Union Membership, Coverage, Density and Employment by State, 1995 (details in table note)
State
Code State Sector Obs Employment Members Covered %Mem %Cov
63 Alabama Total 2,060 1,726,345 235,503 256,489 13.6 14.9
63 Alabama Private 1,710 1,435,977 146,860 152,993 10.2 10.7
63 Alabama Public 350 290,369 88,644 103,495 30.5 35.6
63 Alabama Priv. Construction 95 79,560 7,931 7,931 10.0 10.0
63 Alabama Priv. Manufacturing 518 432,567 84,305 86,149 19.5 19.9
94 Alaska Total 1,857 234,083 54,112 60,116 23.1 25.7
94 Alaska Private 1,193 151,439 17,338 19,875 11.4 13.1
94 Alaska Public 664 82,644 36,774 40,241 44.5 48.7
94 Alaska Priv. Construction 94 12,542 3,139 3,371 25.0 26.9
94 Alaska Priv. Manufacturing 55 7,142 273 416 3.8 5.8
86 Arizona Total 2,132 1,809,625 145,472 174,848 8.0 9.7
86 Arizona Private 1,769 1,507,241 80,357 93,183 5.3 6.2
86 Arizona Public 363 302,384 65,115 81,665 21.5 27.0
86 Arizona Priv. Construction 121 109,771 8,025 8,025 7.3 7.3
86 Arizona Priv. Manufacturing 263 218,120 10,726 12,399 4.9 5.7
71 Arkansas Total 1,947 1,012,869 79,435 98,689 7.8 9.7
71 Arkansas Private 1,608 836,643 54,079 64,817 6.5 7.7
71 Arkansas Public 339 176,225 25,356 33,873 14.4 19.2
71 Arkansas Priv. Construction 72 37,808 807 1,234 2.1 3.3
71 Arkansas Priv. Manufacturing 447 236,745 33,078 40,543 14.0 17.1
93 California Total 11,954 12,319,839 2,176,364 2,462,942 17.7 20.0
93 California Private 10,008 10,279,694 1,129,822 1,249,582 11.0 12.2
93 California Public 1,946 2,040,145 1,046,542 1,213,360 51.3 59.5
93 California Priv. Construction 444 488,983 108,016 118,394 22.1 24.2
93 California Priv. Manufacturing 2,063 2,040,375 245,976 266,227 12.1 13.0
84 Colorado Total 2,320 1,725,299 170,000 207,709 9.9 12.0
84 Colorado Private 1,961 1,459,825 100,576 119,969 6.9 8.2
84 Colorado Public 359 265,474 69,424 87,740 26.2 33.1
84 Colorado Priv. Construction 136 106,977 11,846 13,959 11.1 13.0
84 Colorado Priv. Manufacturing 282 202,368 18,600 20,904 9.2 10.3
16 Connecticut Total 1,591 1,427,404 287,948 295,576 20.2 20.7
16 Connecticut Private 1,367 1,228,562 142,583 148,009 11.6 12.0
16 Connecticut Public 224 198,842 145,365 147,567 73.1 74.2
16 Connecticut Priv. Construction 44 39,283 11,595 12,562 29.5 32.0
16 Connecticut Priv. Manufacturing 310 276,879 39,822 43,038 14.4 15.5
51 Delaware Total 1,629 330,840 42,905 48,206 13.0 14.6
51 Delaware Private 1,391 283,349 24,738 27,130 8.7 9.6
51 Delaware Public 238 47,491 18,167 21,076 38.3 44.4
51 Delaware Priv. Construction 65 13,197 1,723 1,723 13.1 13.1
51 Delaware Priv. Manufacturing 296 59,978 11,211 12,030 18.7 20.1
53 D.C. Total 1,662 245,930 37,170 44,203 15.1 18.0
53 D.C. Private 1,081 160,902 16,157 18,170 10.0 11.3
53 D.C. Public 581 85,027 21,013 26,033 24.7 30.6
