Union Membership, Coverage, Density and Employment by State, 1999 (details in table note)
State
Code State Sector Obs Employment Members Covered %Mem %Cov
63 Alabama Total 2,092 1,832,763 201,017 224,910 11.0 12.3
63 Alabama Private 1,755 1,533,547 107,481 116,024 7.0 7.6
63 Alabama Public 337 299,215 93,536 108,886 31.3 36.4
63 Alabama Priv. Construction 128 114,554 10,504 11,297 9.2 9.9
63 Alabama Priv. Manufacturing 455 399,882 65,973 69,713 16.5 17.4
94 Alaska Total 1,861 250,540 51,025 59,181 20.4 23.6
94 Alaska Private 1,281 173,773 20,491 24,268 11.8 14.0
94 Alaska Public 580 76,767 30,534 34,912 39.8 45.5
94 Alaska Priv. Construction 106 14,424 4,919 4,919 34.1 34.1
94 Alaska Priv. Manufacturing 60 8,188 887 1,104 10.8 13.5
86 Arizona Total 2,437 2,047,172 137,321 168,098 6.7 8.2
86 Arizona Private 2,050 1,727,331 75,893 93,239 4.4 5.4
86 Arizona Public 387 319,841 61,428 74,859 19.2 23.4
86 Arizona Priv. Construction 175 147,007 10,809 10,809 7.4 7.4
86 Arizona Priv. Manufacturing 292 244,925 7,501 9,261 3.1 3.8
71 Arkansas Total 1,995 1,058,120 78,847 90,573 7.5 8.6
71 Arkansas Private 1,646 873,848 45,499 53,695 5.2 6.1
71 Arkansas Public 349 184,272 33,348 36,878 18.1 20.0
71 Arkansas Priv. Construction 105 55,501 5,224 5,224 9.4 9.4
71 Arkansas Priv. Manufacturing 390 206,122 21,012 25,881 10.2 12.6
93 California Total 12,773 13,811,450 2,286,037 2,526,548 16.6 18.3
93 California Private 10,780 11,623,770 1,182,624 1,282,508 10.2 11.0
93 California Public 1,993 2,187,681 1,103,413 1,244,040 50.4 56.9
93 California Priv. Construction 644 723,046 183,650 184,431 25.4 25.5
93 California Priv. Manufacturing 1,971 2,064,470 176,045 198,033 8.5 9.6
84 Colorado Total 2,591 1,927,010 180,610 199,464 9.4 10.4
84 Colorado Private 2,142 1,596,588 88,339 95,520 5.5 6.0
84 Colorado Public 449 330,422 92,271 103,945 27.9 31.5
84 Colorado Priv. Construction 149 114,328 10,433 10,433 9.1 9.1
84 Colorado Priv. Manufacturing 332 247,970 16,403 18,650 6.6 7.5
16 Connecticut Total 1,691 1,454,636 264,377 278,921 18.2 19.2
16 Connecticut Private 1,436 1,239,026 123,520 131,889 10.0 10.6
16 Connecticut Public 255 215,610 140,857 147,033 65.3 68.2
16 Connecticut Priv. Construction 63 57,023 9,236 10,100 16.2 17.7
16 Connecticut Priv. Manufacturing 336 290,014 43,822 44,703 15.1 15.4
51 Delaware Total 1,715 338,675 46,805 52,658 13.8 15.5
51 Delaware Private 1,460 289,258 29,557 32,551 10.2 11.3
51 Delaware Public 255 49,417 17,248 20,107 34.9 40.7
51 Delaware Priv. Construction 98 19,498 2,754 3,131 14.1 16.1
51 Delaware Priv. Manufacturing 257 50,735 11,564 12,163 22.8 24.0
53 D.C. Total 1,579 244,888 32,122 37,794 13.1 15.4
53 D.C. Private 1,134 177,769 15,720 17,986 8.8 10.1
53 D.C. Public 445 67,119 16,402 19,809 24.4 29.5
