Union Membership, Coverage, Density and Employment by State, 1996 (details in table note)
State
Code State Sector Obs Employment Members Covered %Mem %Cov
63 Alabama Total 1,996 1,761,624 200,696 226,163 11.4 12.8
63 Alabama Private 1,666 1,470,431 121,749 133,914 8.3 9.1
63 Alabama Public 330 291,193 78,948 92,249 27.1 31.7
63 Alabama Priv. Construction 95 87,373 7,325 7,325 8.4 8.4
63 Alabama Priv. Manufacturing 493 434,645 71,822 77,292 16.5 17.8
94 Alaska Total 1,766 243,453 54,730 60,504 22.5 24.9
94 Alaska Private 1,174 165,092 20,539 23,239 12.4 14.1
94 Alaska Public 592 78,360 34,191 37,264 43.6 47.6
94 Alaska Priv. Construction 92 12,684 4,063 4,172 32.0 32.9
94 Alaska Priv. Manufacturing 65 9,281 666 898 7.2 9.7
86 Arizona Total 2,218 1,821,133 106,754 135,860 5.9 7.5
86 Arizona Private 1,881 1,545,344 56,582 73,527 3.7 4.8
86 Arizona Public 337 275,789 50,171 62,333 18.2 22.6
86 Arizona Priv. Construction 151 129,552 6,728 8,228 5.2 6.4
86 Arizona Priv. Manufacturing 290 237,800 9,264 13,221 3.9 5.6
71 Arkansas Total 2,116 1,055,267 74,415 88,385 7.1 8.4
71 Arkansas Private 1,759 882,281 50,693 58,234 5.7 6.6
71 Arkansas Public 357 172,986 23,722 30,151 13.7 17.4
71 Arkansas Priv. Construction 86 44,081 1,757 1,757 4.0 4.0
71 Arkansas Priv. Manufacturing 485 248,262 31,067 36,446 12.5 14.7
93 California Total 11,704 12,461,034 2,060,566 2,339,912 16.5 18.8
93 California Private 9,920 10,544,950 1,096,328 1,226,866 10.4 11.6
93 California Public 1,784 1,916,083 964,238 1,113,046 50.3 58.1
93 California Priv. Construction 458 506,574 102,367 106,889 20.2 21.1
93 California Priv. Manufacturing 2,066 2,174,446 200,862 226,993 9.2 10.4
84 Colorado Total 2,249 1,721,660 167,113 185,166 9.7 10.8
84 Colorado Private 1,911 1,469,061 103,523 110,701 7.0 7.5
84 Colorado Public 338 252,599 63,589 74,465 25.2 29.5
84 Colorado Priv. Construction 144 113,126 10,598 10,598 9.4 9.4
84 Colorado Priv. Manufacturing 310 239,961 22,618 24,979 9.4 10.4
16 Connecticut Total 1,607 1,453,990 239,485 250,484 16.5 17.2
16 Connecticut Private 1,400 1,270,470 119,376 126,702 9.4 10.0
16 Connecticut Public 207 183,520 120,108 123,782 65.4 67.4
16 Connecticut Priv. Construction 65 59,240 15,254 15,254 25.7 25.7
16 Connecticut Priv. Manufacturing 304 273,609 29,016 29,921 10.6 10.9
51 Delaware Total 1,630 322,954 39,961 45,237 12.4 14.0
51 Delaware Private 1,388 275,887 23,112 25,369 8.4 9.2
51 Delaware Public 242 47,066 16,849 19,868 35.8 42.2
51 Delaware Priv. Construction 59 11,648 1,490 1,687 12.8 14.5
51 Delaware Priv. Manufacturing 277 54,760 8,893 9,089 16.2 16.6
53 D.C. Total 1,515 229,860 39,452 44,541 17.2 19.4
53 D.C. Private 983 149,946 16,352 18,474 10.9 12.3
53 D.C. Public 532 79,914 23,101 26,067 28.9 32.6
