Union Membership, Coverage, Density and Employment by State, 1998 (details in table note)
State
Code State Sector Obs Employment Members Covered %Mem %Cov
63 Alabama Total 2,052 1,854,408 180,204 218,353 9.7 11.8
63 Alabama Private 1,703 1,543,010 95,699 115,018 6.2 7.5
63 Alabama Public 349 311,398 84,505 103,335 27.1 33.2
63 Alabama Priv. Construction 115 102,436 8,035 9,781 7.8 9.5
63 Alabama Priv. Manufacturing 426 385,746 53,258 58,034 13.8 15.0
94 Alaska Total 1,782 252,922 51,483 57,833 20.4 22.9
94 Alaska Private 1,255 181,053 18,893 21,652 10.4 12.0
94 Alaska Public 527 71,869 32,590 36,181 45.3 50.3
94 Alaska Priv. Construction 108 15,623 5,456 5,598 34.9 35.8
94 Alaska Priv. Manufacturing 66 9,578 258 414 2.7 4.3
86 Arizona Total 2,257 1,897,618 123,238 146,230 6.5 7.7
86 Arizona Private 1,910 1,613,520 69,391 82,026 4.3 5.1
86 Arizona Public 347 284,098 53,848 64,204 19.0 22.6
86 Arizona Priv. Construction 158 138,279 14,321 15,153 10.4 11.0
86 Arizona Priv. Manufacturing 285 243,192 10,307 13,755 4.2 5.7
71 Arkansas Total 1,943 992,676 61,123 72,105 6.2 7.3
71 Arkansas Private 1,617 826,697 37,278 42,527 4.5 5.1
71 Arkansas Public 326 165,979 23,845 29,578 14.4 17.8
71 Arkansas Priv. Construction 78 41,803 2,656 2,656 6.4 6.4
71 Arkansas Priv. Manufacturing 412 208,127 19,364 22,516 9.3 10.8
93 California Total 12,514 13,337,858 2,154,037 2,407,621 16.1 18.1
93 California Private 10,528 11,220,926 1,094,797 1,192,603 9.8 10.6
93 California Public 1,986 2,116,931 1,059,240 1,215,019 50.0 57.4
93 California Priv. Construction 573 640,650 126,324 127,119 19.7 19.8
93 California Priv. Manufacturing 2,011 2,085,015 191,045 209,735 9.2 10.1
84 Colorado Total 2,501 1,886,728 171,446 189,412 9.1 10.0
84 Colorado Private 2,106 1,587,806 99,451 106,924 6.3 6.7
84 Colorado Public 395 298,922 71,994 82,488 24.1 27.6
84 Colorado Priv. Construction 160 121,869 7,905 7,905 6.5 6.5
84 Colorado Priv. Manufacturing 312 233,266 19,999 19,999 8.6 8.6
16 Connecticut Total 1,737 1,501,390 262,638 271,922 17.5 18.1
16 Connecticut Private 1,519 1,316,776 143,227 148,584 10.9 11.3
16 Connecticut Public 218 184,614 119,411 123,337 64.7 66.8
16 Connecticut Priv. Construction 73 65,759 12,979 12,979 19.7 19.7
16 Connecticut Priv. Manufacturing 358 309,814 51,199 52,765 16.5 17.0
51 Delaware Total 1,737 340,337 46,308 50,184 13.6 14.7
51 Delaware Private 1,487 291,697 26,452 28,875 9.1 9.9
51 Delaware Public 250 48,640 19,856 21,309 40.8 43.8
51 Delaware Priv. Construction 85 16,512 3,156 3,331 19.1 20.2
51 Delaware Priv. Manufacturing 233 44,904 8,990 9,373 20.0 20.9
53 D.C. Total 1,452 222,969 30,138 34,032 13.5 15.3
53 D.C. Private 1,040 160,469 13,443 15,474 8.4 9.6
53 D.C. Public 412 62,500 16,695 18,559 26.7 29.7