53 D.C. Priv. Construction 47 7,962 1,803 1,803 22.7 22.7
53 D.C. Priv. Manufacturing 53 7,795 1,722 1,899 22.1 24.4
59 Florida Total 7,204 6,262,809 409,807 543,388 6.5 8.7
59 Florida Private 6,150 5,363,460 180,971 232,336 3.4 4.3
59 Florida Public 1,054 899,349 228,836 311,052 25.4 34.6
59 Florida Priv. Construction 492 433,527 19,080 23,880 4.4 5.5
59 Florida Priv. Manufacturing 633 549,264 20,560 27,011 3.7 4.9
58 Georgia Total 2,743 3,483,475 252,591 312,960 7.3 9.0
58 Georgia Private 2,312 2,944,263 168,217 201,540 5.7 6.8
58 Georgia Public 431 539,212 84,375 111,420 15.6 20.7
58 Georgia Priv. Construction 128 166,681 11,662 14,307 7.0 8.6
58 Georgia Priv. Manufacturing 492 616,600 64,260 75,426 10.4 12.2
95 Hawaii Total 1,523 494,361 114,482 123,643 23.2 25.0
95 Hawaii Private 1,177 382,755 53,234 58,010 13.9 15.2
95 Hawaii Public 346 111,605 61,248 65,633 54.9 58.8
95 Hawaii Priv. Construction 68 22,669 8,193 8,829 36.1 38.9
95 Hawaii Priv. Manufacturing 59 18,167 4,510 4,510 24.8 24.8
82 Idaho Total 2,296 527,066 48,389 59,363 9.2 11.3
82 Idaho Private 1,859 432,893 26,955 33,235 6.2 7.7
82 Idaho Public 437 94,173 21,434 26,128 22.8 27.7
82 Idaho Priv. Construction 145 33,559 4,981 4,981 14.8 14.8
82 Idaho Priv. Manufacturing 399 91,715 9,640 12,084 10.5 13.2
33 Illinois Total 7,034 5,513,503 993,279 1,053,732 18.0 19.1
33 Illinois Private 6,091 4,774,372 664,141 704,365 13.9 14.8
33 Illinois Public 943 739,131 329,138 349,367 44.5 47.3
33 Illinois Priv. Construction 318 254,497 126,626 128,221 49.8 50.4
33 Illinois Priv. Manufacturing 1,221 973,963 211,377 218,990 21.7 22.5
32 Indiana Total 2,231 2,704,404 424,068 453,868 15.7 16.8
32 Indiana Private 1,940 2,353,767 327,715 337,661 13.9 14.3
32 Indiana Public 291 350,638 96,353 116,208 27.5 33.1
32 Indiana Priv. Construction 108 134,357 47,923 49,278 35.7 36.7
32 Indiana Priv. Manufacturing 608 729,506 188,150 191,902 25.8 26.3
42 Iowa Total 2,189 1,334,413 184,419 208,840 13.8 15.7
42 Iowa Private 1,830 1,119,380 111,520 118,149 10.0 10.6
42 Iowa Public 359 215,033 72,899 90,691 33.9 42.2
42 Iowa Priv. Construction 97 63,337 9,113 9,113 14.4 14.4
42 Iowa Priv. Manufacturing 414 252,641 65,210 66,326 25.8 26.3
47 Kansas Total 2,212 1,224,447 119,175 140,644 9.7 11.5
47 Kansas Private 1,828 1,015,223 91,233 102,218 9.0 10.1
47 Kansas Public 384 209,224 27,942 38,426 13.4 18.4
47 Kansas Priv. Construction 97 54,495 10,488 10,967 19.2 20.1
47 Kansas Priv. Manufacturing 381 211,231 49,985 55,184 23.7 26.1
61 Kentucky Total 2,058 1,655,904 192,074 213,396 11.6 12.9
61 Kentucky Private 1,719 1,392,038 140,357 147,968 10.1 10.6
61 Kentucky Public 339 263,866 51,718 65,428 19.6 24.8
61 Kentucky Priv. Construction 128 107,887 18,776 18,776 17.4 17.4
