Union Membership, Coverage, Density and Employment by State, 1992 (details in table note)
State
Code State Sector Obs Employment Members Covered %Mem %Cov
63 Alabama Total 2,249 1,610,379 222,433 260,860 13.8 16.2
63 Alabama Private 1,843 1,327,214 157,279 169,990 11.9 12.8
63 Alabama Public 406 283,165 65,154 90,870 23.0 32.1
63 Alabama Priv. Construction 112 82,616 8,459 9,618 10.2 11.6
63 Alabama Priv. Manufacturing 562 412,433 102,835 108,608 24.9 26.3
94 Alaska Total 2,346 200,941 41,720 44,797 20.8 22.3
94 Alaska Private 1,640 140,144 14,318 15,003 10.2 10.7
94 Alaska Public 706 60,797 27,402 29,795 45.1 49.0
94 Alaska Priv. Construction 89 7,780 2,306 2,306 29.6 29.6
94 Alaska Priv. Manufacturing 88 7,769 971 1,138 12.5 14.7
86 Arizona Total 1,670 1,410,693 102,123 135,471 7.2 9.6
86 Arizona Private 1,378 1,167,650 58,105 76,602 5.0 6.6
86 Arizona Public 292 243,043 44,018 58,869 18.1 24.2
86 Arizona Priv. Construction 86 73,780 8,618 9,294 11.7 12.6
86 Arizona Priv. Manufacturing 212 178,937 4,732 9,990 2.6 5.6
71 Arkansas Total 2,197 922,977 79,230 101,568 8.6 11.0
71 Arkansas Private 1,780 749,950 50,440 61,861 6.7 8.2
71 Arkansas Public 417 173,027 28,790 39,707 16.6 22.9
71 Arkansas Priv. Construction 83 35,745 1,463 1,463 4.1 4.1
71 Arkansas Priv. Manufacturing 542 229,237 27,307 34,452 11.9 15.0
93 California Total 13,184 11,885,905 2,161,239 2,511,441 18.2 21.1
93 California Private 11,053 9,899,429 1,233,428 1,366,426 12.5 13.8
93 California Public 2,131 1,986,476 927,811 1,145,015 46.7 57.6
93 California Priv. Construction 563 533,218 125,291 129,802 23.5 24.3
93 California Priv. Manufacturing 2,431 2,110,423 285,271 318,989 13.5 15.1
84 Colorado Total 2,072 1,423,968 144,019 169,640 10.1 11.9
84 Colorado Private 1,680 1,157,893 90,087 95,333 7.8 8.2
84 Colorado Public 392 266,075 53,931 74,308 20.3 27.9
84 Colorado Priv. Construction 101 72,624 9,348 9,348 12.9 12.9
84 Colorado Priv. Manufacturing 274 188,367 15,274 15,867 8.1 8.4
16 Connecticut Total 1,837 1,475,826 263,589 280,988 17.9 19.0
16 Connecticut Private 1,620 1,302,958 152,697 165,406 11.7 12.7
16 Connecticut Public 217 172,868 110,892 115,582 64.1 66.9
16 Connecticut Priv. Construction 64 50,939 13,286 14,012 26.1 27.5
16 Connecticut Priv. Manufacturing 430 342,007 65,547 66,431 19.2 19.4
51 Delaware Total 1,597 315,443 51,925 58,267 16.5 18.5
51 Delaware Private 1,357 267,745 31,255 34,171 11.7 12.8
51 Delaware Public 240 47,698 20,669 24,096 43.3 50.5
51 Delaware Priv. Construction 90 18,267 3,264 3,415 17.9 18.7
51 Delaware Priv. Manufacturing 343 67,466 16,518 17,086 24.5 25.3
53 D.C. Total 1,514 235,296 31,555 40,363 13.4 17.2
53 D.C. Private 1,018 157,977 13,707 16,999 8.7 10.8
53 D.C. Public 496 77,318 17,848 23,364 23.1 30.2
