Union Membership, Coverage, Density and Employment by State, 1997 (details in table note)
State
Code State Sector Obs Employment Members Covered %Mem %Cov
63 Alabama Total 2,067 1,812,437 184,499 212,209 10.2 11.7
63 Alabama Private 1,734 1,523,757 110,757 120,551 7.3 7.9
63 Alabama Public 333 288,680 73,741 91,658 25.5 31.8
63 Alabama Priv. Construction 100 90,802 3,654 3,654 4.0 4.0
63 Alabama Priv. Manufacturing 473 419,916 71,518 76,180 17.0 18.1
94 Alaska Total 1,809 250,425 50,093 55,912 20.0 22.3
94 Alaska Private 1,210 169,243 16,174 17,973 9.6 10.6
94 Alaska Public 599 81,183 33,920 37,939 41.8 46.7
94 Alaska Priv. Construction 100 14,530 2,392 2,674 16.5 18.4
94 Alaska Priv. Manufacturing 64 8,955 476 589 5.3 6.6
86 Arizona Total 2,193 1,887,531 131,722 155,283 7.0 8.2
86 Arizona Private 1,851 1,600,433 78,453 91,004 4.9 5.7
86 Arizona Public 342 287,098 53,269 64,279 18.6 22.4
86 Arizona Priv. Construction 141 126,961 14,520 15,359 11.4 12.1
86 Arizona Priv. Manufacturing 275 239,263 11,747 12,681 4.9 5.3
71 Arkansas Total 1,998 1,004,002 59,405 68,301 5.9 6.8
71 Arkansas Private 1,657 835,504 37,776 43,800 4.5 5.2
71 Arkansas Public 341 168,497 21,630 24,501 12.8 14.5
71 Arkansas Priv. Construction 94 48,427 1,892 1,892 3.9 3.9
71 Arkansas Priv. Manufacturing 467 237,852 21,878 26,267 9.2 11.0
93 California Total 12,185 12,878,007 2,066,662 2,320,639 16.0 18.0
93 California Private 10,299 10,873,299 1,087,751 1,205,611 10.0 11.1
93 California Public 1,886 2,004,708 978,911 1,115,027 48.8 55.6
93 California Priv. Construction 514 577,100 112,939 114,960 19.6 19.9
93 California Priv. Manufacturing 2,165 2,236,412 216,325 240,626 9.7 10.8
84 Colorado Total 2,427 1,813,666 174,166 200,745 9.6 11.1
84 Colorado Private 2,085 1,556,461 104,573 121,365 6.7 7.8
84 Colorado Public 342 257,205 69,592 79,381 27.1 30.9
84 Colorado Priv. Construction 152 113,097 10,369 11,429 9.2 10.1
84 Colorado Priv. Manufacturing 317 236,954 28,317 29,099 12.0 12.3
16 Connecticut Total 1,694 1,469,003 247,808 262,270 16.9 17.9
16 Connecticut Private 1,496 1,298,085 142,570 153,198 11.0 11.8
16 Connecticut Public 198 170,917 105,237 109,072 61.6 63.8
16 Connecticut Priv. Construction 65 58,323 14,278 15,130 24.5 25.9
16 Connecticut Priv. Manufacturing 334 287,310 40,839 42,514 14.2 14.8
51 Delaware Total 1,649 335,515 39,185 44,712 11.7 13.3
51 Delaware Private 1,425 290,704 24,545 27,394 8.4 9.4
51 Delaware Public 224 44,811 14,640 17,318 32.7 38.6
51 Delaware Priv. Construction 79 16,474 1,120 1,357 6.8 8.2
51 Delaware Priv. Manufacturing 260 52,593 9,275 10,548 17.6 20.1
53 D.C. Total 1,438 221,588 30,143 37,249 13.6 16.8
53 D.C. Private 962 148,050 12,484 15,337 8.4 10.4
53 D.C. Public 476 73,537 17,659 21,911 24.0 29.8
