Union Membership, Coverage, Density and Employment by State, 1993 (details in table note)
State
Code State Sector Obs Employment Members Covered %Mem %Cov
63 Alabama Total 2,204 1,629,973 238,936 275,826 14.7 16.9
63 Alabama Private 1,823 1,356,828 162,935 177,993 12.0 13.1
63 Alabama Public 381 273,144 76,001 97,834 27.8 35.8
63 Alabama Priv. Construction 119 87,153 17,368 17,368 19.9 19.9
63 Alabama Priv. Manufacturing 529 389,613 95,459 103,393 24.5 26.5
94 Alaska Total 2,419 217,003 44,108 48,613 20.3 22.4
94 Alaska Private 1,664 148,833 15,456 17,048 10.4 11.5
94 Alaska Public 755 68,170 28,653 31,565 42.0 46.3
94 Alaska Priv. Construction 124 10,941 3,725 3,765 34.0 34.4
94 Alaska Priv. Manufacturing 110 9,616 1,398 1,398 14.5 14.5
86 Arizona Total 1,635 1,418,666 108,619 148,069 7.7 10.4
86 Arizona Private 1,320 1,151,268 60,240 76,370 5.2 6.6
86 Arizona Public 315 267,398 48,379 71,699 18.1 26.8
86 Arizona Priv. Construction 103 91,663 10,732 12,542 11.7 13.7
86 Arizona Priv. Manufacturing 193 171,204 6,899 8,633 4.0 5.0
71 Arkansas Total 2,133 924,437 76,606 95,889 8.3 10.4
71 Arkansas Private 1,768 768,505 57,702 67,706 7.5 8.8
71 Arkansas Public 365 155,932 18,904 28,183 12.1 18.1
71 Arkansas Priv. Construction 96 42,998 2,968 3,557 6.9 8.3
71 Arkansas Priv. Manufacturing 523 228,387 29,521 35,663 12.9 15.6
93 California Total 12,691 11,943,966 2,153,223 2,433,492 18.0 20.4
93 California Private 10,541 9,860,421 1,147,901 1,254,787 11.6 12.7
93 California Public 2,150 2,083,545 1,005,323 1,178,706 48.3 56.6
93 California Priv. Construction 503 508,071 115,986 120,870 22.8 23.8
93 California Priv. Manufacturing 2,179 1,987,680 228,098 249,342 11.5 12.5
84 Colorado Total 2,208 1,479,877 144,849 168,516 9.8 11.4
84 Colorado Private 1,819 1,219,588 86,111 92,052 7.1 7.5
84 Colorado Public 389 260,289 58,738 76,464 22.6 29.4
84 Colorado Priv. Construction 108 74,236 10,634 10,634 14.3 14.3
84 Colorado Priv. Manufacturing 312 209,370 11,449 13,387 5.5 6.4
16 Connecticut Total 1,838 1,478,744 277,181 295,771 18.7 20.0
16 Connecticut Private 1,598 1,283,761 155,903 171,179 12.1 13.3
16 Connecticut Public 240 194,982 121,278 124,592 62.2 63.9
16 Connecticut Priv. Construction 63 47,924 18,315 18,315 38.2 38.2
16 Connecticut Priv. Manufacturing 428 336,362 56,709 59,329 16.9 17.6
51 Delaware Total 1,619 327,059 50,210 55,981 15.4 17.1
51 Delaware Private 1,382 279,655 32,336 35,845 11.6 12.8
51 Delaware Public 237 47,404 17,875 20,137 37.7 42.5
51 Delaware Priv. Construction 77 15,816 2,265 2,826 14.3 17.9
51 Delaware Priv. Manufacturing 332 67,637 14,612 15,387 21.6 22.7
53 D.C. Total 1,490 226,930 31,565 42,431 13.9 18.7
53 D.C. Private 983 150,155 13,722 17,716 9.1 11.8