61 Kentucky Priv. Manufacturing 354 289,511 60,262 60,262 20.8 20.8
72 Louisiana Total 2,039 1,794,900 144,946 179,504 8.1 10.0
72 Louisiana Private 1,661 1,468,762 90,934 103,672 6.2 7.1
72 Louisiana Public 378 326,137 54,012 75,832 16.6 23.3
72 Louisiana Priv. Construction 115 101,431 16,241 16,241 16.0 16.0
72 Louisiana Priv. Manufacturing 234 210,331 45,193 45,746 21.5 21.7
11 Maine Total 1,722 544,115 83,961 93,080 15.4 17.1
11 Maine Private 1,446 457,192 41,792 43,654 9.1 9.5
11 Maine Public 276 86,923 42,169 49,426 48.5 56.9
11 Maine Priv. Construction 81 26,588 2,937 3,278 11.0 12.3
11 Maine Priv. Manufacturing 314 100,784 27,638 27,638 27.4 27.4
52 Maryland Total 1,918 2,444,147 366,584 438,152 15.0 17.9
52 Maryland Private 1,430 1,817,739 160,291 177,325 8.8 9.8
52 Maryland Public 488 626,408 206,293 260,827 32.9 41.6
52 Maryland Priv. Construction 97 122,493 12,476 12,476 10.2 10.2
52 Maryland Priv. Manufacturing 158 198,129 41,502 43,511 20.9 22.0
14 Massachusetts Total 4,063 2,875,054 465,082 492,012 16.2 17.1
14 Massachusetts Private 3,482 2,474,338 255,835 270,296 10.3 10.9
14 Massachusetts Public 581 400,716 209,247 221,717 52.2 55.3
14 Massachusetts Priv. Construction 164 120,737 33,685 35,689 27.9 29.6
14 Massachusetts Priv. Manufacturing 633 447,618 65,128 67,363 14.5 15.0
34 Michigan Total 5,900 4,490,035 963,238 1,009,352 21.5 22.5
34 Michigan Private 5,149 3,923,239 666,451 699,249 17.0 17.8
34 Michigan Public 751 566,796 296,786 310,103 52.4 54.7
34 Michigan Priv. Construction 274 214,436 68,943 69,634 32.2 32.5
34 Michigan Priv. Manufacturing 1,468 1,122,705 338,891 347,509 30.2 31.0
41 Minnesota Total 2,548 2,301,752 443,899 471,161 19.3 20.5
41 Minnesota Private 2,129 1,932,964 247,154 260,214 12.8 13.5
41 Minnesota Public 419 368,788 196,744 210,947 53.3 57.2
41 Minnesota Priv. Construction 121 110,106 42,002 42,002 38.1 38.1
41 Minnesota Priv. Manufacturing 487 440,096 61,689 64,300 14.0 14.6
64 Mississippi Total 1,728 1,085,999 67,188 93,523 6.2 8.6
64 Mississippi Private 1,421 897,767 43,546 51,262 4.9 5.7
64 Mississippi Public 307 188,232 23,642 42,260 12.6 22.5
64 Mississippi Priv. Construction 98 61,496 6,622 6,622 10.8 10.8
64 Mississippi Priv. Manufacturing 349 228,539 20,958 26,285 9.2 11.5
43 Missouri Total 1,936 2,458,162 353,229 375,754 14.4 15.3
43 Missouri Private 1,618 2,061,185 269,894 277,428 13.1 13.5
43 Missouri Public 318 396,976 83,335 98,326 21.0 24.8
43 Missouri Priv. Construction 117 147,012 49,844 49,844 33.9 33.9
43 Missouri Priv. Manufacturing 295 368,282 71,256 73,601 19.3 20.0
81 Montana Total 2,198 362,102 55,436 62,203 15.3 17.2
81 Montana Private 1,706 281,636 27,755 31,157 9.9 11.1