53 D.C. Priv. Construction 35 5,610 1,304 1,475 23.3 26.3
53 D.C. Priv. Manufacturing 45 6,296 681 681 10.8 10.8
59 Florida Total 6,681 5,641,410 412,345 558,161 7.3 9.9
59 Florida Private 5,578 4,714,909 162,674 212,956 3.5 4.5
59 Florida Public 1,103 926,501 249,671 345,204 26.9 37.3
59 Florida Priv. Construction 354 311,065 12,936 18,474 4.2 5.9
59 Florida Priv. Manufacturing 605 512,248 29,774 33,039 5.8 6.4
58 Georgia Total 3,833 3,119,931 211,228 237,383 6.8 7.6
58 Georgia Private 3,233 2,625,641 135,776 148,308 5.2 5.6
58 Georgia Public 600 494,290 75,452 89,075 15.3 18.0
58 Georgia Priv. Construction 186 166,441 20,024 20,024 12.0 12.0
58 Georgia Priv. Manufacturing 716 636,924 55,149 59,309 8.7 9.3
95 Hawaii Total 1,617 475,276 117,130 124,116 24.6 26.1
95 Hawaii Private 1,263 368,305 59,128 60,812 16.1 16.5
95 Hawaii Public 354 106,971 58,003 63,304 54.2 59.2
95 Hawaii Priv. Construction 89 26,649 11,112 11,650 41.7 43.7
95 Hawaii Priv. Manufacturing 47 13,375 1,467 1,467 11.0 11.0
82 Idaho Total 2,108 463,928 37,719 47,539 8.1 10.2
82 Idaho Private 1,631 365,934 19,411 22,580 5.3 6.2
82 Idaho Public 477 97,993 18,308 24,959 18.7 25.5
82 Idaho Priv. Construction 104 24,228 1,944 1,944 8.0 8.0
82 Idaho Priv. Manufacturing 358 80,240 9,341 10,038 11.6 12.5
33 Illinois Total 7,445 5,167,419 1,041,682 1,094,859 20.2 21.2
33 Illinois Private 6,394 4,437,762 684,494 718,068 15.4 16.2
33 Illinois Public 1,051 729,657 357,188 376,791 49.0 51.6
33 Illinois Priv. Construction 315 221,754 108,366 109,600 48.9 49.4
33 Illinois Priv. Manufacturing 1,527 1,055,879 248,033 255,506 23.5 24.2
32 Indiana Total 2,137 2,689,770 443,087 482,464 16.5 17.9
32 Indiana Private 1,888 2,390,854 369,435 393,555 15.5 16.5
32 Indiana Public 249 298,916 73,652 88,909 24.6 29.7
32 Indiana Priv. Construction 111 139,400 40,877 44,074 29.3 31.6
32 Indiana Priv. Manufacturing 593 745,676 222,622 231,202 29.9 31.0
42 Iowa Total 2,165 1,259,520 152,094 191,917 12.1 15.2
42 Iowa Private 1,790 1,043,815 90,145 104,144 8.6 10.0
42 Iowa Public 375 215,705 61,949 87,773 28.7 40.7
42 Iowa Priv. Construction 94 55,176 11,981 12,491 21.7 22.6
42 Iowa Priv. Manufacturing 430 250,230 50,337 57,994 20.1 23.2
47 Kansas Total 2,112 1,087,895 110,579 138,515 10.2 12.7
47 Kansas Private 1,665 860,255 67,927 78,189 7.9 9.1
47 Kansas Public 447 227,640 42,652 60,325 18.7 26.5
47 Kansas Priv. Construction 92 48,429 4,854 4,854 10.0 10.0
47 Kansas Priv. Manufacturing 341 176,475 31,194 37,857 17.7 21.5
61 Kentucky Total 1,892 1,553,667 195,272 223,049 12.6 14.4
61 Kentucky Private 1,573 1,296,797 139,483 149,632 10.8 11.5
61 Kentucky Public 319 256,869 55,789 73,417 21.7 28.6
61 Kentucky Priv. Construction 86 71,791 7,626 7,626 10.6 10.6