53 D.C. Priv. Construction 34 5,618 2,159 2,159 38.4 38.4
53 D.C. Priv. Manufacturing 44 6,501 966 966 14.9 14.9
59 Florida Total 6,652 5,762,733 429,759 568,447 7.5 9.9
59 Florida Private 5,595 4,854,573 183,816 239,712 3.8 4.9
59 Florida Public 1,057 908,159 245,943 328,736 27.1 36.2
59 Florida Priv. Construction 399 351,480 19,136 21,217 5.4 6.0
59 Florida Priv. Manufacturing 580 508,137 40,586 46,469 8.0 9.1
58 Georgia Total 2,627 3,149,923 242,061 285,501 7.7 9.1
58 Georgia Private 2,202 2,644,038 159,128 183,126 6.0 6.9
58 Georgia Public 425 505,886 82,933 102,375 16.4 20.2
58 Georgia Priv. Construction 108 134,529 17,881 17,881 13.3 13.3
58 Georgia Priv. Manufacturing 511 614,417 53,735 60,609 8.7 9.9
95 Hawaii Total 1,597 482,858 111,937 118,342 23.2 24.5
95 Hawaii Private 1,266 384,020 61,412 64,663 16.0 16.8
95 Hawaii Public 331 98,838 50,525 53,679 51.1 54.3
95 Hawaii Priv. Construction 90 27,011 11,927 11,927 44.2 44.2
95 Hawaii Priv. Manufacturing 56 17,388 3,270 3,270 18.8 18.8
82 Idaho Total 2,160 489,010 42,510 52,135 8.7 10.7
82 Idaho Private 1,697 390,509 23,894 27,682 6.1 7.1
82 Idaho Public 463 98,501 18,617 24,453 18.9 24.8
82 Idaho Priv. Construction 127 30,243 3,403 3,601 11.3 11.9
82 Idaho Priv. Manufacturing 365 83,395 9,371 10,549 11.2 12.6
33 Illinois Total 6,726 5,223,961 1,043,078 1,124,801 20.0 21.5
33 Illinois Private 5,834 4,526,160 695,418 744,003 15.4 16.4
33 Illinois Public 892 697,801 347,660 380,798 49.8 54.6
33 Illinois Priv. Construction 300 233,593 96,889 99,090 41.5 42.4
33 Illinois Priv. Manufacturing 1,331 1,054,939 248,591 258,217 23.6 24.5
32 Indiana Total 2,204 2,652,426 395,215 427,824 14.9 16.1
32 Indiana Private 1,939 2,334,047 322,522 332,023 13.8 14.2
32 Indiana Public 265 318,379 72,693 95,801 22.8 30.1
32 Indiana Priv. Construction 109 134,990 27,750 27,750 20.6 20.6
32 Indiana Priv. Manufacturing 569 683,774 202,154 207,970 29.6 30.4
42 Iowa Total 2,192 1,293,480 168,689 202,975 13.0 15.7
42 Iowa Private 1,844 1,090,864 95,927 106,853 8.8 9.8
42 Iowa Public 348 202,616 72,762 96,122 35.9 47.4
42 Iowa Priv. Construction 93 56,479 15,928 16,435 28.2 29.1
42 Iowa Priv. Manufacturing 404 239,904 51,578 55,093 21.5 23.0
47 Kansas Total 2,098 1,097,538 105,799 134,749 9.6 12.3
47 Kansas Private 1,684 885,972 70,811 83,515 8.0 9.4
47 Kansas Public 414 211,566 34,987 51,234 16.5 24.2
47 Kansas Priv. Construction 93 50,026 7,938 9,417 15.9 18.8
47 Kansas Priv. Manufacturing 325 170,988 34,152 38,960 20.0 22.8
61 Kentucky Total 1,879 1,562,293 198,842 220,532 12.7 14.1
61 Kentucky Private 1,541 1,279,845 144,571 148,997 11.3 11.6
61 Kentucky Public 338 282,447 54,271 71,536 19.2 25.3
61 Kentucky Priv. Construction 84 68,831 9,780 10,431 14.2 15.2
