Union Membership, Coverage, Density and Employment by State, 2000 (details in table note)
State
Code State Sector Obs Employment Members Covered %Mem %Cov
63 Alabama Total 2,254 1,877,929 180,838 197,564 9.6 10.5
63 Alabama Private 1,890 1,576,418 91,518 98,643 5.8 6.3
63 Alabama Public 364 301,512 89,320 98,922 29.6 32.8
63 Alabama Priv. Construction 118 98,430 5,123 5,123 5.2 5.2
63 Alabama Priv. Manufacturing 442 371,759 53,443 55,151 14.4 14.8
94 Alaska Total 1,929 259,398 56,848 64,273 21.9 24.8
94 Alaska Private 1,338 181,999 23,322 26,742 12.8 14.7
94 Alaska Public 591 77,400 33,526 37,531 43.3 48.5
94 Alaska Priv. Construction 112 15,228 3,154 3,732 20.7 24.5
94 Alaska Priv. Manufacturing 73 9,145 1,082 1,082 11.8 11.8
86 Arizona Total 2,483 2,014,558 129,667 147,849 6.4 7.3
86 Arizona Private 2,088 1,690,788 71,545 82,714 4.2 4.9
86 Arizona Public 395 323,771 58,122 65,135 18.0 20.1
86 Arizona Priv. Construction 196 158,538 8,616 11,571 5.4 7.3
86 Arizona Priv. Manufacturing 291 236,200 12,283 12,283 5.2 5.2
71 Arkansas Total 2,034 1,052,110 61,475 70,933 5.8 6.7
71 Arkansas Private 1,696 871,574 35,135 42,599 4.0 4.9
71 Arkansas Public 338 180,536 26,340 28,334 14.6 15.7
71 Arkansas Priv. Construction 96 51,439 4,679 4,679 9.1 9.1
71 Arkansas Priv. Manufacturing 447 226,885 10,562 14,472 4.7 6.4
93 California Total 13,139 14,358,632 2,295,130 2,545,979 16.0 17.7
93 California Private 11,148 12,141,328 1,180,230 1,293,052 9.7 10.7
93 California Public 1,991 2,217,304 1,114,900 1,252,927 50.3 56.5
93 California Priv. Construction 670 738,760 176,288 183,577 23.9 24.8
93 California Priv. Manufacturing 2,067 2,207,441 163,471 181,582 7.4 8.2
84 Colorado Total 2,419 1,923,096 173,177 192,999 9.0 10.0
84 Colorado Private 2,045 1,630,994 97,934 102,896 6.0 6.3
84 Colorado Public 374 292,102 75,243 90,103 25.8 30.8
84 Colorado Priv. Construction 170 137,164 9,271 9,271 6.8 6.8
84 Colorado Priv. Manufacturing 296 230,790 31,060 33,344 13.5 14.4
16 Connecticut Total 1,756 1,508,255 245,797 262,459 16.3 17.4
16 Connecticut Private 1,521 1,312,980 123,988 134,347 9.4 10.2
16 Connecticut Public 235 195,275 121,809 128,111 62.4 65.6
16 Connecticut Priv. Construction 66 58,180 12,930 12,930 22.2 22.2
16 Connecticut Priv. Manufacturing 334 287,106 44,194 45,952 15.4 16.0
51 Delaware Total 1,788 353,486 46,926 51,693 13.3 14.6
51 Delaware Private 1,527 301,984 26,881 28,930 8.9 9.6
51 Delaware Public 261 51,502 20,046 22,763 38.9 44.2
51 Delaware Priv. Construction 103 20,659 2,022 2,236 9.8 10.8
51 Delaware Priv. Manufacturing 275 53,653 10,615 11,089 19.8 20.7
53 D.C. Total 1,614 243,720 35,871 40,212 14.7 16.5
53 D.C. Private 1,157 175,346 16,698 18,856 9.5 10.8
53 D.C. Public 457 68,373 19,174 21,356 28.0 31.2
53 D.C. Priv. Construction 51 7,861 1,484 1,484 18.9 18.9
53 D.C. Priv. Manufacturing 44 6,558 971 1,384 14.8 21.1
59 Florida Total 7,495 6,398,738 433,617 553,599 6.8 8.7
59 Florida Private 6,464 5,519,493 182,695 232,794 3.3 4.2
59 Florida Public 1,031 879,244 250,922 320,805 28.5 36.5
