Union Membership, Coverage, Density and Employment by State, 1994 (details in table note)
State
Code State Sector Obs Employment Members Covered %Mem %Cov
63 Alabama Total 2,117 1,698,591 236,116 270,030 13.9 15.9
63 Alabama Private 1,737 1,399,473 137,135 157,070 9.8 11.2
63 Alabama Public 380 299,118 98,981 112,960 33.1 37.8
63 Alabama Priv. Construction 109 92,821 10,291 12,432 11.1 13.4
63 Alabama Priv. Manufacturing 512 408,775 79,972 86,566 19.6 21.2
94 Alaska Total 2,250 243,751 47,100 54,405 19.3 22.3
94 Alaska Private 1,516 162,725 16,294 18,577 10.0 11.4
94 Alaska Public 734 81,026 30,807 35,829 38.0 44.2
94 Alaska Priv. Construction 103 10,960 2,649 2,794 24.2 25.5
94 Alaska Priv. Manufacturing 92 9,660 1,391 1,391 14.4 14.4
86 Arizona Total 1,789 1,600,942 126,685 161,321 7.9 10.1
86 Arizona Private 1,447 1,298,473 64,682 78,974 5.0 6.1
86 Arizona Public 342 302,469 62,003 82,347 20.5 27.2
86 Arizona Priv. Construction 115 109,212 8,303 9,363 7.6 8.6
86 Arizona Priv. Manufacturing 211 185,739 5,318 9,216 2.9 5.0
71 Arkansas Total 2,055 972,375 77,067 98,157 7.9 10.1
71 Arkansas Private 1,717 815,081 53,691 64,145 6.6 7.9
71 Arkansas Public 338 157,293 23,375 34,012 14.9 21.6
71 Arkansas Priv. Construction 89 43,191 1,790 3,131 4.1 7.2
71 Arkansas Priv. Manufacturing 516 248,869 30,783 36,924 12.4 14.8
93 California Total 12,293 12,181,388 2,185,124 2,470,325 17.9 20.3
93 California Private 10,219 10,118,031 1,123,647 1,228,285 11.1 12.1
93 California Public 2,074 2,063,356 1,061,477 1,242,040 51.4 60.2
93 California Priv. Construction 496 513,437 114,903 116,705 22.4 22.7
93 California Priv. Manufacturing 2,096 2,029,255 223,283 251,141 11.0 12.4
84 Colorado Total 2,212 1,645,859 179,145 214,246 10.9 13.0
84 Colorado Private 1,824 1,362,340 101,547 118,511 7.5 8.7
84 Colorado Public 388 283,519 77,598 95,735 27.4 33.8
84 Colorado Priv. Construction 123 92,719 16,087 16,087 17.4 17.4
84 Colorado Priv. Manufacturing 288 214,455 14,600 17,389 6.8 8.1
16 Connecticut Total 1,702 1,450,839 290,141 298,086 20.0 20.5
16 Connecticut Private 1,449 1,233,743 147,255 151,387 11.9 12.3
16 Connecticut Public 253 217,095 142,886 146,699 65.8 67.6
16 Connecticut Priv. Construction 61 49,885 13,381 13,381 26.8 26.8
16 Connecticut Priv. Manufacturing 340 287,362 40,245 41,513 14.0 14.4
51 Delaware Total 1,612 332,038 44,210 48,602 13.3 14.6
51 Delaware Private 1,388 286,886 29,621 31,856 10.3 11.1
51 Delaware Public 224 45,152 14,589 16,746 32.3 37.1
51 Delaware Priv. Construction 82 16,975 1,961 2,163 11.6 12.7
51 Delaware Priv. Manufacturing 306 63,492 13,980 15,239 22.0 24.0
53 D.C. Total 1,546 261,593 39,909 50,554 15.3 19.3
53 D.C. Private 1,016 173,883 16,860 21,611 9.7 12.4