61 Kentucky Priv. Manufacturing 344 292,928 66,139 67,215 22.6 22.9
72 Louisiana Total 1,866 1,653,420 133,439 164,674 8.1 10.0
72 Louisiana Private 1,507 1,339,557 81,068 91,642 6.1 6.8
72 Louisiana Public 359 313,863 52,371 73,031 16.7 23.3
72 Louisiana Priv. Construction 112 102,471 12,684 13,909 12.4 13.6
72 Louisiana Priv. Manufacturing 185 167,094 31,820 32,666 19.0 19.5
11 Maine Total 1,675 534,606 77,407 87,801 14.5 16.4
11 Maine Private 1,421 454,547 41,385 44,144 9.1 9.7
11 Maine Public 254 80,058 36,021 43,657 45.0 54.5
11 Maine Priv. Construction 86 27,922 818 818 2.9 2.9
11 Maine Priv. Manufacturing 322 103,680 24,465 25,614 23.6 24.7
52 Maryland Total 2,000 2,391,858 353,543 415,412 14.8 17.4
52 Maryland Private 1,476 1,766,099 144,241 158,806 8.2 9.0
52 Maryland Public 524 625,759 209,302 256,606 33.4 41.0
52 Maryland Priv. Construction 97 114,786 13,200 13,970 11.5 12.2
52 Maryland Priv. Manufacturing 175 204,301 44,892 47,245 22.0 23.1
14 Massachusetts Total 3,760 2,702,823 414,962 454,989 15.4 16.8
14 Massachusetts Private 3,266 2,354,161 212,433 240,391 9.0 10.2
14 Massachusetts Public 494 348,663 202,529 214,599 58.1 61.5
14 Massachusetts Priv. Construction 155 112,689 33,300 33,300 29.6 29.6
14 Massachusetts Priv. Manufacturing 688 495,452 50,395 56,834 10.2 11.5
34 Michigan Total 5,553 4,105,603 983,295 1,042,203 24.0 25.4
34 Michigan Private 4,818 3,564,221 650,502 697,202 18.3 19.6
34 Michigan Public 735 541,382 332,793 345,001 61.5 63.7
34 Michigan Priv. Construction 220 165,240 42,232 42,232 25.6 25.6
34 Michigan Priv. Manufacturing 1,510 1,128,084 394,144 403,745 34.9 35.8
41 Minnesota Total 2,392 2,159,739 437,404 457,883 20.3 21.2
41 Minnesota Private 2,014 1,823,992 235,901 246,860 12.9 13.5
41 Minnesota Public 378 335,747 201,503 211,023 60.0 62.9
41 Minnesota Priv. Construction 110 97,437 38,859 38,859 39.9 39.9
41 Minnesota Priv. Manufacturing 425 383,172 64,976 67,714 17.0 17.7
64 Mississippi Total 1,804 1,064,027 62,034 86,373 5.8 8.1
64 Mississippi Private 1,471 868,197 43,896 55,591 5.1 6.4
64 Mississippi Public 333 195,830 18,138 30,782 9.3 15.7
64 Mississippi Priv. Construction 89 53,843 2,236 2,792 4.2 5.2
64 Mississippi Priv. Manufacturing 429 259,912 27,712 30,351 10.7 11.7
43 Missouri Total 2,007 2,440,373 375,244 408,924 15.4 16.8
43 Missouri Private 1,655 2,012,077 270,915 284,400 13.5 14.1
43 Missouri Public 352 428,296 104,328 124,524 24.4 29.1
43 Missouri Priv. Construction 107 131,128 40,591 40,591 31.0 31.0
43 Missouri Priv. Manufacturing 333 401,773 105,244 108,631 26.2 27.0
81 Montana Total 1,985 334,670 52,046 56,613 15.6 16.9
81 Montana Private 1,553 262,832 23,994 25,941 9.1 9.9
81 Montana Public 432 71,838 28,052 30,672 39.0 42.7