81 Montana Public 492 80,465 27,682 31,045 34.4 38.6
81 Montana Priv. Construction 111 19,259 3,676 4,161 19.1 21.6
81 Montana Priv. Manufacturing 183 28,917 5,148 5,148 17.8 17.8
46 Nebraska Total 2,240 748,138 65,568 91,535 8.8 12.2
46 Nebraska Private 1,859 623,074 29,499 43,086 4.7 6.9
46 Nebraska Public 381 125,063 36,069 48,448 28.8 38.7
46 Nebraska Priv. Construction 93 30,848 3,639 3,884 11.8 12.6
46 Nebraska Priv. Manufacturing 319 107,507 11,434 17,811 10.6 16.6
88 Nevada Total 2,297 823,272 160,838 172,248 19.5 20.9
88 Nevada Private 1,971 710,636 113,439 119,601 16.0 16.8
88 Nevada Public 326 112,636 47,399 52,647 42.1 46.7
88 Nevada Priv. Construction 207 74,983 16,609 16,944 22.1 22.6
88 Nevada Priv. Manufacturing 107 39,014 3,825 4,192 9.8 10.7
12 New Hampshire Total 1,806 565,330 60,019 68,995 10.6 12.2
12 New Hampshire Private 1,541 485,461 26,762 29,738 5.5 6.1
12 New Hampshire Public 265 79,869 33,257 39,257 41.6 49.2
12 New Hampshire Priv. Construction 88 29,010 4,035 4,665 13.9 16.1
12 New Hampshire Priv. Manufacturing 335 105,168 7,168 8,082 6.8 7.7
22 New Jersey Total 4,919 3,608,786 740,617 806,934 20.5 22.4
22 New Jersey Private 4,140 3,049,892 407,903 450,970 13.4 14.8
22 New Jersey Public 779 558,894 332,713 355,964 59.5 63.7
22 New Jersey Priv. Construction 212 158,390 46,012 47,644 29.0 30.1
22 New Jersey Priv. Manufacturing 697 507,280 80,188 88,478 15.8 17.4
85 New Mexico Total 2,042 659,968 65,293 78,176 9.9 11.8
85 New Mexico Private 1,527 497,162 33,004 35,369 6.6 7.1
85 New Mexico Public 515 162,807 32,290 42,806 19.8 26.3
85 New Mexico Priv. Construction 132 46,967 5,602 5,908 11.9 12.6
85 New Mexico Priv. Manufacturing 121 38,577 3,172 3,172 8.2 8.2
21 New York Total 9,370 7,490,445 1,896,907 1,986,387 25.3 26.5
21 New York Private 7,605 6,102,086 922,508 981,913 15.1 16.1
21 New York Public 1,765 1,388,359 974,399 1,004,475 70.2 72.3
21 New York Priv. Construction 344 279,027 89,069 91,494 31.9 32.8
21 New York Priv. Manufacturing 1,190 947,375 172,582 181,906 18.2 19.2
56 North Carolina Total 4,217 3,359,146 108,864 131,920 3.2 3.9
56 North Carolina Private 3,546 2,836,892 54,990 65,766 1.9 2.3
56 North Carolina Public 671 522,253 53,875 66,154 10.3 12.7
56 North Carolina Priv. Construction 239 195,846 1,895 1,895 1.0 1.0
56 North Carolina Priv. Manufacturing 1,027 827,273 13,616 20,870 1.6 2.5
44 North Dakota Total 2,048 267,652 24,792 27,012 9.3 10.1
44 North Dakota Private 1,577 207,703 11,451 11,714 5.5 5.6
44 North Dakota Public 471 59,949 13,340 15,298 22.3 25.5
44 North Dakota Priv. Construction 98 13,248 1,121 1,121 8.5 8.5
44 North Dakota Priv. Manufacturing 171 22,510 3,408 3,546 15.1 15.8
31 Ohio Total 6,262 5,008,050 896,220 955,498 17.9 19.1