59 Florida Priv. Construction 506 431,537 20,338 22,678 4.7 5.3
59 Florida Priv. Manufacturing 693 596,382 25,889 31,691 4.3 5.3
58 Georgia Total 2,706 3,632,439 228,134 266,991 6.3 7.4
58 Georgia Private 2,304 3,104,326 142,857 159,013 4.6 5.1
58 Georgia Public 402 528,113 85,277 107,978 16.1 20.4
58 Georgia Priv. Construction 158 213,171 18,731 18,731 8.8 8.8
58 Georgia Priv. Manufacturing 458 614,027 58,076 60,441 9.5 9.8
95 Hawaii Total 1,586 497,093 123,519 129,074 24.8 26.0
95 Hawaii Private 1,234 386,789 55,514 58,769 14.4 15.2
95 Hawaii Public 352 110,304 68,005 70,305 61.7 63.7
95 Hawaii Priv. Construction 65 19,423 6,024 6,801 31.0 35.0
95 Hawaii Priv. Manufacturing 68 20,802 2,423 2,710 11.6 13.0
82 Idaho Total 2,299 533,240 40,662 48,045 7.6 9.0
82 Idaho Private 1,861 438,636 24,246 27,015 5.5 6.2
82 Idaho Public 438 94,604 16,416 21,031 17.4 22.2
82 Idaho Priv. Construction 162 38,540 3,106 3,373 8.1 8.8
82 Idaho Priv. Manufacturing 362 83,373 7,703 8,295 9.2 9.9
33 Illinois Total 7,176 5,639,282 1,046,345 1,100,589 18.6 19.5
33 Illinois Private 6,218 4,875,892 688,023 724,496 14.1 14.9
33 Illinois Public 958 763,390 358,322 376,093 46.9 49.3
33 Illinois Priv. Construction 359 286,618 131,950 133,555 46.0 46.6
33 Illinois Priv. Manufacturing 1,246 988,138 200,720 209,182 20.3 21.2
32 Indiana Total 2,271 2,687,300 418,356 460,618 15.6 17.1
32 Indiana Private 1,962 2,328,429 305,230 329,457 13.1 14.1
32 Indiana Public 309 358,871 113,125 131,161 31.5 36.5
32 Indiana Priv. Construction 109 130,468 42,119 43,204 32.3 33.1
32 Indiana Priv. Manufacturing 620 731,835 161,897 168,136 22.1 23.0
42 Iowa Total 2,214 1,333,200 181,795 215,101 13.6 16.1
42 Iowa Private 1,844 1,113,629 116,907 126,708 10.5 11.4
42 Iowa Public 370 219,571 64,888 88,394 29.6 40.3
42 Iowa Priv. Construction 119 74,769 12,852 12,852 17.2 17.2
42 Iowa Priv. Manufacturing 436 263,206 63,109 66,577 24.0 25.3
47 Kansas Total 2,225 1,200,392 108,543 134,524 9.0 11.2
47 Kansas Private 1,794 971,664 78,127 90,547 8.0 9.3
47 Kansas Public 431 228,728 30,417 43,977 13.3 19.2
47 Kansas Priv. Construction 125 69,585 12,557 12,557 18.0 18.0
47 Kansas Priv. Manufacturing 344 185,864 35,750 43,267 19.2 23.3
61 Kentucky Total 2,079 1,729,015 208,022 234,550 12.0 13.6
61 Kentucky Private 1,734 1,444,751 145,366 161,351 10.1 11.2
61 Kentucky Public 345 284,264 62,655 73,199 22.0 25.8
61 Kentucky Priv. Construction 120 101,423 18,122 19,865 17.9 19.6
61 Kentucky Priv. Manufacturing 342 284,039 66,380 68,184 23.4 24.0
72 Louisiana Total 1,866 1,710,555 121,927 154,795 7.1 9.0
72 Louisiana Private 1,524 1,403,481 76,543 88,637 5.5 6.3
72 Louisiana Public 342 307,075 45,384 66,157 14.8 21.5
72 Louisiana Priv. Construction 130 121,292 14,517 14,517 12.0 12.0
72 Louisiana Priv. Manufacturing 178 162,107 25,086 27,977 15.5 17.3
11 Maine Total 1,727 556,154 78,079 92,208 14.0 16.6
11 Maine Private 1,451 469,040 37,362 42,967 8.0 9.2
11 Maine Public 276 87,114 40,717 49,241 46.7 56.5