53 D.C. Priv. Construction 36 6,113 696 851 11.4 13.9
53 D.C. Priv. Manufacturing 40 6,056 1,143 1,254 18.9 20.7
59 Florida Total 6,968 6,074,021 407,810 538,366 6.7 8.9
59 Florida Private 5,952 5,208,081 164,797 219,785 3.2 4.2
59 Florida Public 1,016 865,941 243,013 318,581 28.1 36.8
59 Florida Priv. Construction 474 422,487 17,547 21,894 4.2 5.2
59 Florida Priv. Manufacturing 626 551,096 29,784 42,466 5.4 7.7
58 Georgia Total 2,859 3,453,272 256,810 289,005 7.4 8.4
58 Georgia Private 2,375 2,883,633 132,401 147,038 4.6 5.1
58 Georgia Public 484 569,639 124,409 141,967 21.8 24.9
58 Georgia Priv. Construction 141 178,479 7,500 8,542 4.2 4.8
58 Georgia Priv. Manufacturing 572 694,863 49,799 54,135 7.2 7.8
95 Hawaii Total 1,514 491,842 130,174 136,442 26.5 27.7
95 Hawaii Private 1,199 390,411 75,670 78,331 19.4 20.1
95 Hawaii Public 315 101,431 54,504 58,112 53.7 57.3
95 Hawaii Priv. Construction 78 25,095 11,021 11,399 43.9 45.4
95 Hawaii Priv. Manufacturing 53 16,872 4,424 4,787 26.2 28.4
82 Idaho Total 2,368 537,393 42,118 55,593 7.8 10.3
82 Idaho Private 1,894 433,754 24,383 29,534 5.6 6.8
82 Idaho Public 474 103,640 17,735 26,059 17.1 25.1
82 Idaho Priv. Construction 153 33,326 3,738 3,978 11.2 11.9
82 Idaho Priv. Manufacturing 425 96,578 9,855 11,489 10.2 11.9
33 Illinois Total 6,820 5,328,144 1,004,366 1,064,218 18.9 20.0
33 Illinois Private 5,929 4,621,139 671,245 705,476 14.5 15.3
33 Illinois Public 891 707,005 333,121 358,742 47.1 50.7
33 Illinois Priv. Construction 303 238,989 106,038 107,607 44.4 45.0
33 Illinois Priv. Manufacturing 1,328 1,055,904 229,783 234,907 21.8 22.2
32 Indiana Total 2,248 2,657,566 431,298 471,580 16.2 17.7
32 Indiana Private 1,985 2,346,672 341,801 359,357 14.6 15.3
32 Indiana Public 263 310,894 89,497 112,223 28.8 36.1
32 Indiana Priv. Construction 113 134,634 49,742 49,742 36.9 36.9
32 Indiana Priv. Manufacturing 614 722,172 185,743 190,216 25.7 26.3
42 Iowa Total 2,242 1,333,263 166,407 197,048 12.5 14.8
42 Iowa Private 1,897 1,132,198 104,475 112,673 9.2 10.0
42 Iowa Public 345 201,065 61,932 84,375 30.8 42.0
42 Iowa Priv. Construction 107 64,068 13,164 14,358 20.5 22.4
42 Iowa Priv. Manufacturing 422 249,489 50,818 53,256 20.4 21.3
47 Kansas Total 2,208 1,178,428 92,699 113,990 7.9 9.7
47 Kansas Private 1,777 955,206 61,709 70,087 6.5 7.3
47 Kansas Public 431 223,222 30,990 43,903 13.9 19.7
47 Kansas Priv. Construction 103 56,939 6,574 7,102 11.5 12.5
47 Kansas Priv. Manufacturing 389 209,799 35,789 39,693 17.1 18.9
61 Kentucky Total 2,032 1,674,676 218,898 248,132 13.1 14.8
61 Kentucky Private 1,713 1,419,007 152,248 159,434 10.7 11.2
61 Kentucky Public 319 255,669 66,650 88,698 26.1 34.7
61 Kentucky Priv. Construction 124 103,942 18,684 19,544 18.0 18.8