53 D.C. Public 507 76,775 17,843 24,715 23.2 32.2
53 D.C. Priv. Construction 33 5,413 667 786 12.3 14.5
53 D.C. Priv. Manufacturing 62 9,564 1,378 1,990 14.4 20.8
59 Florida Total 7,294 5,460,487 426,092 591,980 7.8 10.8
59 Florida Private 6,060 4,523,309 176,089 226,727 3.9 5.0
59 Florida Public 1,234 937,177 250,003 365,252 26.7 39.0
59 Florida Priv. Construction 369 281,816 12,452 14,472 4.4 5.1
59 Florida Priv. Manufacturing 744 550,827 33,494 41,823 6.1 7.6
58 Georgia Total 2,004 2,750,372 184,175 217,827 6.7 7.9
58 Georgia Private 1,628 2,234,741 126,272 147,057 5.7 6.6
58 Georgia Public 376 515,631 57,903 70,770 11.2 13.7
58 Georgia Priv. Construction 83 118,406 9,776 11,318 8.3 9.6
58 Georgia Priv. Manufacturing 377 499,383 47,809 49,537 9.6 9.9
95 Hawaii Total 1,727 490,742 137,816 153,709 28.1 31.3
95 Hawaii Private 1,326 375,515 72,929 86,374 19.4 23.0
95 Hawaii Public 401 115,227 64,887 67,334 56.3 58.4
95 Hawaii Priv. Construction 140 39,685 20,445 20,445 51.5 51.5
95 Hawaii Priv. Manufacturing 61 17,761 5,394 5,636 30.4 31.7
82 Idaho Total 2,173 419,454 42,944 51,032 10.2 12.2
82 Idaho Private 1,754 338,958 27,515 30,868 8.1 9.1
82 Idaho Public 419 80,496 15,429 20,165 19.2 25.1
82 Idaho Priv. Construction 127 25,074 2,700 3,007 10.8 12.0
82 Idaho Priv. Manufacturing 370 73,625 11,942 13,250 16.2 18.0
33 Illinois Total 7,352 5,065,584 1,066,950 1,140,487 21.1 22.5
33 Illinois Private 6,253 4,310,029 718,900 761,539 16.7 17.7
33 Illinois Public 1,099 755,554 348,050 378,947 46.1 50.2
33 Illinois Priv. Construction 287 199,746 102,361 103,062 51.2 51.6
33 Illinois Priv. Manufacturing 1,373 951,154 250,525 261,490 26.3 27.5
32 Indiana Total 2,195 2,470,975 458,737 488,110 18.6 19.8
32 Indiana Private 1,878 2,117,856 365,052 375,862 17.2 17.7
32 Indiana Public 317 353,119 93,686 112,248 26.5 31.8
32 Indiana Priv. Construction 97 111,355 32,080 33,060 28.8 29.7
32 Indiana Priv. Manufacturing 619 662,677 238,965 244,600 36.1 36.9
42 Iowa Total 2,547 1,299,030 168,254 200,423 13.0 15.4
42 Iowa Private 2,086 1,065,194 95,395 105,282 9.0 9.9
42 Iowa Public 461 233,836 72,860 95,141 31.2 40.7
42 Iowa Priv. Construction 107 56,182 11,072 12,293 19.7 21.9
42 Iowa Priv. Manufacturing 503 256,318 62,092 65,274 24.2 25.5
47 Kansas Total 2,286 1,089,625 107,667 136,820 9.9 12.6
47 Kansas Private 1,821 869,363 63,750 77,758 7.3 8.9
47 Kansas Public 465 220,262 43,917 59,061 19.9 26.8
47 Kansas Priv. Construction 82 40,559 4,904 5,390 12.1 13.3
47 Kansas Priv. Manufacturing 416 198,448 31,417 39,636 15.8 20.0
61 Kentucky Total 2,006 1,424,315 180,752 204,869 12.7 14.4
61 Kentucky Private 1,659 1,182,677 135,429 143,288 11.5 12.1
61 Kentucky Public 347 241,638 45,322 61,581 18.8 25.5
61 Kentucky Priv. Construction 116 83,815 10,220 10,220 12.2 12.2