53 D.C. Priv. Construction 26 4,132 528 754 12.8 18.2
53 D.C. Priv. Manufacturing 34 5,025 1,021 1,300 20.3 25.9
59 Florida Total 6,764 5,909,967 402,986 533,117 6.8 9.0
59 Florida Private 5,768 5,057,543 162,525 213,220 3.2 4.2
59 Florida Public 996 852,424 240,461 319,896 28.2 37.5
59 Florida Priv. Construction 399 358,108 21,074 22,653 5.9 6.3
59 Florida Priv. Manufacturing 647 571,623 25,911 33,503 4.5 5.9
58 Georgia Total 2,821 3,348,804 238,141 267,525 7.1 8.0
58 Georgia Private 2,338 2,794,163 146,269 157,423 5.2 5.6
58 Georgia Public 483 554,641 91,872 110,102 16.6 19.9
58 Georgia Priv. Construction 142 174,492 14,008 15,204 8.0 8.7
58 Georgia Priv. Manufacturing 563 680,504 60,192 62,591 8.8 9.2
95 Hawaii Total 1,546 481,297 126,741 135,882 26.3 28.2
95 Hawaii Private 1,212 379,525 67,978 71,678 17.9 18.9
95 Hawaii Public 334 101,772 58,763 64,204 57.7 63.1
95 Hawaii Priv. Construction 88 26,570 10,030 10,030 37.7 37.7
95 Hawaii Priv. Manufacturing 58 18,176 2,682 2,682 14.8 14.8
82 Idaho Total 2,313 513,621 43,416 52,011 8.5 10.1
82 Idaho Private 1,842 414,816 24,753 27,426 6.0 6.6
82 Idaho Public 471 98,805 18,663 24,584 18.9 24.9
82 Idaho Priv. Construction 160 36,261 4,155 4,155 11.5 11.5
82 Idaho Priv. Manufacturing 403 90,276 9,382 10,827 10.4 12.0
33 Illinois Total 6,751 5,233,736 970,778 1,041,016 18.5 19.9
33 Illinois Private 5,827 4,501,706 656,552 699,532 14.6 15.5
33 Illinois Public 924 732,030 314,226 341,484 42.9 46.6
33 Illinois Priv. Construction 329 255,076 118,929 122,576 46.6 48.1
33 Illinois Priv. Manufacturing 1,283 1,002,059 214,806 224,167 21.4 22.4
32 Indiana Total 2,314 2,732,718 398,569 437,975 14.6 16.0
32 Indiana Private 2,034 2,405,678 308,347 325,311 12.8 13.5
32 Indiana Public 280 327,040 90,222 112,664 27.6 34.4
32 Indiana Priv. Construction 103 129,190 38,658 39,873 29.9 30.9
32 Indiana Priv. Manufacturing 639 747,752 185,284 192,130 24.8 25.7
42 Iowa Total 2,166 1,303,568 172,381 204,548 13.2 15.7
42 Iowa Private 1,837 1,110,036 106,377 118,922 9.6 10.7
42 Iowa Public 329 193,532 66,004 85,627 34.1 44.2
42 Iowa Priv. Construction 75 45,377 9,154 9,154 20.2 20.2
42 Iowa Priv. Manufacturing 430 261,705 50,166 56,978 19.2 21.8
47 Kansas Total 2,105 1,112,446 86,915 113,590 7.8 10.2
47 Kansas Private 1,698 903,521 57,127 71,549 6.3 7.9
47 Kansas Public 407 208,925 29,788 42,041 14.3 20.1
47 Kansas Priv. Construction 91 49,227 6,361 7,458 12.9 15.1
47 Kansas Priv. Manufacturing 347 183,173 24,931 33,842 13.6 18.5
61 Kentucky Total 1,941 1,582,424 193,102 220,730 12.2 13.9
61 Kentucky Private 1,623 1,325,115 133,197 141,497 10.1 10.7
61 Kentucky Public 318 257,309 59,905 79,233 23.3 30.8
61 Kentucky Priv. Construction 93 75,189 11,456 12,281 15.2 16.3