81 Montana Priv. Construction 105 18,105 5,235 5,235 28.9 28.9
81 Montana Priv. Manufacturing 153 25,414 3,526 3,526 13.9 13.9
46 Nebraska Total 2,164 731,806 62,933 90,388 8.6 12.4
46 Nebraska Private 1,781 605,467 31,029 41,782 5.1 6.9
46 Nebraska Public 383 126,339 31,904 48,606 25.3 38.5
46 Nebraska Priv. Construction 94 31,974 3,924 3,924 12.3 12.3
46 Nebraska Priv. Manufacturing 283 97,168 10,295 16,118 10.6 16.6
88 Nevada Total 1,867 722,834 147,299 175,732 20.4 24.3
88 Nevada Private 1,616 629,837 99,673 118,452 15.8 18.8
88 Nevada Public 251 92,997 47,627 57,280 51.2 61.6
88 Nevada Priv. Construction 149 60,944 16,044 16,758 26.3 27.5
88 Nevada Priv. Manufacturing 113 44,647 4,265 6,420 9.6 14.4
12 New Hampshire Total 1,583 514,393 57,361 64,835 11.2 12.6
12 New Hampshire Private 1,343 438,101 20,837 22,759 4.8 5.2
12 New Hampshire Public 240 76,293 36,524 42,077 47.9 55.2
12 New Hampshire Priv. Construction 61 19,997 2,598 2,598 13.0 13.0
12 New Hampshire Priv. Manufacturing 381 126,123 6,213 6,805 4.9 5.4
22 New Jersey Total 4,877 3,517,085 768,044 832,399 21.8 23.7
22 New Jersey Private 4,147 2,997,706 450,847 494,775 15.0 16.5
22 New Jersey Public 730 519,379 317,197 337,624 61.1 65.0
22 New Jersey Priv. Construction 185 135,557 51,725 53,828 38.2 39.7
22 New Jersey Priv. Manufacturing 786 565,180 116,187 125,002 20.6 22.1
85 New Mexico Total 1,903 623,869 52,609 67,302 8.4 10.8
85 New Mexico Private 1,404 462,775 24,445 29,447 5.3 6.4
85 New Mexico Public 499 161,094 28,165 37,855 17.5 23.5
85 New Mexico Priv. Construction 146 51,348 1,810 2,178 3.5 4.2
85 New Mexico Priv. Manufacturing 122 38,611 3,425 3,425 8.9 8.9
21 New York Total 9,318 7,239,498 1,941,973 2,041,942 26.8 28.2
21 New York Private 7,523 5,861,865 936,201 998,533 16.0 17.0
21 New York Public 1,795 1,377,633 1,005,772 1,043,409 73.0 75.7
21 New York Priv. Construction 342 268,877 104,811 109,082 39.0 40.6
21 New York Priv. Manufacturing 1,306 1,009,916 197,826 209,890 19.6 20.8
56 North Carolina Total 4,189 3,239,150 134,015 161,305 4.1 5.0
56 North Carolina Private 3,565 2,753,905 72,791 81,914 2.6 3.0
56 North Carolina Public 624 485,244 61,224 79,391 12.6 16.4
56 North Carolina Priv. Construction 233 189,524 5,812 5,812 3.1 3.1
56 North Carolina Priv. Manufacturing 1,099 860,675 21,691 23,056 2.5 2.7
44 North Dakota Total 2,019 267,132 24,390 28,122 9.1 10.5
44 North Dakota Private 1,625 215,488 14,267 15,089 6.6 7.0
44 North Dakota Public 394 51,644 10,122 13,033 19.6 25.2
44 North Dakota Priv. Construction 81 10,609 2,027 2,027 19.1 19.1
44 North Dakota Priv. Manufacturing 138 18,205 3,236 3,236 17.8 17.8
31 Ohio Total 5,920 4,797,903 933,234 997,620 19.5 20.8
31 Ohio Private 5,068 4,118,311 623,921 658,443 15.1 16.0