61 Kentucky Priv. Manufacturing 378 314,306 69,054 71,999 22.0 22.9
72 Louisiana Total 1,872 1,628,283 114,350 143,142 7.0 8.8
72 Louisiana Private 1,521 1,327,671 61,802 75,746 4.7 5.7
72 Louisiana Public 351 300,613 52,548 67,396 17.5 22.4
72 Louisiana Priv. Construction 114 104,595 9,705 9,705 9.3 9.3
72 Louisiana Priv. Manufacturing 197 173,661 29,158 33,208 16.8 19.1
11 Maine Total 1,602 501,793 78,138 89,385 15.6 17.8
11 Maine Private 1,345 420,580 35,350 38,224 8.4 9.1
11 Maine Public 257 81,213 42,788 51,160 52.7 63.0
11 Maine Priv. Construction 57 17,312 544 544 3.1 3.1
11 Maine Priv. Manufacturing 291 91,304 20,023 21,572 21.9 23.6
52 Maryland Total 2,000 2,353,399 350,693 419,714 14.9 17.8
52 Maryland Private 1,462 1,711,400 156,436 179,304 9.1 10.5
52 Maryland Public 538 641,999 194,256 240,410 30.3 37.4
52 Maryland Priv. Construction 102 119,963 16,506 17,591 13.8 14.7
52 Maryland Priv. Manufacturing 196 223,735 44,987 47,158 20.1 21.1
14 Massachusetts Total 7,226 2,649,378 427,941 470,701 16.2 17.8
14 Massachusetts Private 6,205 2,283,751 212,723 240,329 9.3 10.5
14 Massachusetts Public 1,021 365,626 215,218 230,373 58.9 63.0
14 Massachusetts Priv. Construction 299 112,126 24,199 25,578 21.6 22.8
14 Massachusetts Priv. Manufacturing 1,181 433,469 49,162 52,311 11.3 12.1
34 Michigan Total 7,699 4,000,808 947,190 1,005,659 23.7 25.1
34 Michigan Private 6,589 3,437,985 633,309 673,225 18.4 19.6
34 Michigan Public 1,110 562,823 313,881 332,434 55.8 59.1
34 Michigan Priv. Construction 269 141,316 38,963 40,579 27.6 28.7
34 Michigan Priv. Manufacturing 2,053 1,067,006 361,402 373,545 33.9 35.0
41 Minnesota Total 2,239 2,121,945 430,634 457,889 20.3 21.6
41 Minnesota Private 1,861 1,775,161 217,376 226,496 12.2 12.8
41 Minnesota Public 378 346,784 213,258 231,393 61.5 66.7
41 Minnesota Priv. Construction 80 73,638 25,534 25,534 34.7 34.7
41 Minnesota Priv. Manufacturing 427 402,610 67,735 69,209 16.8 17.2
64 Mississippi Total 1,899 1,075,618 56,357 71,798 5.2 6.7
64 Mississippi Private 1,569 893,050 39,813 47,374 4.5 5.3
64 Mississippi Public 330 182,568 16,544 24,424 9.1 13.4
64 Mississippi Priv. Construction 92 52,051 498 1,944 1.0 3.7
64 Mississippi Priv. Manufacturing 424 249,458 24,495 27,931 9.8 11.2
43 Missouri Total 1,876 2,340,674 342,197 386,956 14.6 16.5
43 Missouri Private 1,582 1,979,188 254,845 268,830 12.9 13.6
43 Missouri Public 294 361,486 87,352 118,126 24.2 32.7
43 Missouri Priv. Construction 92 116,311 27,762 27,762 23.9 23.9
43 Missouri Priv. Manufacturing 336 413,265 98,926 101,998 23.9 24.7
81 Montana Total 1,967 322,364 50,830 56,566 15.8 17.5
81 Montana Private 1,510 250,120 23,276 26,475 9.3 10.6
81 Montana Public 457 72,244 27,554 30,092 38.1 41.7