61 Kentucky Priv. Manufacturing 365 299,042 72,271 72,271 24.2 24.2
72 Louisiana Total 1,962 1,687,158 118,650 149,656 7.0 8.9
72 Louisiana Private 1,613 1,386,958 77,000 89,879 5.6 6.5
72 Louisiana Public 349 300,200 41,651 59,776 13.9 19.9
72 Louisiana Priv. Construction 119 105,672 9,964 10,951 9.4 10.4
72 Louisiana Priv. Manufacturing 249 220,747 35,920 38,927 16.3 17.6
11 Maine Total 1,678 531,678 71,997 79,849 13.5 15.0
11 Maine Private 1,425 454,148 37,530 39,598 8.3 8.7
11 Maine Public 253 77,530 34,468 40,250 44.5 51.9
11 Maine Priv. Construction 82 26,906 1,886 1,886 7.0 7.0
11 Maine Priv. Manufacturing 325 102,081 24,994 25,621 24.5 25.1
52 Maryland Total 1,908 2,335,767 348,668 403,113 14.9 17.3
52 Maryland Private 1,467 1,789,165 155,145 177,811 8.7 9.9
52 Maryland Public 441 546,602 193,523 225,302 35.4 41.2
52 Maryland Priv. Construction 113 139,767 12,995 14,700 9.3 10.5
52 Maryland Priv. Manufacturing 157 189,796 37,914 39,998 20.0 21.1
14 Massachusetts Total 3,948 2,793,681 423,064 462,945 15.1 16.6
14 Massachusetts Private 3,424 2,430,187 222,597 251,507 9.2 10.3
14 Massachusetts Public 524 363,494 200,467 211,437 55.2 58.2
14 Massachusetts Priv. Construction 166 119,080 26,375 27,121 22.1 22.8
14 Massachusetts Priv. Manufacturing 687 489,249 53,081 55,445 10.8 11.3
34 Michigan Total 5,640 4,190,257 969,024 1,024,105 23.1 24.4
34 Michigan Private 4,922 3,663,969 663,463 701,387 18.1 19.1
34 Michigan Public 718 526,288 305,562 322,718 58.1 61.3
34 Michigan Priv. Construction 230 173,751 57,544 60,397 33.1 34.8
34 Michigan Priv. Manufacturing 1,434 1,087,821 356,540 368,367 32.8 33.9
41 Minnesota Total 2,465 2,195,916 436,090 459,604 19.9 20.9
41 Minnesota Private 2,091 1,871,424 251,768 261,127 13.5 14.0
41 Minnesota Public 374 324,492 184,322 198,477 56.8 61.2
41 Minnesota Priv. Construction 122 109,368 45,676 45,676 41.8 41.8
41 Minnesota Priv. Manufacturing 439 387,667 62,473 64,433 16.1 16.6
64 Mississippi Total 1,819 1,071,771 57,518 85,840 5.4 8.0
64 Mississippi Private 1,474 872,648 43,182 56,013 4.9 6.4
64 Mississippi Public 345 199,123 14,335 29,828 7.2 15.0
64 Mississippi Priv. Construction 77 44,730 2,948 3,965 6.6 8.9
64 Mississippi Priv. Manufacturing 404 243,134 20,006 24,257 8.2 10.0
43 Missouri Total 2,007 2,464,049 359,342 388,509 14.6 15.8
43 Missouri Private 1,692 2,087,778 273,549 283,185 13.1 13.6
43 Missouri Public 315 376,270 85,793 105,324 22.8 28.0
43 Missouri Priv. Construction 113 143,493 54,190 55,564 37.8 38.7
43 Missouri Priv. Manufacturing 321 391,857 96,627 97,828 24.7 25.0
81 Montana Total 2,002 342,524 47,323 53,015 13.8 15.5
81 Montana Private 1,496 257,731 18,568 20,622 7.2 8.0
81 Montana Public 506 84,794 28,756 32,393 33.9 38.2