31 Ohio Private 5,420 4,347,211 581,292 608,886 13.4 14.0
31 Ohio Public 842 660,839 314,928 346,611 47.7 52.5
31 Ohio Priv. Construction 274 226,338 57,781 59,690 25.5 26.4
31 Ohio Priv. Manufacturing 1,317 1,082,480 304,452 311,739 28.1 28.8
73 Oklahoma Total 2,299 1,403,407 123,565 139,963 8.8 10.0
73 Oklahoma Private 1,820 1,118,040 58,627 62,450 5.2 5.6
73 Oklahoma Public 479 285,367 64,938 77,513 22.8 27.2
73 Oklahoma Priv. Construction 97 61,310 2,540 2,540 4.1 4.1
73 Oklahoma Priv. Manufacturing 339 207,187 27,036 27,648 13.0 13.3
92 Oregon Total 1,950 1,419,512 216,407 234,180 15.2 16.5
92 Oregon Private 1,660 1,215,491 114,483 121,801 9.4 10.0
92 Oregon Public 290 204,021 101,925 112,378 50.0 55.1
92 Oregon Priv. Construction 93 69,000 10,612 11,482 15.4 16.6
92 Oregon Priv. Manufacturing 348 256,471 31,246 32,842 12.2 12.8
23 Pennsylvania Total 6,716 5,152,360 895,861 959,654 17.4 18.6
23 Pennsylvania Private 5,864 4,493,181 534,045 569,588 11.9 12.7
23 Pennsylvania Public 852 659,178 361,816 390,065 54.9 59.2
23 Pennsylvania Priv. Construction 274 215,514 61,219 64,738 28.4 30.0
23 Pennsylvania Priv. Manufacturing 1,207 934,544 198,220 206,038 21.2 22.0
15 Rhode Island Total 1,743 433,328 76,810 81,489 17.7 18.8
15 Rhode Island Private 1,498 372,569 37,676 40,436 10.1 10.9
15 Rhode Island Public 245 60,760 39,134 41,053 64.4 67.6
15 Rhode Island Priv. Construction 60 15,200 3,405 3,405 22.4 22.4
15 Rhode Island Priv. Manufacturing 337 81,660 10,890 11,704 13.3 14.3
57 South Carolina Total 1,730 1,716,174 60,862 64,927 3.5 3.8
57 South Carolina Private 1,408 1,398,549 39,570 41,309 2.8 3.0
57 South Carolina Public 322 317,624 21,292 23,617 6.7 7.4
57 South Carolina Priv. Construction 95 96,803 956 956 1.0 1.0
57 South Carolina Priv. Manufacturing 391 389,989 28,380 29,255 7.3 7.5
45 South Dakota Total 2,165 331,594 19,899 25,915 6.0 7.8
45 South Dakota Private 1,764 270,989 8,367 9,809 3.1 3.6
45 South Dakota Public 401 60,605 11,532 16,106 19.0 26.6
45 South Dakota Priv. Construction 100 15,994 933 1,076 5.8 6.7
45 South Dakota Priv. Manufacturing 282 44,010 3,258 3,543 7.4 8.1
62 Tennessee Total 2,160 2,411,317 181,173 212,816 7.5 8.8
62 Tennessee Private 1,806 2,016,658 108,834 125,193 5.4 6.2
62 Tennessee Public 354 394,659 72,339 87,624 18.3 22.2
62 Tennessee Priv. Construction 110 122,438 10,235 10,235 8.4 8.4
62 Tennessee Priv. Manufacturing 449 488,180 47,717 54,292 9.8 11.1
74 Texas Total 7,915 8,725,002 519,838 610,927 6.0 7.0
74 Texas Private 6,685 7,410,991 282,202 320,679 3.8 4.3
74 Texas Public 1,230 1,314,011 237,635 290,248 18.1 22.1
74 Texas Priv. Construction 487 547,758 26,940 32,337 4.9 5.9
74 Texas Priv. Manufacturing 1,067 1,170,930 93,888 101,881 8.0 8.7
87 Utah Total 2,442 935,395 60,069 70,070 6.4 7.5