81 Montana Priv. Construction 125 20,431 4,294 4,565 21.0 22.3
81 Montana Priv. Manufacturing 150 25,805 4,030 4,181 15.6 16.2
46 Nebraska Total 2,192 715,381 65,419 88,525 9.1 12.4
46 Nebraska Private 1,815 596,901 30,077 41,173 5.0 6.9
46 Nebraska Public 377 118,479 35,342 47,352 29.8 40.0
46 Nebraska Priv. Construction 83 27,630 1,847 1,847 6.7 6.7
46 Nebraska Priv. Manufacturing 292 95,292 13,750 17,448 14.4 18.3
88 Nevada Total 1,808 679,503 137,043 160,632 20.2 23.6
88 Nevada Private 1,535 580,642 96,095 107,545 16.5 18.5
88 Nevada Public 273 98,862 40,949 53,087 41.4 53.7
88 Nevada Priv. Construction 137 55,441 11,337 12,904 20.4 23.3
88 Nevada Priv. Manufacturing 86 32,705 2,779 2,779 8.5 8.5
12 New Hampshire Total 1,555 527,863 66,641 76,419 12.6 14.5
12 New Hampshire Private 1,317 448,731 28,292 31,385 6.3 7.0
12 New Hampshire Public 238 79,132 38,349 45,034 48.5 56.9
12 New Hampshire Priv. Construction 57 19,667 2,973 2,973 15.1 15.1
12 New Hampshire Priv. Manufacturing 364 122,902 7,957 8,846 6.5 7.2
22 New Jersey Total 7,219 3,368,030 739,259 801,871 21.9 23.8
22 New Jersey Private 6,046 2,824,803 406,882 442,361 14.4 15.7
22 New Jersey Public 1,173 543,227 332,378 359,510 61.2 66.2
22 New Jersey Priv. Construction 274 133,607 40,157 42,484 30.1 31.8
22 New Jersey Priv. Manufacturing 1,160 537,402 110,004 113,752 20.5 21.2
85 New Mexico Total 1,875 615,951 57,698 71,942 9.4 11.7
85 New Mexico Private 1,348 444,941 25,386 28,847 5.7 6.5
85 New Mexico Public 527 171,011 32,313 43,095 18.9 25.2
85 New Mexico Priv. Construction 113 38,817 1,711 1,711 4.4 4.4
85 New Mexico Priv. Manufacturing 135 44,437 4,254 4,254 9.6 9.6
21 New York Total 10,881 7,128,812 1,975,463 2,086,139 27.7 29.3
21 New York Private 8,820 5,750,563 1,009,777 1,071,060 17.6 18.6
21 New York Public 2,061 1,378,249 965,686 1,015,079 70.1 73.6
21 New York Priv. Construction 363 241,531 78,552 79,025 32.5 32.7
21 New York Priv. Manufacturing 1,543 1,026,925 231,012 244,894 22.5 23.8
56 North Carolina Total 7,113 3,114,233 132,156 169,000 4.2 5.4
56 North Carolina Private 6,027 2,644,993 64,890 83,582 2.5 3.2
56 North Carolina Public 1,086 469,240 67,265 85,419 14.3 18.2
56 North Carolina Priv. Construction 358 160,252 762 2,272 0.5 1.4
56 North Carolina Priv. Manufacturing 1,950 858,297 24,940 29,381 2.9 3.4
44 North Dakota Total 2,055 256,731 25,732 30,792 10.0 12.0
44 North Dakota Private 1,603 202,716 12,474 14,134 6.2 7.0
44 North Dakota Public 452 54,015 13,258 16,657 24.5 30.8
44 North Dakota Priv. Construction 90 11,747 2,083 2,083 17.7 17.7
44 North Dakota Priv. Manufacturing 133 16,561 3,233 3,354 19.5 20.3
31 Ohio Total 7,737 4,774,435 885,250 979,038 18.5 20.5
31 Ohio Private 6,673 4,119,809 599,451 648,033 14.6 15.7