81 Montana Priv. Construction 89 15,744 2,647 2,931 16.8 18.6
81 Montana Priv. Manufacturing 194 33,820 4,600 4,782 13.6 14.1
46 Nebraska Total 2,203 740,739 68,808 91,139 9.3 12.3
46 Nebraska Private 1,812 611,270 35,993 48,335 5.9 7.9
46 Nebraska Public 391 129,469 32,816 42,804 25.3 33.1
46 Nebraska Priv. Construction 100 34,018 4,467 4,467 13.1 13.1
46 Nebraska Priv. Manufacturing 298 100,295 13,059 19,481 13.0 19.4
88 Nevada Total 2,030 770,484 147,115 185,656 19.1 24.1
88 Nevada Private 1,739 663,886 103,158 130,012 15.5 19.6
88 Nevada Public 291 106,598 43,957 55,644 41.2 52.2
88 Nevada Priv. Construction 165 65,478 22,852 24,039 34.9 36.7
88 Nevada Priv. Manufacturing 106 39,281 3,494 4,594 8.9 11.7
12 New Hampshire Total 1,677 543,773 55,631 62,650 10.2 11.5
12 New Hampshire Private 1,440 467,880 22,908 25,087 4.9 5.4
12 New Hampshire Public 237 75,893 32,723 37,563 43.1 49.5
12 New Hampshire Priv. Construction 70 22,650 3,105 3,544 13.7 15.6
12 New Hampshire Priv. Manufacturing 401 132,320 8,672 10,169 6.6 7.7
22 New Jersey Total 5,038 3,651,603 802,066 866,450 22.0 23.7
22 New Jersey Private 4,273 3,105,352 462,757 500,815 14.9 16.1
22 New Jersey Public 765 546,252 339,309 365,636 62.1 66.9
22 New Jersey Priv. Construction 202 146,557 45,585 47,594 31.1 32.5
22 New Jersey Priv. Manufacturing 837 607,779 133,768 140,998 22.0 23.2
85 New Mexico Total 2,027 663,630 55,574 74,838 8.4 11.3
85 New Mexico Private 1,494 490,491 27,901 34,216 5.7 7.0
85 New Mexico Public 533 173,140 27,674 40,622 16.0 23.5
85 New Mexico Priv. Construction 117 39,686 3,807 3,807 9.6 9.6
85 New Mexico Priv. Manufacturing 118 38,882 2,591 2,927 6.7 7.5
21 New York Total 9,451 7,405,839 1,949,380 2,050,247 26.3 27.7
21 New York Private 7,618 5,986,613 957,218 1,025,253 16.0 17.1
21 New York Public 1,833 1,419,225 992,163 1,024,994 69.9 72.2
21 New York Priv. Construction 364 289,513 92,149 97,843 31.8 33.8
21 New York Priv. Manufacturing 1,294 1,010,675 225,227 233,393 22.3 23.1
56 North Carolina Total 4,287 3,336,994 126,220 152,693 3.8 4.6
56 North Carolina Private 3,620 2,822,864 78,132 89,397 2.8 3.2
56 North Carolina Public 667 514,130 48,088 63,295 9.4 12.3
56 North Carolina Priv. Construction 244 201,490 4,188 4,188 2.1 2.1
56 North Carolina Priv. Manufacturing 1,092 862,587 21,654 26,013 2.5 3.0
44 North Dakota Total 2,050 277,387 23,913 28,153 8.6 10.1
44 North Dakota Private 1,656 224,925 14,200 16,265 6.3 7.2
44 North Dakota Public 394 52,461 9,713 11,889 18.5 22.7
44 North Dakota Priv. Construction 88 12,280 1,966 1,966 16.0 16.0
44 North Dakota Priv. Manufacturing 163 21,776 3,789 4,171 17.4 19.2
31 Ohio Total 6,074 4,940,386 931,292 1,002,747 18.9 20.3
31 Ohio Private 5,242 4,276,680 616,802 653,357 14.4 15.3