61 Kentucky Priv. Manufacturing 370 266,787 71,777 74,246 26.9 27.8
72 Louisiana Total 1,537 1,501,902 141,662 164,836 9.4 11.0
72 Louisiana Private 1,206 1,176,304 72,299 77,651 6.1 6.6
72 Louisiana Public 331 325,598 69,362 87,186 21.3 26.8
72 Louisiana Priv. Construction 94 89,572 15,371 15,371 17.2 17.2
72 Louisiana Priv. Manufacturing 180 174,183 31,172 31,172 17.9 17.9
11 Maine Total 1,703 506,115 71,296 81,170 14.1 16.0
11 Maine Private 1,429 425,130 32,771 35,547 7.7 8.4
11 Maine Public 274 80,986 38,525 45,623 47.6 56.3
11 Maine Priv. Construction 59 17,403 756 756 4.3 4.3
11 Maine Priv. Manufacturing 344 102,880 20,765 22,236 20.2 21.6
52 Maryland Total 1,892 2,245,429 349,120 396,555 15.5 17.7
52 Maryland Private 1,396 1,646,024 179,112 199,581 10.9 12.1
52 Maryland Public 496 599,405 170,009 196,973 28.4 32.9
52 Maryland Priv. Construction 83 97,275 13,063 14,827 13.4 15.2
52 Maryland Priv. Manufacturing 150 174,334 42,982 42,982 24.7 24.7
14 Massachusetts Total 7,146 2,626,942 452,696 486,944 17.2 18.5
14 Massachusetts Private 6,114 2,249,100 221,860 239,753 9.9 10.7
14 Massachusetts Public 1,032 377,842 230,837 247,192 61.1 65.4
14 Massachusetts Priv. Construction 238 89,279 23,656 24,019 26.5 26.9
14 Massachusetts Priv. Manufacturing 1,279 469,818 64,377 68,049 13.7 14.5
34 Michigan Total 7,678 3,921,700 961,528 1,015,430 24.5 25.9
34 Michigan Private 6,410 3,283,965 605,996 633,893 18.5 19.3
34 Michigan Public 1,268 637,735 355,532 381,537 55.7 59.8
34 Michigan Priv. Construction 279 143,383 44,128 46,201 30.8 32.2
34 Michigan Priv. Manufacturing 1,950 1,003,310 347,264 355,155 34.6 35.4
41 Minnesota Total 2,186 2,035,219 433,774 466,372 21.3 22.9
41 Minnesota Private 1,775 1,661,791 232,426 247,501 14.0 14.9
41 Minnesota Public 411 373,428 201,348 218,871 53.9 58.6
41 Minnesota Priv. Construction 73 68,928 21,202 21,202 30.8 30.8
41 Minnesota Priv. Manufacturing 376 349,556 74,672 78,185 21.4 22.4
64 Mississippi Total 2,275 991,500 73,778 93,892 7.4 9.5
64 Mississippi Private 1,829 802,949 58,083 66,375 7.2 8.3
64 Mississippi Public 446 188,552 15,695 27,517 8.3 14.6
64 Mississippi Priv. Construction 115 51,215 3,630 4,044 7.1 7.9
64 Mississippi Priv. Manufacturing 540 240,362 34,299 37,782 14.3 15.7
43 Missouri Total 1,949 2,161,263 308,277 347,526 14.3 16.1
43 Missouri Private 1,650 1,839,517 240,919 257,895 13.1 14.0
43 Missouri Public 299 321,746 67,358 89,631 20.9 27.9
43 Missouri Priv. Construction 83 90,914 37,211 40,223 40.9 44.2
43 Missouri Priv. Manufacturing 410 437,848 91,172 96,242 20.8 22.0
81 Montana Total 2,158 303,638 56,862 64,831 18.7 21.4
81 Montana Private 1,565 220,064 25,081 27,344 11.4 12.4
81 Montana Public 593 83,573 31,782 37,486 38.0 44.9