53 D.C. Public 530 87,709 23,048 28,943 26.3 33.0
53 D.C. Priv. Construction 40 7,051 1,559 1,559 22.1 22.1
53 D.C. Priv. Manufacturing 52 7,878 1,230 1,612 15.6 20.5
59 Florida Total 7,142 5,516,363 452,020 607,280 8.2 11.0
59 Florida Private 5,988 4,644,032 193,669 259,464 4.2 5.6
59 Florida Public 1,154 872,331 258,351 347,815 29.6 39.9
59 Florida Priv. Construction 375 306,731 19,193 23,057 6.3 7.5
59 Florida Priv. Manufacturing 676 528,881 27,152 32,811 5.1 6.2
58 Georgia Total 2,443 3,069,679 244,125 287,946 8.0 9.4
58 Georgia Private 2,004 2,516,167 149,575 176,090 5.9 7.0
58 Georgia Public 439 553,512 94,550 111,856 17.1 20.2
58 Georgia Priv. Construction 107 137,126 13,381 16,021 9.8 11.7
58 Georgia Priv. Manufacturing 470 608,444 59,588 65,536 9.8 10.8
95 Hawaii Total 1,655 482,195 135,156 144,006 28.0 29.9
95 Hawaii Private 1,303 377,497 72,956 79,266 19.3 21.0
95 Hawaii Public 352 104,697 62,200 64,740 59.4 61.8
95 Hawaii Priv. Construction 84 24,094 12,876 12,876 53.4 53.4
95 Hawaii Priv. Manufacturing 50 13,836 3,337 3,337 24.1 24.1
82 Idaho Total 2,233 455,225 38,673 48,681 8.5 10.7
82 Idaho Private 1,786 365,985 19,823 24,623 5.4 6.7
82 Idaho Public 447 89,240 18,850 24,058 21.1 27.0
82 Idaho Priv. Construction 144 30,079 3,213 3,213 10.7 10.7
82 Idaho Priv. Manufacturing 381 79,757 8,435 9,783 10.6 12.3
33 Illinois Total 7,306 5,069,589 1,006,595 1,086,896 19.9 21.4
33 Illinois Private 6,267 4,352,652 671,930 721,869 15.4 16.6
33 Illinois Public 1,039 716,937 334,665 365,028 46.7 50.9
33 Illinois Priv. Construction 283 198,341 106,255 110,774 53.6 55.9
33 Illinois Priv. Manufacturing 1,443 999,507 227,347 239,490 22.7 24.0
32 Indiana Total 2,238 2,560,708 494,307 535,012 19.3 20.9
32 Indiana Private 1,938 2,233,723 392,801 408,318 17.6 18.3
32 Indiana Public 300 326,985 101,506 126,693 31.0 38.7
32 Indiana Priv. Construction 95 122,612 39,548 42,244 32.3 34.5
32 Indiana Priv. Manufacturing 673 735,040 264,608 272,285 36.0 37.0
42 Iowa Total 2,337 1,215,299 161,022 193,504 13.2 15.9
42 Iowa Private 1,928 1,003,307 94,132 107,383 9.4 10.7
42 Iowa Public 409 211,992 66,890 86,121 31.6 40.6
42 Iowa Priv. Construction 91 48,465 8,373 8,977 17.3 18.5
42 Iowa Priv. Manufacturing 459 237,520 54,121 61,719 22.8 26.0
47 Kansas Total 2,110 1,063,794 106,437 152,222 10.0 14.3
47 Kansas Private 1,695 857,613 68,344 92,689 8.0 10.8
47 Kansas Public 415 206,181 38,093 59,533 18.5 28.9
47 Kansas Priv. Construction 77 41,240 9,081 9,081 22.0 22.0
47 Kansas Priv. Manufacturing 387 197,332 30,945 47,196 15.7 23.9
61 Kentucky Total 1,978 1,491,341 171,346 200,167 11.5 13.4
61 Kentucky Private 1,625 1,224,730 125,727 139,273 10.3 11.4
61 Kentucky Public 353 266,610 45,619 60,894 17.1 22.8
61 Kentucky Priv. Construction 90 67,113 11,727 12,405 17.5 18.5