11 Maine Priv. Construction 97 32,630 3,712 4,452 11.4 13.6
11 Maine Priv. Manufacturing 264 83,867 18,975 20,451 22.6 24.4
52 Maryland Total 1,949 2,423,336 353,326 405,521 14.6 16.7
52 Maryland Private 1,495 1,855,546 144,762 165,204 7.8 8.9
52 Maryland Public 454 567,791 208,564 240,317 36.7 42.3
52 Maryland Priv. Construction 118 145,282 13,368 15,754 9.2 10.8
52 Maryland Priv. Manufacturing 173 210,391 39,635 43,365 18.8 20.6
14 Massachusetts Total 3,910 2,841,364 406,281 444,874 14.3 15.7
14 Massachusetts Private 3,370 2,459,284 194,567 218,492 7.9 8.9
14 Massachusetts Public 540 382,080 211,714 226,381 55.4 59.2
14 Massachusetts Priv. Construction 182 135,683 29,258 29,951 21.6 22.1
14 Massachusetts Priv. Manufacturing 572 415,314 36,312 39,877 8.7 9.6
34 Michigan Total 5,850 4,513,104 938,289 985,313 20.8 21.8
34 Michigan Private 5,078 3,916,244 616,784 646,862 15.7 16.5
34 Michigan Public 772 596,860 321,504 338,450 53.9 56.7
34 Michigan Priv. Construction 286 222,960 70,906 71,816 31.8 32.2
34 Michigan Priv. Manufacturing 1,400 1,079,490 311,241 319,346 28.8 29.6
41 Minnesota Total 2,569 2,306,651 419,010 434,261 18.2 18.8
41 Minnesota Private 2,196 1,982,361 244,778 257,469 12.3 13.0
41 Minnesota Public 373 324,290 174,232 176,792 53.7 54.5
41 Minnesota Priv. Construction 138 125,753 40,854 41,971 32.5 33.4
41 Minnesota Priv. Manufacturing 460 407,841 56,662 57,505 13.9 14.1
64 Mississippi Total 1,706 1,120,102 67,713 104,276 6.0 9.3
64 Mississippi Private 1,397 925,543 50,280 62,665 5.4 6.8
64 Mississippi Public 309 194,559 17,433 41,611 9.0 21.4
64 Mississippi Priv. Construction 65 41,507 4,677 4,677 11.3 11.3
64 Mississippi Priv. Manufacturing 349 235,751 29,720 34,092 12.6 14.5
43 Missouri Total 2,110 2,567,182 337,932 365,305 13.2 14.2
43 Missouri Private 1,799 2,190,134 263,935 273,606 12.1 12.5
43 Missouri Public 311 377,048 73,997 91,699 19.6 24.3
43 Missouri Priv. Construction 128 156,787 64,257 64,257 41.0 41.0
43 Missouri Priv. Manufacturing 311 374,145 81,577 82,887 21.8 22.2
81 Montana Total 2,083 368,533 51,221 57,781 13.9 15.7
81 Montana Private 1,615 286,765 23,568 26,489 8.2 9.2
81 Montana Public 468 81,768 27,653 31,292 33.8 38.3
81 Montana Priv. Construction 114 20,583 2,268 2,588 11.0 12.6
81 Montana Priv. Manufacturing 178 30,392 4,179 4,535 13.8 14.9
46 Nebraska Total 2,335 774,773 64,910 89,355 8.4 11.5
46 Nebraska Private 1,933 644,182 29,450 42,157 4.6 6.5
46 Nebraska Public 402 130,592 35,460 47,198 27.2 36.1
46 Nebraska Priv. Construction 103 34,664 2,162 2,516 6.2 7.3
46 Nebraska Priv. Manufacturing 314 103,399 13,517 21,982 13.1 21.3
88 Nevada Total 2,470 880,757 150,926 165,274 17.1 18.8
88 Nevada Private 2,138 765,858 105,410 111,538 13.8 14.6
88 Nevada Public 332 114,900 45,516 53,736 39.6 46.8
88 Nevada Priv. Construction 224 78,403 18,501 19,375 23.6 24.7
88 Nevada Priv. Manufacturing 109 38,631 2,687 2,687 7.0 7.0
12 New Hampshire Total 1,838 575,621 59,840 66,727 10.4 11.6
12 New Hampshire Private 1,584 498,915 31,184 32,694 6.3 6.6