81 Montana Priv. Construction 93 14,087 3,099 3,099 22.0 22.0
81 Montana Priv. Manufacturing 153 22,064 5,487 5,763 24.9 26.1
46 Nebraska Total 2,615 725,477 79,178 107,870 10.9 14.9
46 Nebraska Private 2,128 591,303 38,814 50,272 6.6 8.5
46 Nebraska Public 487 134,175 40,365 57,598 30.1 42.9
46 Nebraska Priv. Construction 105 30,037 4,588 4,857 15.3 16.2
46 Nebraska Priv. Manufacturing 377 104,852 13,774 17,720 13.1 16.9
88 Nevada Total 1,960 582,140 102,807 121,838 17.7 20.9
88 Nevada Private 1,669 495,859 70,821 79,828 14.3 16.1
88 Nevada Public 291 86,281 31,986 42,009 37.1 48.7
88 Nevada Priv. Construction 150 45,754 11,821 13,771 25.8 30.1
88 Nevada Priv. Manufacturing 100 29,714 2,647 3,465 8.9 11.7
12 New Hampshire Total 1,621 540,263 44,863 57,046 8.3 10.6
12 New Hampshire Private 1,411 471,529 20,835 24,986 4.4 5.3
12 New Hampshire Public 210 68,734 24,028 32,060 35.0 46.6
12 New Hampshire Priv. Construction 63 21,149 2,324 2,324 11.0 11.0
12 New Hampshire Priv. Manufacturing 387 132,904 8,589 10,604 6.5 8.0
22 New Jersey Total 7,541 3,273,952 727,069 784,668 22.2 24.0
22 New Jersey Private 6,291 2,734,017 407,107 437,526 14.9 16.0
22 New Jersey Public 1,250 539,936 319,962 347,142 59.3 64.3
22 New Jersey Priv. Construction 250 109,642 33,490 33,873 30.5 30.9
22 New Jersey Priv. Manufacturing 1,249 547,697 111,520 117,480 20.4 21.4
85 New Mexico Total 1,715 578,061 46,269 61,402 8.0 10.6
85 New Mexico Private 1,262 426,884 24,627 28,179 5.8 6.6
85 New Mexico Public 453 151,178 21,642 33,222 14.3 22.0
85 New Mexico Priv. Construction 89 32,026 1,852 3,005 5.8 9.4
85 New Mexico Priv. Manufacturing 120 39,633 2,445 2,858 6.2 7.2
21 New York Total 11,635 6,980,037 2,013,127 2,147,980 28.8 30.8
21 New York Private 9,210 5,525,912 981,411 1,069,253 17.8 19.3
21 New York Public 2,425 1,454,125 1,031,716 1,078,727 71.0 74.2
21 New York Priv. Construction 406 251,335 94,090 99,676 37.4 39.7
21 New York Priv. Manufacturing 1,654 996,710 245,429 255,434 24.6 25.6
56 North Carolina Total 7,748 2,976,949 166,485 205,348 5.6 6.9
56 North Carolina Private 6,462 2,482,521 87,510 104,403 3.5 4.2
56 North Carolina Public 1,286 494,428 78,974 100,944 16.0 20.4
56 North Carolina Priv. Construction 373 144,392 1,104 1,440 0.8 1.0
56 North Carolina Priv. Manufacturing 2,158 834,690 43,682 48,667 5.2 5.8
44 North Dakota Total 2,277 244,506 22,178 28,324 9.1 11.6
44 North Dakota Private 1,731 187,681 8,224 10,496 4.4 5.6
44 North Dakota Public 546 56,825 13,954 17,828 24.6 31.4
44 North Dakota Priv. Construction 87 9,643 1,037 1,245 10.8 12.9
44 North Dakota Priv. Manufacturing 168 18,422 2,499 3,030 13.6 16.5
31 Ohio Total 8,222 4,647,825 964,097 1,042,244 20.7 22.4