61 Kentucky Priv. Manufacturing 385 291,095 65,638 70,039 22.5 24.1
72 Louisiana Total 1,633 1,583,173 121,392 148,498 7.7 9.4
72 Louisiana Private 1,325 1,290,672 64,387 75,274 5.0 5.8
72 Louisiana Public 308 292,501 57,004 73,224 19.5 25.0
72 Louisiana Priv. Construction 88 86,008 8,034 9,743 9.3 11.3
72 Louisiana Priv. Manufacturing 172 167,489 23,584 26,448 14.1 15.8
11 Maine Total 1,547 460,235 71,580 80,315 15.6 17.5
11 Maine Private 1,294 386,954 33,424 36,704 8.6 9.5
11 Maine Public 253 73,282 38,156 43,611 52.1 59.5
11 Maine Priv. Construction 55 16,920 707 707 4.2 4.2
11 Maine Priv. Manufacturing 310 92,609 18,494 19,066 20.0 20.6
52 Maryland Total 1,858 2,324,445 371,743 434,357 16.0 18.7
52 Maryland Private 1,402 1,760,903 189,393 215,026 10.8 12.2
52 Maryland Public 456 563,542 182,350 219,331 32.4 38.9
52 Maryland Priv. Construction 87 109,173 18,236 19,644 16.7 18.0
52 Maryland Priv. Manufacturing 181 225,322 53,966 56,265 24.0 25.0
14 Massachusetts Total 7,147 2,638,617 419,401 453,550 15.9 17.2
14 Massachusetts Private 6,163 2,281,353 214,490 231,474 9.4 10.1
14 Massachusetts Public 984 357,264 204,912 222,075 57.4 62.2
14 Massachusetts Priv. Construction 271 101,432 19,004 20,449 18.7 20.2
14 Massachusetts Priv. Manufacturing 1,208 441,528 51,635 54,075 11.7 12.2
34 Michigan Total 7,597 4,034,429 960,609 1,028,202 23.8 25.5
34 Michigan Private 6,453 3,448,019 631,502 676,548 18.3 19.6
34 Michigan Public 1,144 586,410 329,107 351,653 56.1 60.0
34 Michigan Priv. Construction 275 146,815 46,488 47,619 31.7 32.4
34 Michigan Priv. Manufacturing 1,941 1,028,973 342,074 353,521 33.2 34.4
41 Minnesota Total 2,152 2,101,475 413,457 442,900 19.7 21.1
41 Minnesota Private 1,783 1,758,161 219,587 233,410 12.5 13.3
41 Minnesota Public 369 343,314 193,870 209,490 56.5 61.0
41 Minnesota Priv. Construction 86 82,608 21,930 22,744 26.5 27.5
41 Minnesota Priv. Manufacturing 378 368,047 59,778 64,912 16.2 17.6
64 Mississippi Total 2,185 1,038,299 66,503 85,304 6.4 8.2
64 Mississippi Private 1,804 861,996 45,866 57,953 5.3 6.7
64 Mississippi Public 381 176,303 20,637 27,352 11.7 15.5
64 Mississippi Priv. Construction 117 55,676 2,835 3,681 5.1 6.6
64 Mississippi Priv. Manufacturing 486 228,792 26,284 32,786 11.5 14.3
43 Missouri Total 1,871 2,218,925 329,078 362,348 14.8 16.3
43 Missouri Private 1,602 1,905,250 261,599 279,849 13.7 14.7
43 Missouri Public 269 313,675 67,480 82,499 21.5 26.3
43 Missouri Priv. Construction 86 106,119 46,262 46,262 43.6 43.6
43 Missouri Priv. Manufacturing 364 421,485 89,152 93,781 21.2 22.3
81 Montana Total 2,027 321,902 60,439 66,256 18.8 20.6
81 Montana Private 1,526 244,742 29,381 31,298 12.0 12.8
81 Montana Public 501 77,160 31,058 34,958 40.3 45.3