61 Kentucky Priv. Manufacturing 376 309,092 63,192 65,493 20.4 21.2
72 Louisiana Total 1,946 1,721,551 134,496 172,098 7.8 10.0
72 Louisiana Private 1,582 1,399,581 79,677 93,862 5.7 6.7
72 Louisiana Public 364 321,970 54,818 78,236 17.0 24.3
72 Louisiana Priv. Construction 103 93,734 8,286 8,286 8.8 8.8
72 Louisiana Priv. Manufacturing 223 202,070 45,982 50,042 22.8 24.8
11 Maine Total 1,683 525,758 66,129 75,117 12.6 14.3
11 Maine Private 1,437 451,183 34,254 35,795 7.6 7.9
11 Maine Public 246 74,575 31,875 39,322 42.7 52.7
11 Maine Priv. Construction 74 23,274 1,022 1,294 4.4 5.6
11 Maine Priv. Manufacturing 319 98,910 23,954 24,198 24.2 24.5
52 Maryland Total 1,860 2,349,678 331,256 378,948 14.1 16.1
52 Maryland Private 1,388 1,748,710 144,580 153,916 8.3 8.8
52 Maryland Public 472 600,967 186,675 225,031 31.1 37.4
52 Maryland Priv. Construction 111 143,049 24,282 24,282 17.0 17.0
52 Maryland Priv. Manufacturing 146 184,236 31,867 34,199 17.3 18.6
14 Massachusetts Total 3,987 2,844,092 453,091 493,691 15.9 17.4
14 Massachusetts Private 3,479 2,488,019 246,174 272,951 9.9 11.0
14 Massachusetts Public 508 356,073 206,917 220,739 58.1 62.0
14 Massachusetts Priv. Construction 158 115,339 32,152 33,473 27.9 29.0
14 Massachusetts Priv. Manufacturing 685 493,903 69,005 73,580 14.0 14.9
34 Michigan Total 5,841 4,409,384 953,790 995,765 21.6 22.6
34 Michigan Private 5,096 3,846,671 643,439 673,420 16.7 17.5
34 Michigan Public 745 562,712 310,351 322,345 55.2 57.3
34 Michigan Priv. Construction 254 196,977 60,383 62,422 30.7 31.7
34 Michigan Priv. Manufacturing 1,497 1,147,089 368,799 375,094 32.2 32.7
41 Minnesota Total 2,532 2,242,169 421,627 443,327 18.8 19.8
41 Minnesota Private 2,129 1,891,172 219,682 227,781 11.6 12.0
41 Minnesota Public 403 350,997 201,945 215,547 57.5 61.4
41 Minnesota Priv. Construction 103 89,381 29,066 29,066 32.5 32.5
41 Minnesota Priv. Manufacturing 454 397,702 56,280 57,189 14.2 14.4
64 Mississippi Total 1,777 1,084,540 61,234 105,571 5.6 9.7
64 Mississippi Private 1,442 881,117 42,089 62,088 4.8 7.0
64 Mississippi Public 335 203,424 19,145 43,483 9.4 21.4
64 Mississippi Priv. Construction 98 61,942 5,361 8,614 8.7 13.9
64 Mississippi Priv. Manufacturing 362 222,533 18,971 24,658 8.5 11.1
43 Missouri Total 1,963 2,448,884 335,979 369,465 13.7 15.1
43 Missouri Private 1,653 2,069,496 248,209 258,304 12.0 12.5
43 Missouri Public 310 379,388 87,769 111,161 23.1 29.3
43 Missouri Priv. Construction 96 120,911 49,130 49,130 40.6 40.6
43 Missouri Priv. Manufacturing 310 389,674 71,827 75,625 18.4 19.4
81 Montana Total 2,112 350,490 48,754 53,455 13.9 15.3
81 Montana Private 1,632 272,436 22,236 24,001 8.2 8.8
81 Montana Public 480 78,053 26,518 29,454 34.0 37.7