53 D.C. Priv. Construction 27 4,005 756 756 18.9 18.9
53 D.C. Priv. Manufacturing 53 7,999 581 1,115 7.3 13.9
59 Florida Total 7,209 5,185,758 419,645 574,191 8.1 11.1
59 Florida Private 5,931 4,256,918 177,061 230,830 4.2 5.4
59 Florida Public 1,278 928,840 242,585 343,360 26.1 37.0
59 Florida Priv. Construction 357 260,982 16,153 17,455 6.2 6.7
59 Florida Priv. Manufacturing 728 527,653 27,932 34,405 5.3 6.5
58 Georgia Total 2,024 2,705,660 196,652 222,931 7.3 8.2
58 Georgia Private 1,685 2,260,338 145,035 155,762 6.4 6.9
58 Georgia Public 339 445,322 51,618 67,169 11.6 15.1
58 Georgia Priv. Construction 71 98,333 9,737 11,608 9.9 11.8
58 Georgia Priv. Manufacturing 426 564,572 50,917 50,917 9.0 9.0
95 Hawaii Total 1,838 487,978 139,617 155,581 28.6 31.9
95 Hawaii Private 1,396 370,440 78,926 90,701 21.3 24.5
95 Hawaii Public 442 117,538 60,691 64,880 51.6 55.2
95 Hawaii Priv. Construction 133 34,773 17,761 18,492 51.1 53.2
95 Hawaii Priv. Manufacturing 66 17,742 6,189 6,189 34.9 34.9
82 Idaho Total 2,106 407,046 37,242 47,416 9.1 11.6
82 Idaho Private 1,685 325,955 24,062 29,160 7.4 8.9
82 Idaho Public 421 81,092 13,180 18,255 16.3 22.5
82 Idaho Priv. Construction 101 20,386 2,049 2,173 10.1 10.7
82 Idaho Priv. Manufacturing 358 70,577 10,468 12,376 14.8 17.5
33 Illinois Total 7,614 5,078,956 1,042,090 1,114,553 20.5 21.9
33 Illinois Private 6,522 4,355,034 706,126 745,104 16.2 17.1
33 Illinois Public 1,092 723,923 335,963 369,449 46.4 51.0
33 Illinois Priv. Construction 266 179,244 86,403 88,429 48.2 49.3
33 Illinois Priv. Manufacturing 1,559 1,037,530 276,821 284,563 26.7 27.4
32 Indiana Total 2,080 2,416,983 463,534 504,312 19.2 20.9
32 Indiana Private 1,792 2,078,335 391,213 400,654 18.8 19.3
32 Indiana Public 288 338,647 72,321 103,658 21.4 30.6
32 Indiana Priv. Construction 81 97,127 31,462 32,363 32.4 33.3
32 Indiana Priv. Manufacturing 612 672,715 249,945 254,882 37.2 37.9
42 Iowa Total 2,577 1,270,960 172,226 211,746 13.6 16.7
42 Iowa Private 2,109 1,043,504 96,913 116,418 9.3 11.2
42 Iowa Public 468 227,456 75,313 95,328 33.1 41.9
42 Iowa Priv. Construction 108 54,063 12,245 13,236 22.6 24.5
42 Iowa Priv. Manufacturing 457 226,001 55,011 61,705 24.3 27.3
47 Kansas Total 2,393 1,083,939 124,220 151,301 11.5 14.0
47 Kansas Private 1,916 872,325 77,896 91,411 8.9 10.5
47 Kansas Public 477 211,614 46,323 59,890 21.9 28.3
47 Kansas Priv. Construction 89 41,356 5,448 5,448 13.2 13.2
47 Kansas Priv. Manufacturing 455 205,990 44,095 53,270 21.4 25.9
61 Kentucky Total 1,998 1,383,060 174,609 200,791 12.6 14.5
61 Kentucky Private 1,653 1,147,808 135,988 149,493 11.8 13.0
61 Kentucky Public 345 235,253 38,621 51,299 16.4 21.8
61 Kentucky Priv. Construction 86 59,012 8,848 9,573 15.0 16.2