81 Montana Priv. Construction 76 12,473 3,417 3,747 27.4 30.0
81 Montana Priv. Manufacturing 153 24,597 6,996 7,157 28.4 29.1
46 Nebraska Total 2,427 722,156 77,514 97,122 10.7 13.4
46 Nebraska Private 1,996 595,678 39,537 46,564 6.6 7.8
46 Nebraska Public 431 126,478 37,977 50,558 30.0 40.0
46 Nebraska Priv. Construction 89 27,430 4,675 4,675 17.0 17.0
46 Nebraska Priv. Manufacturing 346 101,833 16,577 19,636 16.3 19.3
88 Nevada Total 1,955 658,506 120,857 136,036 18.4 20.7
88 Nevada Private 1,685 570,400 82,643 92,964 14.5 16.3
88 Nevada Public 270 88,106 38,213 43,073 43.4 48.9
88 Nevada Priv. Construction 147 51,010 9,954 10,612 19.5 20.8
88 Nevada Priv. Manufacturing 107 36,251 2,482 3,068 6.8 8.5
12 New Hampshire Total 1,495 514,835 55,145 66,791 10.7 13.0
12 New Hampshire Private 1,287 444,765 24,055 27,523 5.4 6.2
12 New Hampshire Public 208 70,070 31,090 39,268 44.4 56.0
12 New Hampshire Priv. Construction 51 17,402 2,203 2,951 12.7 17.0
12 New Hampshire Priv. Manufacturing 356 122,356 9,058 9,834 7.4 8.0
22 New Jersey Total 7,523 3,371,698 779,539 849,194 23.1 25.2
22 New Jersey Private 6,285 2,825,974 441,193 481,734 15.6 17.0
22 New Jersey Public 1,238 545,724 338,346 367,461 62.0 67.3
22 New Jersey Priv. Construction 268 123,700 39,628 41,937 32.0 33.9
22 New Jersey Priv. Manufacturing 1,276 571,999 129,846 139,947 22.7 24.5
85 New Mexico Total 1,712 602,564 56,235 68,451 9.3 11.4
85 New Mexico Private 1,247 440,744 24,959 28,221 5.7 6.4
85 New Mexico Public 465 161,820 31,276 40,230 19.3 24.9
85 New Mexico Priv. Construction 96 35,949 988 1,379 2.7 3.8
85 New Mexico Priv. Manufacturing 124 42,964 2,651 2,651 6.2 6.2
21 New York Total 11,304 7,103,050 2,049,991 2,174,866 28.9 30.6
21 New York Private 9,029 5,676,812 1,014,865 1,090,309 17.9 19.2
21 New York Public 2,275 1,426,237 1,035,127 1,084,557 72.6 76.0
21 New York Priv. Construction 362 233,839 74,464 77,637 31.8 33.2
21 New York Priv. Manufacturing 1,633 1,034,398 249,988 260,980 24.2 25.2
56 North Carolina Total 7,338 3,065,992 158,591 201,424 5.2 6.6
56 North Carolina Private 6,140 2,568,450 90,520 106,762 3.5 4.2
56 North Carolina Public 1,198 497,542 68,070 94,662 13.7 19.0
56 North Carolina Priv. Construction 365 153,312 839 1,273 0.5 0.8
56 North Carolina Priv. Manufacturing 2,060 864,201 44,060 49,490 5.1 5.7
44 North Dakota Total 2,316 258,671 24,324 31,146 9.4 12.0
44 North Dakota Private 1,744 196,416 9,744 12,438 5.0 6.3
44 North Dakota Public 572 62,255 14,581 18,708 23.4 30.1
44 North Dakota Priv. Construction 113 12,922 1,399 1,532 10.8 11.9
44 North Dakota Priv. Manufacturing 162 18,500 3,362 3,977 18.2 21.5
31 Ohio Total 7,854 4,703,603 896,610 976,726 19.1 20.8
31 Ohio Private 6,703 4,020,781 596,050 640,459 14.8 15.9
