. Construction 65 20,633 901 901 4.4 4.4
12 New Hampshire Priv. Manufacturing 402 130,079 11,750 12,613 9.0 9.7
22 New Jersey Total 7,949 3,334,669 810,730 869,627 24.3 26.1
22 New Jersey Private 6,630 2,781,158 476,600 511,935 17.1 18.4
22 New Jersey Public 1,319 553,511 334,130 357,692 60.4 64.6
22 New Jersey Priv. Construction 331 139,204 53,169 55,264 38.2 39.7
22 New Jersey Priv. Manufacturing 1,487 625,898 155,441 166,470 24.8 26.6
85 New Mexico Total 1,828 556,179 49,229 61,056 8.9 11.0
85 New Mexico Private 1,260 386,258 26,642 29,794 6.9 7.7
85 New Mexico Public 568 169,921 22,587 31,262 13.3 18.4
85 New Mexico Priv. Construction 87 26,798 3,439 3,788 12.8 14.1
85 New Mexico Priv. Manufacturing 130 40,598 5,255 5,761 12.9 14.2
21 New York Total 12,253 7,063,378 2,064,209 2,227,673 29.2 31.5
21 New York Private 9,753 5,629,280 1,068,603 1,175,482 19.0 20.9
21 New York Public 2,500 1,434,098 995,606 1,052,191 69.4 73.4
21 New York Priv. Construction 449 267,017 110,753 115,855 41.5 43.4
21 New York Priv. Manufacturing 1,910 1,096,497 271,638 287,732 24.8 26.2
56 North Carolina Total 7,762 2,866,568 148,664 191,964 5.2 6.7
56 North Carolina Private 6,599 2,438,485 87,357 105,468 3.6 4.3
56 North Carolina Public 1,163 428,083 61,307 86,495 14.3 20.2
56 North Carolina Priv. Construction 365 134,483 2,085 2,456 1.6 1.8
56 North Carolina Priv. Manufacturing 2,303 854,010 41,905 48,746 4.9 5.7
44 North Dakota Total 2,306 244,791 23,326 28,375 9.5 11.6
44 North Dakota Private 1,746 185,663 10,468 11,995 5.6 6.5
44 North Dakota Public 560 59,128 12,858 16,380 21.7 27.7
44 North Dakota Priv. Construction 71 7,610 947 1,057 12.4 13.9
44 North Dakota Priv. Manufacturing 156 16,639 3,310 3,638 19.9 21.9
31 Ohio Total 8,226 4,574,590 945,063 1,022,669 20.7 22.4
31 Ohio Private 6,991 3,893,115 638,164 676,290 16.4 17.4
31 Ohio Public 1,235 681,475 306,899 346,379 45.0 50.8
31 Ohio Priv. Construction 291 163,874 40,994 42,582 25.0 26.0
31 Ohio Priv. Manufacturing 2,073 1,155,460 374,063 390,484 32.4 33.8
73 Oklahoma Total 1,916 1,167,801 119,264 134,050 10.2 11.5
73 Oklahoma Private 1,506 920,942 54,940 59,064 6.0 6.4
73 Oklahoma Public 410 246,859 64,324 74,986 26.1 30.4
73 Oklahoma Priv. Construction 73 44,532 6,026 6,026 13.5 13.5
73 Oklahoma Priv. Manufacturing 307 184,498 28,843 30,371 15.6 16.5
92 Oregon Total 1,872 1,186,629 225,994 259,743 19.0 21.9
92 Oregon Private 1,563 994,441 126,263 141,823 12.7 14.3
92 Oregon Public 309 192,188 99,731 117,919 51.9 61.4
92 Oregon Priv. Construction 85 55,616 19,286 21,702 34.7 39.0
92 Oregon Priv. Manufacturing 338 212,916 36,862 38,831 17.3 18.2
23 Pennsylvania Total 7,834 4,938,484 1,001,654 1,095,885 20.3 22.2
23 Pennsylvania Private 6,744 4,255,410 658,535 706,814 15.5 16.6
23 Pennsylvania Public 1,090 683,074 343,120 389,071 50.2 57.0
23 Pennsylvania Priv. Construction 346 222,327 66,667 69,399 30.0 31.2
23 Pennsylvania Priv. Manufacturing 1,652 1,042,711 298,714 308,020 28.6 29.5
15 Rhode Island Total 1,591 417,692 86,680 92,077 20.8 22.0
15 Rhode Island Private 1,330 348,455 41,194 42,902 11.8 12.3
15 Rhode Island Public 261 69,237 45,486 49,175 65.7 71.0
15 Rhode Island Priv. Construction 58 15,139 3,590 3,590 23.7 23.7
15 Rhode Island Priv. Manufacturing 373 96,562 12,307 12,892 12.7 13.4
57 South Carolina Total 2,552 1,492,244 77,190 92,251 5.2 6.2
57 South Carolina Private 2,085 1,224,088 49,582 54,314 4.1 4.4
57 South Carolina Public 467 268,155 27,609 37,937 10.3 14.1
57 South Carolina Priv. Construction 125 74,268 2,329 2,329 3.1 3.1
57 South Carolina Priv. Manufacturing 711 423,664 26,964 28,455 6.4 6.7
45 South Dakota Total 2,471 271,202 24,015 31,883 8.9 11.8