31 Ohio Public 832 663,706 314,491 349,389 47.4 52.6
31 Ohio Priv. Construction 242 202,682 64,599 68,042 31.9 33.6
31 Ohio Priv. Manufacturing 1,338 1,102,580 314,504 323,523 28.5 29.3
73 Oklahoma Total 2,192 1,305,008 109,512 133,634 8.4 10.2
73 Oklahoma Private 1,772 1,055,384 66,374 70,007 6.3 6.6
73 Oklahoma Public 420 249,624 43,138 63,627 17.3 25.5
73 Oklahoma Priv. Construction 107 65,520 4,429 4,429 6.8 6.8
73 Oklahoma Priv. Manufacturing 298 177,208 28,049 28,049 15.8 15.8
92 Oregon Total 1,846 1,373,984 242,242 272,100 17.6 19.8
92 Oregon Private 1,565 1,171,239 131,262 148,134 11.2 12.6
92 Oregon Public 281 202,746 110,980 123,966 54.7 61.1
92 Oregon Priv. Construction 114 87,013 20,254 20,254 23.3 23.3
92 Oregon Priv. Manufacturing 339 255,859 38,949 42,110 15.2 16.5
23 Pennsylvania Total 6,535 5,063,761 865,989 923,797 17.1 18.2
23 Pennsylvania Private 5,667 4,385,756 517,166 545,894 11.8 12.4
23 Pennsylvania Public 868 678,005 348,823 377,903 51.4 55.7
23 Pennsylvania Priv. Construction 250 200,781 47,905 50,163 23.9 25.0
23 Pennsylvania Priv. Manufacturing 1,245 979,381 211,779 215,405 21.6 22.0
15 Rhode Island Total 1,649 433,770 80,948 84,789 18.7 19.5
15 Rhode Island Private 1,411 374,474 40,033 42,030 10.7 11.2
15 Rhode Island Public 238 59,296 40,915 42,759 69.0 72.1
15 Rhode Island Priv. Construction 53 14,079 2,263 2,263 16.1 16.1
15 Rhode Island Priv. Manufacturing 350 93,466 9,001 9,265 9.6 9.9
57 South Carolina Total 1,797 1,659,332 61,257 82,947 3.7 5.0
57 South Carolina Private 1,483 1,371,810 41,450 50,304 3.0 3.7
57 South Carolina Public 314 287,523 19,807 32,643 6.9 11.4
57 South Carolina Priv. Construction 104 99,018 2,483 3,997 2.5 4.0
57 South Carolina Priv. Manufacturing 426 394,996 22,247 23,880 5.6 6.0
45 South Dakota Total 2,158 306,136 21,045 26,190 6.9 8.6
45 South Dakota Private 1,728 249,446 9,792 11,493 3.9 4.6
45 South Dakota Public 430 56,690 11,253 14,697 19.9 25.9
45 South Dakota Priv. Construction 94 13,431 368 613 2.7 4.6
45 South Dakota Priv. Manufacturing 307 45,669 3,979 4,406 8.7 9.6
62 Tennessee Total 1,921 2,234,037 192,909 234,166 8.6 10.5
62 Tennessee Private 1,611 1,879,922 119,125 132,888 6.3 7.1
62 Tennessee Public 310 354,115 73,784 101,278 20.8 28.6
62 Tennessee Priv. Construction 100 117,462 17,085 17,085 14.5 14.5
62 Tennessee Priv. Manufacturing 407 467,200 50,974 54,128 10.9 11.6
74 Texas Total 7,577 8,355,912 538,625 650,894 6.4 7.8
74 Texas Private 6,331 7,007,059 293,775 355,776 4.2 5.1
74 Texas Public 1,246 1,348,854 244,850 295,118 18.2 21.9
74 Texas Priv. Construction 430 493,080 26,279 33,184 5.3 6.7
74 Texas Priv. Manufacturing 1,086 1,197,882 113,966 122,843 9.5 10.3