31 Ohio Public 1,151 682,821 300,560 336,267 44.0 49.2
31 Ohio Priv. Construction 307 188,959 49,102 50,924 26.0 27.0
31 Ohio Priv. Manufacturing 1,910 1,141,118 332,709 347,192 29.2 30.4
73 Oklahoma Total 2,165 1,255,208 110,723 136,352 8.8 10.9
73 Oklahoma Private 1,720 1,003,374 63,076 65,739 6.3 6.6
73 Oklahoma Public 445 251,834 47,646 70,613 18.9 28.0
73 Oklahoma Priv. Construction 75 43,923 4,091 4,091 9.3 9.3
73 Oklahoma Priv. Manufacturing 334 191,392 29,137 30,254 15.2 15.8
92 Oregon Total 1,804 1,282,320 275,284 294,950 21.5 23.0
92 Oregon Private 1,460 1,044,309 143,577 150,218 13.7 14.4
92 Oregon Public 344 238,011 131,706 144,732 55.3 60.8
92 Oregon Priv. Construction 73 56,414 8,797 9,535 15.6 16.9
92 Oregon Priv. Manufacturing 322 229,684 53,770 55,161 23.4 24.0
23 Pennsylvania Total 7,532 4,899,356 962,305 1,039,213 19.6 21.2
23 Pennsylvania Private 6,535 4,257,011 606,759 650,637 14.3 15.3
23 Pennsylvania Public 997 642,345 355,546 388,576 55.4 60.5
23 Pennsylvania Priv. Construction 311 207,354 45,885 47,894 22.1 23.1
23 Pennsylvania Priv. Manufacturing 1,489 957,182 253,997 262,905 26.5 27.5
15 Rhode Island Total 1,565 410,139 66,709 72,132 16.3 17.6
15 Rhode Island Private 1,356 357,770 30,134 34,073 8.4 9.5
15 Rhode Island Public 209 52,369 36,575 38,060 69.8 72.7
15 Rhode Island Priv. Construction 58 15,462 2,751 3,260 17.8 21.1
15 Rhode Island Priv. Manufacturing 360 94,399 10,777 11,277 11.4 11.9
57 South Carolina Total 2,090 1,541,530 59,322 80,292 3.8 5.2
57 South Carolina Private 1,752 1,298,383 30,705 36,858 2.4 2.8
57 South Carolina Public 338 243,148 28,617 43,434 11.8 17.9
57 South Carolina Priv. Construction 92 72,449 1,038 1,610 1.4 2.2
57 South Carolina Priv. Manufacturing 567 423,949 13,418 13,418 3.2 3.2
45 South Dakota Total 2,491 283,600 23,427 29,678 8.3 10.5
45 South Dakota Private 1,943 222,777 12,079 14,154 5.4 6.4
45 South Dakota Public 548 60,823 11,348 15,524 18.7 25.5
45 South Dakota Priv. Construction 110 12,215 1,554 1,554 12.7 12.7
45 South Dakota Priv. Manufacturing 340 38,998 4,590 5,540 11.8 14.2
62 Tennessee Total 2,139 2,226,871 265,293 307,372 11.9 13.8
62 Tennessee Private 1,827 1,906,899 187,495 220,755 9.8 11.6
62 Tennessee Public 312 319,972 77,799 86,616 24.3 27.1
62 Tennessee Priv. Construction 93 98,253 15,011 16,005 15.3 16.3
62 Tennessee Priv. Manufacturing 535 550,273 99,274 124,897 18.0 22.7
74 Texas Total 7,762 7,713,943 543,042 680,404 7.0 8.8
74 Texas Private 6,290 6,306,433 292,483 346,640 4.6 5.5
74 Texas Public 1,472 1,407,511 250,559 333,764 17.8 23.7
74 Texas Priv. Construction 408 430,892 16,494 18,333 3.8 4.3
74 Texas Priv. Manufacturing 1,093 1,104,953 100,147 109,449 9.1 9.9