61 Kentucky Priv. Manufacturing 398 275,320 75,908 80,186 27.6 29.1
72 Louisiana Total 1,684 1,542,994 120,842 139,272 7.8 9.0
72 Louisiana Private 1,313 1,197,814 65,587 71,999 5.5 6.0
72 Louisiana Public 371 345,180 55,255 67,273 16.0 19.5
72 Louisiana Priv. Construction 102 91,023 9,849 9,849 10.8 10.8
72 Louisiana Priv. Manufacturing 203 181,921 36,564 37,580 20.1 20.7
11 Maine Total 1,789 518,948 77,372 89,007 14.9 17.2
11 Maine Private 1,497 433,879 37,463 44,341 8.6 10.2
11 Maine Public 292 85,069 39,909 44,666 46.9 52.5
11 Maine Priv. Construction 62 19,661 262 900 1.3 4.6
11 Maine Priv. Manufacturing 365 104,595 24,444 25,654 23.4 24.5
52 Maryland Total 1,990 2,199,590 342,044 391,637 15.6 17.8
52 Maryland Private 1,505 1,663,878 183,760 203,054 11.0 12.2
52 Maryland Public 485 535,712 158,284 188,584 29.5 35.2
52 Maryland Priv. Construction 130 140,791 16,186 19,452 11.5 13.8
52 Maryland Priv. Manufacturing 177 192,747 46,507 48,290 24.1 25.1
14 Massachusetts Total 7,102 2,542,152 433,023 467,159 17.0 18.4
14 Massachusetts Private 6,093 2,183,540 219,576 242,236 10.1 11.1
14 Massachusetts Public 1,009 358,613 213,446 224,923 59.5 62.7
14 Massachusetts Priv. Construction 203 73,416 19,068 19,068 26.0 26.0
14 Massachusetts Priv. Manufacturing 1,289 459,402 64,798 70,117 14.1 15.3
34 Michigan Total 7,694 3,796,540 972,152 1,025,041 25.6 27.0
34 Michigan Private 6,463 3,197,969 626,093 659,569 19.6 20.6
34 Michigan Public 1,231 598,571 346,060 365,472 57.8 61.1
34 Michigan Priv. Construction 279 140,189 44,113 46,074 31.5 32.9
34 Michigan Priv. Manufacturing 1,970 980,280 353,196 363,255 36.0 37.1
41 Minnesota Total 2,162 1,998,328 442,870 465,891 22.2 23.3
41 Minnesota Private 1,794 1,661,072 259,111 274,466 15.6 16.5
41 Minnesota Public 368 337,256 183,759 191,424 54.5 56.8
41 Minnesota Priv. Construction 73 68,281 27,037 27,037 39.6 39.6
41 Minnesota Priv. Manufacturing 410 381,596 69,441 72,986 18.2 19.1
64 Mississippi Total 2,307 976,037 88,408 106,456 9.1 10.9
64 Mississippi Private 1,813 772,644 64,596 71,566 8.4 9.3
64 Mississippi Public 494 203,392 23,813 34,890 11.7 17.2
64 Mississippi Priv. Construction 99 44,158 3,513 3,513 8.0 8.0
64 Mississippi Priv. Manufacturing 511 218,850 41,639 43,053 19.0 19.7
43 Missouri Total 2,108 2,246,931 309,083 353,992 13.8 15.8
43 Missouri Private 1,786 1,912,192 234,179 257,045 12.2 13.4
43 Missouri Public 322 334,739 74,905 96,948 22.4 29.0
43 Missouri Priv. Construction 87 93,271 24,824 24,824 26.6 26.6
43 Missouri Priv. Manufacturing 421 422,680 92,548 105,904 21.9 25.1
81 Montana Total 2,192 305,360 57,545 66,569 18.8 21.8
81 Montana Private 1,606 223,480 27,367 29,336 12.2 13.1
81 Montana Public 586 81,880 30,178 37,233 36.9 45.5