87 Utah Total 2,368 890,902 74,011 86,494 8.3 9.7
87 Utah Private 1,897 717,894 33,810 37,816 4.7 5.3
87 Utah Public 471 173,008 40,200 48,678 23.2 28.1
87 Utah Priv. Construction 141 55,032 5,878 6,725 10.7 12.2
87 Utah Priv. Manufacturing 352 132,597 7,795 7,795 5.9 5.9
13 Vermont Total 1,594 258,092 21,840 25,841 8.5 10.0
13 Vermont Private 1,377 223,687 8,603 9,003 3.8 4.0
13 Vermont Public 217 34,405 13,237 16,838 38.5 48.9
13 Vermont Priv. Construction 67 10,904 649 649 5.9 5.9
13 Vermont Priv. Manufacturing 293 47,248 2,921 2,921 6.2 6.2
54 Virginia Total 2,478 2,962,361 192,650 220,210 6.5 7.4
54 Virginia Private 2,000 2,404,433 119,947 130,504 5.0 5.4
54 Virginia Public 478 557,928 72,702 89,706 13.0 16.1
54 Virginia Priv. Construction 159 193,625 6,555 6,555 3.4 3.4
54 Virginia Priv. Manufacturing 324 395,787 34,614 38,079 8.7 9.6
91 Washington Total 2,083 2,482,525 508,200 563,436 20.5 22.7
91 Washington Private 1,726 2,062,154 298,998 331,297 14.5 16.1
91 Washington Public 357 420,371 209,201 232,139 49.8 55.2
91 Washington Priv. Construction 131 155,905 40,473 42,543 26.0 27.3
91 Washington Priv. Manufacturing 339 408,885 106,870 114,778 26.1 28.1
55 West Virginia Total 1,890 678,280 105,641 112,392 15.6 16.6
55 West Virginia Private 1,517 545,865 67,883 69,715 12.4 12.8
55 West Virginia Public 373 132,415 37,758 42,677 28.5 32.2
55 West Virginia Priv. Construction 99 36,557 8,819 8,819 24.1 24.1
55 West Virginia Priv. Manufacturing 222 78,955 19,387 19,387 24.6 24.6
35 Wisconsin Total 2,517 2,492,851 467,999 499,173 18.8 20.0
35 Wisconsin Private 2,148 2,134,663 265,136 282,423 12.4 13.2
35 Wisconsin Public 369 358,188 202,863 216,749 56.6 60.5
35 Wisconsin Priv. Construction 93 94,023 30,775 30,775 32.7 32.7
35 Wisconsin Priv. Manufacturing 636 634,435 135,479 142,381 21.4 22.4
83 Wyoming Total 1,903 201,707 18,667 22,020 9.3 10.9
83 Wyoming Private 1,406 150,450 9,829 11,024 6.5 7.3
83 Wyoming Public 497 51,257 8,839 10,996 17.2 21.5
83 Wyoming Priv. Construction 98 10,785 440 440 4.1 4.1
83 Wyoming Priv. Manufacturing 102 10,731 1,411 1,627 13.1 15.2
                   
Data Sources: Current Population Survey (CPS) Outgoing Rotation Group (ORG) Earnings Files, 1997. Sample includes
employed wage and salary workers, ages 16 and over. Variable definitions are: State Code=Census state code used
in CPS, Obs=CPS sample size, Employment=wage and salary employment, Members=employed workers who are union
members, Covered=workers covered by a collective bargaining agreement, %Mem=percent of employed workers who
are union members, and %Cov=percent of employed workers who are covered by a collective bargaining agreement.
2002 by Barry T. Hirsch and David A. Macpherson. The use of data requires citation.