81 Montana Priv. Construction 96 16,553 2,698 2,877 16.3 17.4
81 Montana Priv. Manufacturing 162 27,226 4,472 4,623 16.4 17.0
46 Nebraska Total 2,229 750,709 77,248 103,951 10.3 13.8
46 Nebraska Private 1,861 627,706 38,022 54,624 6.1 8.7
46 Nebraska Public 368 123,003 39,226 49,328 31.9 40.1
46 Nebraska Priv. Construction 90 30,716 3,888 3,888 12.7 12.7
46 Nebraska Priv. Manufacturing 282 96,593 14,783 22,949 15.3 23.8
88 Nevada Total 2,098 788,418 133,793 148,784 17.0 18.9
88 Nevada Private 1,819 689,144 96,940 106,571 14.1 15.5
88 Nevada Public 279 99,274 36,853 42,213 37.1 42.5
88 Nevada Priv. Construction 161 61,899 15,702 16,392 25.4 26.5
88 Nevada Priv. Manufacturing 113 43,142 1,193 1,810 2.8 4.2
12 New Hampshire Total 1,754 558,952 61,676 70,538 11.0 12.6
12 New Hampshire Private 1,494 476,829 26,715 28,154 5.6 5.9
12 New Hampshire Public 260 82,123 34,961 42,383 42.6 51.6
12 New Hampshire Priv. Construction 71 23,374 4,780 4,780 20.4 20.4
12 New Hampshire Priv. Manufacturing 393 125,684 9,468 10,361 7.5 8.2
22 New Jersey Total 4,876 3,597,134 792,879 851,004 22.0 23.7
22 New Jersey Private 4,152 3,070,093 469,287 508,466 15.3 16.6
22 New Jersey Public 724 527,041 323,592 342,537 61.4 65.0
22 New Jersey Priv. Construction 193 144,046 48,771 50,187 33.9 34.8
22 New Jersey Priv. Manufacturing 720 534,232 112,831 120,258 21.1 22.5
85 New Mexico Total 2,074 673,601 63,216 78,544 9.4 11.7
85 New Mexico Private 1,575 513,723 33,901 37,215 6.6 7.2
85 New Mexico Public 499 159,878 29,315 41,329 18.3 25.9
85 New Mexico Priv. Construction 116 39,448 4,730 4,730 12.0 12.0
85 New Mexico Priv. Manufacturing 140 45,791 2,755 3,924 6.0 8.6
21 New York Total 9,571 7,482,151 1,899,836 1,994,784 25.4 26.7
21 New York Private 7,759 6,079,126 933,552 998,782 15.4 16.4
21 New York Public 1,812 1,403,025 966,284 996,002 68.9 71.0
21 New York Priv. Construction 349 282,559 83,958 90,890 29.7 32.2
21 New York Priv. Manufacturing 1,207 936,659 182,236 193,319 19.5 20.6
56 North Carolina Total 4,246 3,326,111 139,838 173,067 4.2 5.2
56 North Carolina Private 3,591 2,820,035 78,948 93,417 2.8 3.3
56 North Carolina Public 655 506,075 60,890 79,650 12.0 15.7
56 North Carolina Priv. Construction 231 187,528 725 725 0.4 0.4
56 North Carolina Priv. Manufacturing 1,021 799,705 23,350 26,506 2.9 3.3
44 North Dakota Total 2,094 281,118 25,469 26,941 9.1 9.6
44 North Dakota Private 1,667 225,154 12,463 12,738 5.5 5.7
44 North Dakota Public 427 55,964 13,006 14,202 23.2 25.4
44 North Dakota Priv. Construction 98 13,360 1,314 1,314 9.8 9.8
44 North Dakota Priv. Manufacturing 176 23,671 3,060 3,060 12.9 12.9
31 Ohio Total 6,070 4,902,474 931,996 991,750 19.0 20.2
31 Ohio Private 5,242 4,236,667 615,837 650,040 14.5 15.3