81 Montana Priv. Construction 105 14,624 3,657 3,657 25.0 25.0
81 Montana Priv. Manufacturing 143 20,420 4,865 4,999 23.8 24.5
46 Nebraska Total 2,532 688,226 73,755 105,218 10.7 15.3
46 Nebraska Private 2,056 559,920 34,515 52,494 6.2 9.4
46 Nebraska Public 476 128,307 39,240 52,724 30.6 41.1
46 Nebraska Priv. Construction 102 27,935 2,171 2,171 7.8 7.8
46 Nebraska Priv. Manufacturing 359 96,471 15,091 18,893 15.6 19.6
88 Nevada Total 2,100 571,581 107,886 123,332 18.9 21.6
88 Nevada Private 1,763 479,941 70,303 77,381 14.6 16.1
88 Nevada Public 337 91,640 37,583 45,951 41.0 50.1
88 Nevada Priv. Construction 135 37,423 8,700 9,567 23.2 25.6
88 Nevada Priv. Manufacturing 95 26,351 1,097 1,318 4.2 5.0
12 New Hampshire Total 1,555 516,726 50,438 63,472 9.8 12.3
12 New Hampshire Private 1,343 447,959 21,553 25,474 4.8 5.7
12 New Hampshire Public 212 68,767 28,885 37,997 42.0 55.3
12 New Hampshire Priv. Construction 50 16,745 640 640 3.8 3.8
12 New Hampshire Priv. Manufacturing 383 129,322 8,741 10,088 6.8 7.8
22 New Jersey Total 7,916 3,303,345 758,054 814,466 22.9 24.7
22 New Jersey Private 6,593 2,749,518 431,303 461,494 15.7 16.8
22 New Jersey Public 1,323 553,827 326,751 352,973 59.0 63.7
22 New Jersey Priv. Construction 287 119,412 41,052 42,770 34.4 35.8
22 New Jersey Priv. Manufacturing 1,391 579,399 133,004 140,264 23.0 24.2
85 New Mexico Total 1,770 563,528 49,675 61,030 8.8 10.8
85 New Mexico Private 1,256 400,736 23,892 26,513 6.0 6.6
85 New Mexico Public 514 162,793 25,783 34,517 15.8 21.2
85 New Mexico Priv. Construction 93 30,283 3,903 3,903 12.9 12.9
85 New Mexico Priv. Manufacturing 142 45,328 2,276 2,973 5.0 6.6
21 New York Total 11,586 6,844,123 1,898,634 2,027,700 27.7 29.6
21 New York Private 9,226 5,445,775 938,884 1,018,214 17.2 18.7
21 New York Public 2,360 1,398,347 959,750 1,009,487 68.6 72.2
21 New York Priv. Construction 390 237,273 86,743 94,625 36.6 39.9
21 New York Priv. Manufacturing 1,758 1,033,117 234,668 243,500 22.7 23.6
56 North Carolina Total 7,703 2,907,169 140,397 179,924 4.8 6.2
56 North Carolina Private 6,495 2,449,185 73,975 89,702 3.0 3.7
56 North Carolina Public 1,208 457,984 66,422 90,223 14.5 19.7
56 North Carolina Priv. Construction 373 142,750 1,562 2,436 1.1 1.7
56 North Carolina Priv. Manufacturing 2,266 855,018 35,042 39,502 4.1 4.6
44 North Dakota Total 2,238 241,456 22,704 26,359 9.4 10.9
44 North Dakota Private 1,703 184,203 9,179 10,368 5.0 5.6
44 North Dakota Public 535 57,253 13,525 15,991 23.6 27.9
44 North Dakota Priv. Construction 83 9,029 1,191 1,303 13.2 14.4
44 North Dakota Priv. Manufacturing 156 16,622 2,790 2,997 16.8 18.0
31 Ohio Total 8,329 4,628,867 942,283 1,031,173 20.4 22.3
31 Ohio Private 6,992 3,882,841 614,882 655,385 15.8 16.9