31 Ohio Private 6,943 3,927,937 622,898 666,008 15.9 17.0
31 Ohio Public 1,279 719,888 341,199 376,236 47.4 52.3
31 Ohio Priv. Construction 323 185,001 49,813 53,227 26.9 28.8
31 Ohio Priv. Manufacturing 2,004 1,131,352 343,507 354,803 30.4 31.4
73 Oklahoma Total 2,099 1,225,349 118,252 131,761 9.7 10.8
73 Oklahoma Private 1,635 956,714 70,526 75,046 7.4 7.8
73 Oklahoma Public 464 268,635 47,726 56,715 17.8 21.1
73 Oklahoma Priv. Construction 74 42,879 3,616 3,616 8.4 8.4
73 Oklahoma Priv. Manufacturing 344 202,379 32,931 34,317 16.3 17.0
92 Oregon Total 1,838 1,239,437 245,017 263,795 19.8 21.3
92 Oregon Private 1,469 992,128 116,393 123,601 11.7 12.5
92 Oregon Public 369 247,309 128,624 140,194 52.0 56.7
92 Oregon Priv. Construction 78 54,567 8,253 8,253 15.1 15.1
92 Oregon Priv. Manufacturing 280 189,975 45,497 46,413 23.9 24.4
23 Pennsylvania Total 7,882 5,059,605 959,566 1,062,411 19.0 21.0
23 Pennsylvania Private 6,810 4,378,536 605,720 657,430 13.8 15.0
23 Pennsylvania Public 1,072 681,069 353,846 404,981 52.0 59.5
23 Pennsylvania Priv. Construction 341 223,287 51,372 54,127 23.0 24.2
23 Pennsylvania Priv. Manufacturing 1,530 983,223 242,092 250,388 24.6 25.5
15 Rhode Island Total 1,617 423,866 76,576 79,748 18.1 18.8
15 Rhode Island Private 1,384 361,840 37,530 40,198 10.4 11.1
15 Rhode Island Public 233 62,026 39,046 39,550 63.0 63.8
15 Rhode Island Priv. Construction 42 11,288 1,799 1,799 15.9 15.9
15 Rhode Island Priv. Manufacturing 380 98,882 15,010 15,223 15.2 15.4
57 South Carolina Total 2,313 1,497,362 63,360 87,820 4.2 5.9
57 South Carolina Private 1,921 1,246,434 38,596 51,522 3.1 4.1
57 South Carolina Public 392 250,928 24,764 36,298 9.9 14.5
57 South Carolina Priv. Construction 110 74,744 1,035 1,924 1.4 2.6
57 South Carolina Priv. Manufacturing 602 394,018 19,843 25,670 5.0 6.5
45 South Dakota Total 2,701 286,245 22,733 30,687 7.9 10.7
45 South Dakota Private 2,101 224,889 11,181 12,830 5.0 5.7
45 South Dakota Public 600 61,356 11,551 17,857 18.8 29.1
45 South Dakota Priv. Construction 121 12,947 542 741 4.2 5.7
45 South Dakota Priv. Manufacturing 369 40,292 4,824 5,700 12.0 14.1
62 Tennessee Total 2,232 2,063,798 228,765 259,049 11.1 12.6
62 Tennessee Private 1,878 1,737,126 148,337 165,370 8.5 9.5
62 Tennessee Public 354 326,672 80,428 93,679 24.6 28.7
62 Tennessee Priv. Construction 91 85,788 7,982 7,982 9.3 9.3
62 Tennessee Priv. Manufacturing 573 525,803 92,184 104,548 17.5 19.9
74 Texas Total 7,967 7,295,066 550,385 689,306 7.5 9.4
74 Texas Private 6,458 5,935,372 295,864 341,701 5.0 5.8
74 Texas Public 1,509 1,359,694 254,521 347,605 18.7 25.6
74 Texas Priv. Construction 416 387,987 29,401 29,401 7.6 7.6
74 Texas Priv. Manufacturing 1,081 1,016,343 93,730 102,834 9.2 10.1