31 Ohio Public 828 665,807 316,160 341,711 47.5 51.3
31 Ohio Priv. Construction 251 206,514 49,660 50,389 24.0 24.4
31 Ohio Priv. Manufacturing 1,331 1,110,572 299,006 308,720 26.9 27.8
73 Oklahoma Total 2,304 1,353,730 116,582 132,770 8.6 9.8
73 Oklahoma Private 1,874 1,103,596 65,491 72,323 5.9 6.6
73 Oklahoma Public 430 250,134 51,090 60,446 20.4 24.2
73 Oklahoma Priv. Construction 110 65,557 8,910 8,910 13.6 13.6
73 Oklahoma Priv. Manufacturing 333 197,591 32,211 34,785 16.3 17.6
92 Oregon Total 1,931 1,435,991 231,872 247,962 16.1 17.3
92 Oregon Private 1,615 1,207,285 110,805 121,991 9.2 10.1
92 Oregon Public 316 228,706 121,067 125,970 52.9 55.1
92 Oregon Priv. Construction 111 84,567 14,622 15,306 17.3 18.1
92 Oregon Priv. Manufacturing 341 257,995 31,367 32,967 12.2 12.8
23 Pennsylvania Total 6,576 5,060,371 827,295 896,018 16.3 17.7
23 Pennsylvania Private 5,760 4,433,622 508,862 547,900 11.5 12.4
23 Pennsylvania Public 816 626,749 318,432 348,118 50.8 55.5
23 Pennsylvania Priv. Construction 273 219,161 58,557 60,277 26.7 27.5
23 Pennsylvania Priv. Manufacturing 1,253 978,591 195,674 201,275 20.0 20.6
15 Rhode Island Total 1,633 426,825 81,144 83,623 19.0 19.6
15 Rhode Island Private 1,410 369,059 41,173 42,680 11.2 11.6
15 Rhode Island Public 223 57,766 39,971 40,943 69.2 70.9
15 Rhode Island Priv. Construction 60 16,186 4,821 4,821 29.8 29.8
15 Rhode Island Priv. Manufacturing 356 93,742 10,086 10,657 10.8 11.4
57 South Carolina Total 1,827 1,716,873 78,092 87,684 4.5 5.1
57 South Carolina Private 1,504 1,419,636 47,017 50,561 3.3 3.6
57 South Carolina Public 323 297,237 31,075 37,122 10.5 12.5
57 South Carolina Priv. Construction 98 93,368 2,221 2,221 2.4 2.4
57 South Carolina Priv. Manufacturing 437 417,028 25,718 27,466 6.2 6.6
45 South Dakota Total 2,147 324,189 20,780 26,024 6.4 8.0
45 South Dakota Private 1,725 258,199 8,864 10,593 3.4 4.1
45 South Dakota Public 422 65,990 11,916 15,431 18.1 23.4
45 South Dakota Priv. Construction 90 13,496 490 490 3.6 3.6
45 South Dakota Priv. Manufacturing 304 46,143 3,460 4,302 7.5 9.3
62 Tennessee Total 1,988 2,325,319 183,259 220,247 7.9 9.5
62 Tennessee Private 1,687 1,975,527 109,103 134,454 5.5 6.8
62 Tennessee Public 301 349,793 74,156 85,793 21.2 24.5
62 Tennessee Priv. Construction 92 108,313 10,012 10,012 9.2 9.2
62 Tennessee Priv. Manufacturing 428 489,175 56,473 60,678 11.5 12.4
74 Texas Total 7,658 8,580,706 503,137 603,368 5.9 7.0
74 Texas Private 6,441 7,250,862 261,177 303,774 3.6 4.2
74 Texas Public 1,217 1,329,844 241,960 299,594 18.2 22.5
74 Texas Priv. Construction 484 558,072 17,260 19,719 3.1 3.5
74 Texas Priv. Manufacturing 1,106 1,250,253 93,915 104,198 7.5 8.3
87 Utah Total 2,349 912,204 61,576 78,331 6.8 8.6