31 Ohio Public 852 679,593 309,314 339,177 45.5 49.9
31 Ohio Priv. Construction 254 207,191 48,690 49,438 23.5 23.9
31 Ohio Priv. Manufacturing 1,330 1,101,679 344,375 351,058 31.3 31.9
73 Oklahoma Total 2,171 1,303,144 135,527 161,612 10.4 12.4
73 Oklahoma Private 1,749 1,050,889 82,326 93,177 7.8 8.9
73 Oklahoma Public 422 252,255 53,201 68,435 21.1 27.1
73 Oklahoma Priv. Construction 101 61,007 7,924 9,122 13.0 15.0
73 Oklahoma Priv. Manufacturing 300 180,044 29,531 31,804 16.4 17.7
92 Oregon Total 1,827 1,367,914 246,178 266,759 18.0 19.5
92 Oregon Private 1,548 1,163,615 129,750 143,070 11.2 12.3
92 Oregon Public 279 204,299 116,427 123,689 57.0 60.5
92 Oregon Priv. Construction 106 82,875 12,217 13,781 14.7 16.6
92 Oregon Priv. Manufacturing 332 251,663 49,577 51,128 19.7 20.3
23 Pennsylvania Total 6,605 5,016,785 885,815 978,327 17.7 19.5
23 Pennsylvania Private 5,745 4,363,730 559,272 607,535 12.8 13.9
23 Pennsylvania Public 860 653,054 326,542 370,791 50.0 56.8
23 Pennsylvania Priv. Construction 255 195,342 53,265 53,265 27.3 27.3
23 Pennsylvania Priv. Manufacturing 1,315 1,017,570 232,770 248,473 22.9 24.4
15 Rhode Island Total 1,629 424,097 81,035 85,307 19.1 20.1
15 Rhode Island Private 1,383 362,520 37,958 41,281 10.5 11.4
15 Rhode Island Public 246 61,578 43,077 44,027 70.0 71.5
15 Rhode Island Priv. Construction 50 13,176 1,528 1,528 11.6 11.6
15 Rhode Island Priv. Manufacturing 350 92,243 10,121 10,533 11.0 11.4
57 South Carolina Total 1,656 1,563,735 58,210 78,692 3.7 5.0
57 South Carolina Private 1,371 1,300,149 33,998 47,879 2.6 3.7
57 South Carolina Public 285 263,586 24,212 30,813 9.2 11.7
57 South Carolina Priv. Construction 107 104,751 2,709 3,935 2.6 3.8
57 South Carolina Priv. Manufacturing 398 385,759 16,594 20,023 4.3 5.2
45 South Dakota Total 2,226 311,865 23,016 28,625 7.4 9.2
45 South Dakota Private 1,780 253,804 9,632 11,738 3.8 4.6
45 South Dakota Public 446 58,062 13,384 16,887 23.1 29.1
45 South Dakota Priv. Construction 96 13,309 258 258 1.9 1.9
45 South Dakota Priv. Manufacturing 335 49,051 4,763 5,386 9.7 11.0
62 Tennessee Total 1,957 2,291,009 219,182 254,222 9.6 11.1
62 Tennessee Private 1,615 1,893,859 142,146 161,215 7.5 8.5
62 Tennessee Public 342 397,150 77,036 93,006 19.4 23.4
62 Tennessee Priv. Construction 95 110,841 12,867 14,008 11.6 12.6
62 Tennessee Priv. Manufacturing 441 509,512 75,280 79,111 14.8 15.5
74 Texas Total 7,438 8,049,178 527,663 645,815 6.6 8.0
74 Texas Private 6,099 6,632,074 273,939 316,396 4.1 4.8
74 Texas Public 1,339 1,417,104 253,725 329,419 17.9 23.2
74 Texas Priv. Construction 385 434,862 25,477 31,300 5.9 7.2
74 Texas Priv. Manufacturing 1,063 1,157,191 98,464 110,959 8.5 9.6
87 Utah Total 2,276 847,563 71,085 94,239 8.4 11.1