87 Utah Total 2,108 720,954 71,674 98,037 9.9 13.6
87 Utah Private 1,637 560,093 29,218 37,692 5.2 6.7
87 Utah Public 471 160,862 42,456 60,345 26.4 37.5
87 Utah Priv. Construction 88 30,112 3,500 3,500 11.6 11.6
87 Utah Priv. Manufacturing 331 113,577 6,743 7,036 5.9 6.2
13 Vermont Total 1,441 264,271 26,313 31,603 10.0 12.0
13 Vermont Private 1,202 221,887 7,589 9,181 3.4 4.1
13 Vermont Public 239 42,383 18,724 22,422 44.2 52.9
13 Vermont Priv. Construction 62 11,557 795 795 6.9 6.9
13 Vermont Priv. Manufacturing 248 47,484 2,612 3,194 5.5 6.7
54 Virginia Total 2,620 2,849,543 247,655 316,174 8.7 11.1
54 Virginia Private 2,066 2,247,925 142,850 168,790 6.4 7.5
54 Virginia Public 554 601,618 104,805 147,384 17.4 24.5
54 Virginia Priv. Construction 134 152,250 10,361 10,361 6.8 6.8
54 Virginia Priv. Manufacturing 381 411,316 61,555 66,683 15.0 16.2
91 Washington Total 1,884 2,092,834 501,835 550,991 24.0 26.3
91 Washington Private 1,466 1,634,334 283,614 307,696 17.4 18.8
91 Washington Public 418 458,500 218,222 243,295 47.6 53.1
91 Washington Priv. Construction 79 89,548 24,617 28,152 27.5 31.4
91 Washington Priv. Manufacturing 266 294,227 87,309 97,380 29.7 33.1
55 West Virginia Total 1,775 629,967 110,834 125,976 17.6 20.0
55 West Virginia Private 1,410 499,748 79,363 84,437 15.9 16.9
55 West Virginia Public 365 130,219 31,471 41,539 24.2 31.9
55 West Virginia Priv. Construction 64 23,181 6,518 6,518 28.1 28.1
55 West Virginia Priv. Manufacturing 291 103,777 41,382 43,078 39.9 41.5
35 Wisconsin Total 2,864 2,267,644 440,590 469,534 19.4 20.7
35 Wisconsin Private 2,404 1,912,866 257,272 273,702 13.4 14.3
35 Wisconsin Public 460 354,778 183,318 195,832 51.7 55.2
35 Wisconsin Priv. Construction 120 97,412 27,583 27,583 28.3 28.3
35 Wisconsin Priv. Manufacturing 730 583,134 160,036 166,452 27.4 28.5
83 Wyoming Total 1,575 191,333 20,751 25,368 10.8 13.3
83 Wyoming Private 1,174 142,870 11,782 12,816 8.2 9.0
83 Wyoming Public 401 48,463 8,969 12,552 18.5 25.9
83 Wyoming Priv. Construction 74 8,702 1,047 1,047 12.0 12.0
83 Wyoming Priv. Manufacturing 73 8,946 823 1,202 9.2 13.4
                   
Data Sources: Current Population Survey (CPS) Outgoing Rotation Group (ORG) Earnings Files, 1993. Sample includes
employed wage and salary workers, ages 16 and over. Variable definitions are: State Code=Census state code used
in CPS, Obs=CPS sample size, Employment=wage and salary employment, Members=employed workers who are union
members, Covered=workers covered by a collective bargaining agreement, %Mem=percent of employed workers who
are union members, and %Cov=percent of employed workers who are covered by a collective bargaining agreement.
2002 by Barry T. Hirsch and David A. Macpherson. The use of data requires citation.