87 Utah Private 1,922 751,267 28,992 35,279 3.9 4.7
87 Utah Public 427 160,937 32,584 43,052 20.2 26.8
87 Utah Priv. Construction 146 59,647 4,856 5,346 8.1 9.0
87 Utah Priv. Manufacturing 315 122,050 6,710 7,005 5.5 5.7
13 Vermont Total 1,623 267,911 25,266 29,371 9.4 11.0
13 Vermont Private 1,407 232,195 11,765 13,985 5.1 6.0
13 Vermont Public 216 35,716 13,501 15,386 37.8 43.1
13 Vermont Priv. Construction 75 12,643 381 381 3.0 3.0
13 Vermont Priv. Manufacturing 269 44,190 2,563 3,347 5.8 7.6
54 Virginia Total 2,530 3,055,236 208,716 232,887 6.8 7.6
54 Virginia Private 2,048 2,484,056 131,249 139,969 5.3 5.6
54 Virginia Public 482 571,180 77,466 92,918 13.6 16.3
54 Virginia Priv. Construction 131 158,382 6,162 6,162 3.9 3.9
54 Virginia Priv. Manufacturing 334 403,443 39,809 44,214 9.9 11.0
91 Washington Total 2,154 2,537,027 537,263 584,753 21.2 23.0
91 Washington Private 1,778 2,095,521 331,845 355,668 15.8 17.0
91 Washington Public 376 441,506 205,418 229,086 46.5 51.9
91 Washington Priv. Construction 123 145,286 39,680 40,861 27.3 28.1
91 Washington Priv. Manufacturing 370 435,975 111,643 123,503 25.6 28.3
55 West Virginia Total 1,754 663,238 83,277 91,632 12.6 13.8
55 West Virginia Private 1,390 528,023 58,536 60,421 11.1 11.4
55 West Virginia Public 364 135,215 24,741 31,211 18.3 23.1
55 West Virginia Priv. Construction 74 28,600 6,645 6,645 23.2 23.2
55 West Virginia Priv. Manufacturing 221 84,321 21,740 21,740 25.8 25.8
35 Wisconsin Total 2,516 2,513,021 469,953 491,697 18.7 19.6
35 Wisconsin Private 2,142 2,146,310 266,952 274,030 12.4 12.8
35 Wisconsin Public 374 366,711 203,001 217,667 55.4 59.4
35 Wisconsin Priv. Construction 111 113,966 38,939 38,939 34.2 34.2
35 Wisconsin Priv. Manufacturing 621 619,672 139,588 142,518 22.5 23.0
83 Wyoming Total 2,053 204,547 19,698 23,098 9.6 11.3
83 Wyoming Private 1,542 154,848 10,897 12,478 7.0 8.1
83 Wyoming Public 511 49,700 8,800 10,621 17.7 21.4
83 Wyoming Priv. Construction 113 11,639 830 932 7.1 8.0
83 Wyoming Priv. Manufacturing 114 11,413 1,655 1,951 14.5 17.1
                   
Data Sources: Current Population Survey (CPS) Outgoing Rotation Group (ORG) Earnings Files, 1998. Sample includes
employed wage and salary workers, ages 16 and over. Variable definitions are: State Code=Census state code used
in CPS, Obs=CPS sample size, Employment=wage and salary employment, Members=employed workers who are union
members, Covered=workers covered by a collective bargaining agreement, %Mem=percent of employed workers who
are union members, and %Cov=percent of employed workers who are covered by a collective bargaining agreement.
2002 by Barry T. Hirsch and David A. Macpherson. The use of data requires citation.