31 Ohio Public 1,337 746,025 327,401 375,789 43.9 50.4
31 Ohio Priv. Construction 290 162,240 40,508 42,078 25.0 25.9
31 Ohio Priv. Manufacturing 2,056 1,134,447 353,621 363,925 31.2 32.1
73 Oklahoma Total 1,997 1,205,795 113,679 129,839 9.4 10.8
73 Oklahoma Private 1,559 946,561 68,189 71,315 7.2 7.5
73 Oklahoma Public 438 259,234 45,490 58,524 17.5 22.6
73 Oklahoma Priv. Construction 81 49,161 7,346 7,346 14.9 14.9
73 Oklahoma Priv. Manufacturing 295 177,673 31,071 31,071 17.5 17.5
92 Oregon Total 1,852 1,189,225 221,486 246,461 18.6 20.7
92 Oregon Private 1,527 979,952 122,007 130,887 12.5 13.4
92 Oregon Public 325 209,273 99,479 115,574 47.5 55.2
92 Oregon Priv. Construction 73 46,953 12,418 13,766 26.4 29.3
92 Oregon Priv. Manufacturing 292 187,684 35,281 36,631 18.8 19.5
23 Pennsylvania Total 8,105 5,032,223 986,721 1,088,719 19.6 21.6
23 Pennsylvania Private 6,965 4,323,612 624,723 671,188 14.4 15.5
23 Pennsylvania Public 1,140 708,611 361,998 417,531 51.1 58.9
23 Pennsylvania Priv. Construction 328 205,163 56,325 57,576 27.5 28.1
23 Pennsylvania Priv. Manufacturing 1,622 1,002,838 269,137 277,561 26.8 27.7
15 Rhode Island Total 1,622 429,289 85,215 92,712 19.9 21.6
15 Rhode Island Private 1,361 358,631 44,656 50,153 12.5 14.0
15 Rhode Island Public 261 70,658 40,559 42,559 57.4 60.2
15 Rhode Island Priv. Construction 40 10,568 2,727 2,727 25.8 25.8
15 Rhode Island Priv. Manufacturing 365 94,594 14,403 18,182 15.2 19.2
57 South Carolina Total 2,433 1,507,109 73,362 92,548 4.9 6.1
57 South Carolina Private 1,997 1,242,531 42,886 52,024 3.5 4.2
57 South Carolina Public 436 264,578 30,476 40,524 11.5 15.3
57 South Carolina Priv. Construction 119 74,188 2,234 3,722 3.0 5.0
57 South Carolina Priv. Manufacturing 650 408,242 22,853 28,057 5.6 6.9
45 South Dakota Total 2,514 282,984 25,244 31,990 8.9 11.3
45 South Dakota Private 1,975 222,730 11,444 13,416 5.1 6.0
45 South Dakota Public 539 60,254 13,800 18,574 22.9 30.8
45 South Dakota Priv. Construction 93 10,297 1,214 1,214 11.8 11.8
45 South Dakota Priv. Manufacturing 333 37,799 4,178 5,133 11.1 13.6
62 Tennessee Total 2,308 2,046,497 213,586 251,424 10.4 12.3
62 Tennessee Private 1,947 1,725,702 147,319 165,794 8.5 9.6
62 Tennessee Public 361 320,795 66,267 85,630 20.7 26.7
62 Tennessee Priv. Construction 101 89,962 9,559 10,515 10.6 11.7
62 Tennessee Priv. Manufacturing 577 514,030 87,048 99,273 16.9 19.3
74 Texas Total 8,109 7,216,894 495,081 650,334 6.9 9.0
74 Texas Private 6,597 5,910,175 285,471 349,815 4.8 5.9
74 Texas Public 1,512 1,306,719 209,610 300,520 16.0 23.0
74 Texas Priv. Construction 428 392,101 25,863 28,399 6.6 7.2
74 Texas Priv. Manufacturing 1,110 1,025,053 91,222 114,143 8.9 11.1