45 South Dakota Private 1,948 213,493 9,511 12,186 4.5 5.7
45 South Dakota Public 523 57,709 14,504 19,698 25.1 34.1
45 South Dakota Priv. Construction 86 9,654 759 866 7.9 9.0
45 South Dakota Priv. Manufacturing 305 33,565 3,496 4,403 10.4 13.1
62 Tennessee Total 2,244 2,030,916 222,994 261,556 11.0 12.9
62 Tennessee Private 1,883 1,706,843 146,652 166,250 8.6 9.7
62 Tennessee Public 361 324,073 76,341 95,306 23.6 29.4
62 Tennessee Priv. Construction 105 96,385 8,465 9,330 8.8 9.7
62 Tennessee Priv. Manufacturing 588 533,021 96,646 111,069 18.1 20.8
74 Texas Total 8,270 7,086,427 458,672 581,572 6.5 8.2
74 Texas Private 6,729 5,799,637 275,844 337,463 4.8 5.8
74 Texas Public 1,541 1,286,790 182,828 244,109 14.2 19.0
74 Texas Priv. Construction 438 379,993 19,153 20,162 5.0 5.3
74 Texas Priv. Manufacturing 1,235 1,083,587 114,668 141,698 10.6 13.1
87 Utah Total 2,089 652,248 61,220 80,463 9.4 12.3
87 Utah Private 1,606 501,185 28,158 33,516 5.6 6.7
87 Utah Public 483 151,062 33,061 46,948 21.9 31.1
87 Utah Priv. Construction 87 27,272 2,108 2,698 7.7 9.9
87 Utah Priv. Manufacturing 360 112,060 6,796 7,670 6.1 6.8
13 Vermont Total 1,541 240,736 27,959 34,855 11.6 14.5
13 Vermont Private 1,273 199,109 10,714 13,085 5.4 6.6
13 Vermont Public 268 41,627 17,245 21,769 41.4 52.3
13 Vermont Priv. Construction 67 10,912 1,136 1,263 10.4 11.6
13 Vermont Priv. Manufacturing 281 43,704 3,273 4,393 7.5 10.1
54 Virginia Total 2,902 2,805,321 243,750 314,288 8.7 11.2
54 Virginia Private 2,245 2,170,724 152,457 179,152 7.0 8.3
54 Virginia Public 657 634,597 91,293 135,136 14.4 21.3
54 Virginia Priv. Construction 144 144,676 9,803 12,283 6.8 8.5
54 Virginia Priv. Manufacturing 471 448,393 68,657 74,284 15.3 16.6
91 Washington Total 2,154 2,062,037 472,437 532,600 22.9 25.8
91 Washington Private 1,696 1,626,348 270,335 302,197 16.6 18.6
91 Washington Public 458 435,689 202,102 230,404 46.4 52.9
91 Washington Priv. Construction 109 101,594 26,192 29,355 25.8 28.9
91 Washington Priv. Manufacturing 358 343,431 100,780 113,371 29.3 33.0
55 West Virginia Total 1,902 637,508 123,435 135,724 19.4 21.3
55 West Virginia Private 1,540 517,728 94,671 100,643 18.3 19.4
55 West Virginia Public 362 119,780 28,764 35,081 24.0 29.3
55 West Virginia Priv. Construction 92 31,734 7,183 7,585 22.6 23.9
55 West Virginia Priv. Manufacturing 286 95,359 37,880 39,679 39.7 41.6
35 Wisconsin Total 2,845 2,170,807 454,627 485,652 20.9 22.4
35 Wisconsin Private 2,358 1,802,005 267,518 280,403 14.8 15.6
35 Wisconsin Public 487 368,802 187,109 205,249 50.7 55.7
35 Wisconsin Priv. Construction 118 91,350 34,556 35,994 37.8 39.4
35 Wisconsin Priv. Manufacturing 751 575,114 165,735 168,256 28.8 29.3
83 Wyoming Total 1,541 190,106 23,299 29,070 12.3 15.3
83 Wyoming Private 1,109 137,007 10,998 13,750 8.0 10.0
83 Wyoming Public 432 53,099 12,301 15,320 23.2 28.9
83 Wyoming Priv. Construction 71 9,361 412 412 4.4 4.4
83 Wyoming Priv. Manufacturing 81 10,012 994 1,908 9.9 19.1
                   
Data Sources: Current Population Survey (CPS) Outgoing Rotation Group (ORG) Earnings Files, 1991. Sample includes
employed wage and salary workers, ages 16 and over. Variable definitions are: State Code=Census state code used
in CPS, Obs=CPS sample size, Employment=wage and salary employment, Members=employed workers who are union
members, Covered=workers covered by a collective bargaining agreement, %Mem=percent of employed workers who
are union members, and %Cov=percent of employed workers who are covered by a collective bargaining agreement.
2002 by Barry T. Hirsch and David A. Macpherson. The use of data requires citation.