87 Utah Private 2,017 778,320 25,111 30,424 3.2 3.9
87 Utah Public 425 157,074 34,958 39,646 22.3 25.2
87 Utah Priv. Construction 149 59,054 4,150 4,946 7.0 8.4
87 Utah Priv. Manufacturing 322 125,950 4,617 6,101 3.7 4.8
13 Vermont Total 1,618 272,539 26,364 29,477 9.7 10.8
13 Vermont Private 1,404 237,267 10,362 11,496 4.4 4.8
13 Vermont Public 214 35,272 16,002 17,981 45.4 51.0
13 Vermont Priv. Construction 82 14,284 357 357 2.5 2.5
13 Vermont Priv. Manufacturing 278 47,368 2,610 2,891 5.5 6.1
54 Virginia Total 2,594 3,106,759 203,713 249,189 6.6 8.0
54 Virginia Private 2,093 2,518,850 126,956 148,279 5.0 5.9
54 Virginia Public 501 587,910 76,757 100,911 13.1 17.2
54 Virginia Priv. Construction 146 173,975 10,562 10,562 6.1 6.1
54 Virginia Priv. Manufacturing 344 407,677 42,690 47,129 10.5 11.6
91 Washington Total 2,156 2,584,664 534,811 609,546 20.7 23.6
91 Washington Private 1,773 2,130,576 314,659 355,281 14.8 16.7
91 Washington Public 383 454,088 220,151 254,265 48.5 56.0
91 Washington Priv. Construction 128 157,362 43,314 43,314 27.5 27.5
91 Washington Priv. Manufacturing 322 378,186 94,493 104,395 25.0 27.6
55 West Virginia Total 1,887 702,106 106,535 113,346 15.2 16.1
55 West Virginia Private 1,547 580,564 71,996 72,775 12.4 12.5
55 West Virginia Public 340 121,542 34,539 40,572 28.4 33.4
55 West Virginia Priv. Construction 98 37,175 11,853 11,853 31.9 31.9
55 West Virginia Priv. Manufacturing 234 87,660 25,329 25,742 28.9 29.4
35 Wisconsin Total 2,462 2,504,666 452,449 476,424 18.1 19.0
35 Wisconsin Private 2,093 2,133,236 237,455 250,295 11.1 11.7
35 Wisconsin Public 369 371,430 214,994 226,129 57.9 60.9
35 Wisconsin Priv. Construction 122 125,042 40,210 41,284 32.2 33.0
35 Wisconsin Priv. Manufacturing 608 617,626 116,384 120,310 18.8 19.5
83 Wyoming Total 2,064 211,988 19,213 22,924 9.1 10.8
83 Wyoming Private 1,567 162,102 10,280 11,689 6.3 7.2
83 Wyoming Public 497 49,886 8,933 11,235 17.9 22.5
83 Wyoming Priv. Construction 152 16,083 1,242 1,242 7.7 7.7
83 Wyoming Priv. Manufacturing 101 10,173 1,138 1,285 11.2 12.6
                   
Data Sources: Current Population Survey (CPS) Outgoing Rotation Group (ORG) Earnings Files, 1999. Sample includes
employed wage and salary workers, ages 16 and over. Variable definitions are: State Code=Census state code used
in CPS, Obs=CPS sample size, Employment=wage and salary employment, Members=employed workers who are union
members, Covered=workers covered by a collective bargaining agreement, %Mem=percent of employed workers who
are union members, and %Cov=percent of employed workers who are covered by a collective bargaining agreement.
2002 by Barry T. Hirsch and David A. Macpherson. The use of data requires citation.