87 Utah Private 1,791 671,363 27,670 35,332 4.1 5.3
87 Utah Public 485 176,200 43,415 58,907 24.6 33.4
87 Utah Priv. Construction 143 54,889 4,401 5,460 8.0 9.9
87 Utah Priv. Manufacturing 336 126,276 6,835 8,067 5.4 6.4
13 Vermont Total 1,618 257,414 24,921 29,003 9.7 11.3
13 Vermont Private 1,375 219,376 9,680 11,111 4.4 5.1
13 Vermont Public 243 38,038 15,241 17,892 40.1 47.0
13 Vermont Priv. Construction 65 10,635 328 328 3.1 3.1
13 Vermont Priv. Manufacturing 304 47,814 3,905 4,053 8.2 8.5
54 Virginia Total 2,472 2,963,598 200,794 236,456 6.8 8.0
54 Virginia Private 1,967 2,368,716 124,642 139,965 5.3 5.9
54 Virginia Public 505 594,882 76,152 96,491 12.8 16.2
54 Virginia Priv. Construction 142 173,296 4,592 4,592 2.6 2.6
54 Virginia Priv. Manufacturing 336 407,931 47,976 56,115 11.8 13.8
91 Washington Total 1,958 2,342,082 464,201 511,253 19.8 21.8
91 Washington Private 1,622 1,937,886 278,965 306,156 14.4 15.8
91 Washington Public 336 404,196 185,235 205,097 45.8 50.7
91 Washington Priv. Construction 99 115,754 32,685 34,909 28.2 30.2
91 Washington Priv. Manufacturing 296 349,209 101,306 114,222 29.0 32.7
55 West Virginia Total 1,974 697,176 109,691 124,667 15.7 17.9
55 West Virginia Private 1,597 564,494 78,474 84,497 13.9 15.0
55 West Virginia Public 377 132,682 31,217 40,170 23.5 30.3
55 West Virginia Priv. Construction 103 37,186 11,092 11,092 29.8 29.8
55 West Virginia Priv. Manufacturing 244 86,064 25,122 26,150 29.2 30.4
35 Wisconsin Total 2,579 2,491,729 469,652 493,214 18.8 19.8
35 Wisconsin Private 2,188 2,121,339 270,764 282,234 12.8 13.3
35 Wisconsin Public 391 370,390 198,888 210,979 53.7 57.0
35 Wisconsin Priv. Construction 114 111,619 35,524 35,524 31.8 31.8
35 Wisconsin Priv. Manufacturing 624 604,542 144,203 145,125 23.9 24.0
83 Wyoming Total 1,984 206,458 20,098 23,853 9.7 11.6
83 Wyoming Private 1,462 153,405 11,661 13,083 7.6 8.5
83 Wyoming Public 522 53,053 8,438 10,770 15.9 20.3
83 Wyoming Priv. Construction 106 11,155 413 413 3.7 3.7
83 Wyoming Priv. Manufacturing 117 12,350 1,483 2,008 12.0 16.3
                   
Data Sources: Current Population Survey (CPS) Outgoing Rotation Group (ORG) Earnings Files, 1996. Sample includes
employed wage and salary workers, ages 16 and over. Variable definitions are: State Code=Census state code used
in CPS, Obs=CPS sample size, Employment=wage and salary employment, Members=employed workers who are union
members, Covered=workers covered by a collective bargaining agreement, %Mem=percent of employed workers who
are union members, and %Cov=percent of employed workers who are covered by a collective bargaining agreement.
2002 by Barry T. Hirsch and David A. Macpherson. The use of data requires citation.