31 Ohio Public 1,064 654,626 285,799 331,005 43.7 50.6
31 Ohio Priv. Construction 336 211,219 55,677 61,218 26.4 29.0
31 Ohio Priv. Manufacturing 1,841 1,138,690 329,332 340,589 28.9 29.9
73 Oklahoma Total 2,182 1,257,876 116,869 134,906 9.3 10.7
73 Oklahoma Private 1,749 1,009,052 60,537 66,181 6.0 6.6
73 Oklahoma Public 433 248,824 56,333 68,725 22.6 27.6
73 Oklahoma Priv. Construction 86 48,516 6,577 7,010 13.6 14.4
73 Oklahoma Priv. Manufacturing 304 171,052 23,936 25,861 14.0 15.1
92 Oregon Total 1,871 1,329,444 266,785 288,282 20.1 21.7
92 Oregon Private 1,529 1,089,490 121,134 132,454 11.1 12.2
92 Oregon Public 342 239,954 145,651 155,828 60.7 64.9
92 Oregon Priv. Construction 84 60,649 12,821 12,821 21.1 21.1
92 Oregon Priv. Manufacturing 350 243,831 36,721 38,805 15.1 15.9
23 Pennsylvania Total 7,569 4,925,019 929,461 1,020,566 18.9 20.7
23 Pennsylvania Private 6,605 4,309,797 606,366 660,728 14.1 15.3
23 Pennsylvania Public 964 615,222 323,095 359,838 52.5 58.5
23 Pennsylvania Priv. Construction 334 222,038 55,110 56,521 24.8 25.5
23 Pennsylvania Priv. Manufacturing 1,543 1,002,123 267,708 276,172 26.7 27.6
15 Rhode Island Total 1,517 403,173 78,134 83,947 19.4 20.8
15 Rhode Island Private 1,265 336,167 30,726 34,324 9.1 10.2
15 Rhode Island Public 252 67,006 47,407 49,622 70.8 74.1
15 Rhode Island Priv. Construction 44 11,687 1,321 1,321 11.3 11.3
15 Rhode Island Priv. Manufacturing 337 87,122 11,016 12,286 12.6 14.1
57 South Carolina Total 1,758 1,584,973 51,842 82,715 3.3 5.2
57 South Carolina Private 1,446 1,303,597 30,415 52,441 2.3 4.0
57 South Carolina Public 312 281,376 21,427 30,274 7.6 10.8
57 South Carolina Priv. Construction 98 93,752 3,114 3,114 3.3 3.3
57 South Carolina Priv. Manufacturing 456 418,452 12,171 23,654 2.9 5.7
45 South Dakota Total 2,162 290,547 22,333 27,199 7.7 9.4
45 South Dakota Private 1,713 235,059 10,628 11,903 4.5 5.1
45 South Dakota Public 449 55,488 11,705 15,296 21.1 27.6
45 South Dakota Priv. Construction 70 8,947 765 765 8.6 8.6
45 South Dakota Priv. Manufacturing 323 45,729 4,162 4,770 9.1 10.4
62 Tennessee Total 1,980 2,303,794 219,284 260,005 9.5 11.3
62 Tennessee Private 1,663 1,936,417 153,700 175,563 7.9 9.1
62 Tennessee Public 317 367,377 65,584 84,442 17.9 23.0
62 Tennessee Priv. Construction 81 96,596 9,320 9,320 9.6 9.6
62 Tennessee Priv. Manufacturing 463 529,962 87,825 99,213 16.6 18.7
74 Texas Total 7,504 7,874,418 511,911 633,743 6.5 8.0
74 Texas Private 6,157 6,503,252 293,866 345,017 4.5 5.3
74 Texas Public 1,347 1,371,166 218,045 288,726 15.9 21.1
74 Texas Priv. Construction 426 467,482 22,558 27,140 4.8 5.8
74 Texas Priv. Manufacturing 1,086 1,142,562 101,146 112,311 8.9 9.8