87 Utah Total 2,138 682,847 65,407 90,012 9.6 13.2
87 Utah Private 1,669 531,920 29,483 38,726 5.5 7.3
87 Utah Public 469 150,927 35,924 51,286 23.8 34.0
87 Utah Priv. Construction 111 35,639 5,184 6,151 14.5 17.3
87 Utah Priv. Manufacturing 336 108,087 7,779 8,998 7.2 8.3
13 Vermont Total 1,521 251,426 26,637 32,828 10.6 13.1
13 Vermont Private 1,246 206,686 7,649 9,583 3.7 4.6
13 Vermont Public 275 44,739 18,987 23,244 42.4 52.0
13 Vermont Priv. Construction 61 10,572 427 427 4.0 4.0
13 Vermont Priv. Manufacturing 287 47,706 2,034 2,201 4.3 4.6
54 Virginia Total 2,766 2,868,029 266,854 352,233 9.3 12.3
54 Virginia Private 2,126 2,199,559 164,736 201,776 7.5 9.2
54 Virginia Public 640 668,470 102,118 150,457 15.3 22.5
54 Virginia Priv. Construction 151 158,763 13,029 16,207 8.2 10.2
54 Virginia Priv. Manufacturing 398 409,063 67,943 78,453 16.6 19.2
91 Washington Total 1,992 2,074,046 487,016 532,936 23.5 25.7
91 Washington Private 1,583 1,650,679 260,354 281,398 15.8 17.0
91 Washington Public 409 423,367 226,662 251,538 53.5 59.4
91 Washington Priv. Construction 93 98,246 26,730 27,532 27.2 28.0
91 Washington Priv. Manufacturing 333 344,495 89,260 96,207 25.9 27.9
55 West Virginia Total 1,781 612,840 112,863 125,704 18.4 20.5
55 West Virginia Private 1,424 491,945 82,149 87,732 16.7 17.8
55 West Virginia Public 357 120,895 30,714 37,972 25.4 31.4
55 West Virginia Priv. Construction 85 29,244 9,210 9,210 31.5 31.5
55 West Virginia Priv. Manufacturing 290 100,017 41,543 43,691 41.5 43.7
35 Wisconsin Total 2,826 2,205,504 439,512 470,895 19.9 21.4
35 Wisconsin Private 2,372 1,864,322 262,313 278,577 14.1 14.9
35 Wisconsin Public 454 341,183 177,199 192,318 51.9 56.4
35 Wisconsin Priv. Construction 144 116,215 35,130 36,741 30.2 31.6
35 Wisconsin Priv. Manufacturing 746 586,557 146,762 155,115 25.0 26.4
83 Wyoming Total 1,620 189,940 22,793 27,520 12.0 14.5
83 Wyoming Private 1,208 142,222 13,060 15,143 9.2 10.6
83 Wyoming Public 412 47,717 9,733 12,377 20.4 25.9
83 Wyoming Priv. Construction 85 9,947 919 919 9.2 9.2
83 Wyoming Priv. Manufacturing 91 11,014 1,781 2,457 16.2 22.3
                   
Data Sources: Current Population Survey (CPS) Outgoing Rotation Group (ORG) Earnings Files, 1992. Sample includes
employed wage and salary workers, ages 16 and over. Variable definitions are: State Code=Census state code used
in CPS, Obs=CPS sample size, Employment=wage and salary employment, Members=employed workers who are union
members, Covered=workers covered by a collective bargaining agreement, %Mem=percent of employed workers who
are union members, and %Cov=percent of employed workers who are covered by a collective bargaining agreement.
2002 by Barry T. Hirsch and David A. Macpherson. The use of data requires citation.