87 Utah Total 2,126 820,497 79,768 105,005 9.7 12.8
87 Utah Private 1,668 646,756 33,026 41,648 5.1 6.4
87 Utah Public 458 173,741 46,743 63,357 26.9 36.5
87 Utah Priv. Construction 118 47,383 3,478 4,689 7.3 9.9
87 Utah Priv. Manufacturing 328 126,149 6,573 9,108 5.2 7.2
13 Vermont Total 1,431 242,804 22,739 27,008 9.4 11.1
13 Vermont Private 1,212 206,976 9,471 10,655 4.6 5.1
13 Vermont Public 219 35,828 13,268 16,353 37.0 45.6
13 Vermont Priv. Construction 55 9,287 397 397 4.3 4.3
13 Vermont Priv. Manufacturing 272 46,343 3,610 3,974 7.8 8.6
54 Virginia Total 2,723 2,876,854 210,701 280,804 7.3 9.8
54 Virginia Private 2,116 2,265,419 121,594 152,627 5.4 6.7
54 Virginia Public 607 611,435 89,107 128,176 14.6 21.0
54 Virginia Priv. Construction 131 140,171 6,696 7,978 4.8 5.7
54 Virginia Priv. Manufacturing 386 421,959 50,198 56,996 11.9 13.5
91 Washington Total 1,903 2,213,146 486,915 560,507 22.0 25.3
91 Washington Private 1,519 1,768,852 284,607 324,383 16.1 18.3
91 Washington Public 384 444,294 202,309 236,124 45.5 53.1
91 Washington Priv. Construction 92 109,169 24,300 24,300 22.3 22.3
91 Washington Priv. Manufacturing 265 304,603 94,268 112,145 30.9 36.8
55 West Virginia Total 1,786 642,213 113,116 120,123 17.6 18.7
55 West Virginia Private 1,424 513,847 81,645 85,211 15.9 16.6
55 West Virginia Public 362 128,365 31,472 34,911 24.5 27.2
55 West Virginia Priv. Construction 78 27,777 6,490 6,490 23.4 23.4
55 West Virginia Priv. Manufacturing 260 92,822 32,754 34,145 35.3 36.8
35 Wisconsin Total 2,678 2,351,224 430,590 455,704 18.3 19.4
35 Wisconsin Private 2,260 1,997,162 247,803 259,311 12.4 13.0
35 Wisconsin Public 418 354,063 182,788 196,393 51.6 55.5
35 Wisconsin Priv. Construction 121 110,431 33,480 35,533 30.3 32.2
35 Wisconsin Priv. Manufacturing 673 598,131 142,080 144,710 23.8 24.2
83 Wyoming Total 1,650 193,910 22,227 28,008 11.5 14.4
83 Wyoming Private 1,254 148,218 12,026 13,822 8.1 9.3
83 Wyoming Public 396 45,692 10,201 14,185 22.3 31.0
83 Wyoming Priv. Construction 98 11,673 741 858 6.3 7.4
83 Wyoming Priv. Manufacturing 90 10,999 1,405 1,888 12.8 17.2
                   
Data Sources: Current Population Survey (CPS) Outgoing Rotation Group (ORG) Earnings Files, 1994. Sample includes
employed wage and salary workers, ages 16 and over. Variable definitions are: State Code=Census state code used
in CPS, Obs=CPS sample size, Employment=wage and salary employment, Members=employed workers who are union
members, Covered=workers covered by a collective bargaining agreement, %Mem=percent of employed workers who
are union members, and %Cov=percent of employed workers who are covered by a collective bargaining agreement.
2002 by Barry T. Hirsch and David A. Macpherson. The use of data requires citation.