87 Utah Total 2,170 806,396 72,674 91,826 9.0 11.4
87 Utah Private 1,725 645,110 27,466 33,084 4.3 5.1
87 Utah Public 445 161,286 45,208 58,742 28.0 36.4
87 Utah Priv. Construction 146 55,735 5,513 5,856 9.9 10.5
87 Utah Priv. Manufacturing 348 130,322 5,392 6,893 4.1 5.3
13 Vermont Total 1,589 255,324 23,861 29,445 9.3 11.5
13 Vermont Private 1,342 216,481 8,876 10,338 4.1 4.8
13 Vermont Public 247 38,843 14,984 19,107 38.6 49.2
13 Vermont Priv. Construction 69 10,655 261 514 2.5 4.8
13 Vermont Priv. Manufacturing 292 47,177 3,396 3,858 7.2 8.2
54 Virginia Total 3,794 3,000,812 200,525 266,622 6.7 8.9
54 Virginia Private 2,928 2,327,612 102,512 132,599 4.4 5.7
54 Virginia Public 866 673,200 98,013 134,023 14.6 19.9
54 Virginia Priv. Construction 232 196,857 8,288 10,065 4.2 5.1
54 Virginia Priv. Manufacturing 468 423,033 35,249 47,475 8.3 11.2
91 Washington Total 1,925 2,271,332 477,136 508,933 21.0 22.4
91 Washington Private 1,592 1,899,482 306,689 323,184 16.1 17.0
91 Washington Public 333 371,849 170,447 185,749 45.8 50.0
91 Washington Priv. Construction 83 99,522 33,092 35,342 33.3 35.5
91 Washington Priv. Manufacturing 299 351,933 103,042 105,353 29.3 29.9
55 West Virginia Total 1,773 641,086 104,495 114,131 16.3 17.8
55 West Virginia Private 1,406 512,940 76,091 80,243 14.8 15.6
55 West Virginia Public 367 128,145 28,404 33,888 22.2 26.4
55 West Virginia Priv. Construction 97 36,066 8,166 9,883 22.6 27.4
55 West Virginia Priv. Manufacturing 245 88,329 26,941 27,297 30.5 30.9
35 Wisconsin Total 2,611 2,428,570 428,994 464,995 17.7 19.1
35 Wisconsin Private 2,216 2,065,820 240,711 261,178 11.7 12.6
35 Wisconsin Public 395 362,750 188,283 203,817 51.9 56.2
35 Wisconsin Priv. Construction 106 98,780 23,193 23,193 23.5 23.5
35 Wisconsin Priv. Manufacturing 657 608,667 129,796 133,558 21.3 21.9
83 Wyoming Total 1,945 199,109 22,249 26,063 11.2 13.1
83 Wyoming Private 1,456 149,353 13,196 14,433 8.8 9.7
83 Wyoming Public 489 49,755 9,052 11,629 18.2 23.4
83 Wyoming Priv. Construction 111 11,343 816 816 7.2 7.2
83 Wyoming Priv. Manufacturing 99 10,317 2,255 2,568 21.9 24.9
                   
Data Sources: Current Population Survey (CPS) Outgoing Rotation Group (ORG) Earnings Files, 1995. Sample includes
employed wage and salary workers, ages 16 and over. Variable definitions are: State Code=Census state code used
in CPS, Obs=CPS sample size, Employment=wage and salary employment, Members=employed workers who are union
members, Covered=workers covered by a collective bargaining agreement, %Mem=percent of employed workers who
are union members, and %Cov=percent of employed workers who are covered by a collective bargaining agreement.
2002 by Barry T. Hirsch and David A. Macpherson. The use of data requires citation.