12 New Hampshire Public 254 76,706 28,656 34,033 37.4 44.4
12 New Hampshire Priv. Construction 96 29,778 5,648 5,648 19.0 19.0
12 New Hampshire Priv. Manufacturing 373 116,176 8,204 8,487 7.1 7.3
22 New Jersey Total 4,949 3,667,557 762,048 800,658 20.8 21.8
22 New Jersey Private 4,165 3,098,443 406,876 428,296 13.1 13.8
22 New Jersey Public 784 569,115 355,172 372,362 62.4 65.4
22 New Jersey Priv. Construction 225 163,637 51,812 51,812 31.7 31.7
22 New Jersey Priv. Manufacturing 654 490,522 90,643 93,452 18.5 19.1
85 New Mexico Total 2,039 692,452 56,173 69,703 8.1 10.1
85 New Mexico Private 1,511 513,005 28,059 30,326 5.5 5.9
85 New Mexico Public 528 179,447 28,113 39,378 15.7 21.9
85 New Mexico Priv. Construction 106 36,886 2,178 2,178 5.9 5.9
85 New Mexico Priv. Manufacturing 113 38,053 1,142 1,448 3.0 3.8
21 New York Total 9,691 7,683,025 1,958,038 2,036,378 25.5 26.5
21 New York Private 7,891 6,273,151 962,579 1,016,357 15.3 16.2
21 New York Public 1,800 1,409,875 995,459 1,020,021 70.6 72.3
21 New York Priv. Construction 448 359,665 112,987 114,632 31.4 31.9
21 New York Priv. Manufacturing 1,144 903,650 179,697 186,908 19.9 20.7
56 North Carolina Total 4,151 3,403,802 124,064 148,414 3.6 4.4
56 North Carolina Private 3,529 2,898,775 68,199 84,479 2.4 2.9
56 North Carolina Public 622 505,026 55,865 63,935 11.1 12.7
56 North Carolina Priv. Construction 285 237,156 5,351 7,972 2.3 3.4
56 North Carolina Priv. Manufacturing 951 784,424 21,140 25,652 2.7 3.3
44 North Dakota Total 2,096 272,399 17,615 21,118 6.5 7.8
44 North Dakota Private 1,627 212,939 7,874 9,092 3.7 4.3
44 North Dakota Public 469 59,460 9,741 12,026 16.4 20.2
44 North Dakota Priv. Construction 92 12,141 1,304 1,550 10.7 12.8
44 North Dakota Priv. Manufacturing 171 21,968 2,729 3,001 12.4 13.7
31 Ohio Total 6,304 5,071,336 879,044 955,070 17.3 18.8
31 Ohio Private 5,442 4,380,738 540,337 579,376 12.3 13.2
31 Ohio Public 862 690,598 338,707 375,695 49.0 54.4
31 Ohio Priv. Construction 276 226,275 60,438 62,486 26.7 27.6
31 Ohio Priv. Manufacturing 1,280 1,058,662 257,760 266,451 24.3 25.2
73 Oklahoma Total 2,284 1,384,329 93,814 108,038 6.8 7.8
73 Oklahoma Private 1,832 1,117,273 48,872 52,083 4.4 4.7
73 Oklahoma Public 452 267,056 44,941 55,955 16.8 21.0
73 Oklahoma Priv. Construction 112 69,872 1,873 2,552 2.7 3.7
73 Oklahoma Priv. Manufacturing 338 203,874 23,669 24,867 11.6 12.2
92 Oregon Total 1,951 1,456,536 234,379 250,966 16.1 17.2
92 Oregon Private 1,667 1,247,801 121,993 131,902 9.8 10.6
92 Oregon Public 284 208,735 112,385 119,064 53.8 57.0
92 Oregon Priv. Construction 104 78,422 17,636 17,636 22.5 22.5
92 Oregon Priv. Manufacturing 338 250,251 28,213 30,965 11.3 12.4
23 Pennsylvania Total 6,659 5,149,169 869,627 925,703 16.9 18.0
23 Pennsylvania Private 5,809 4,474,881 500,782 527,890 11.2 11.8
23 Pennsylvania Public 850 674,288 368,845 397,813 54.7 59.0
23 Pennsylvania Priv. Construction 283 223,429 52,215 52,986 23.4 23.7
23 Pennsylvania Priv. Manufacturing 1,215 952,513 176,176 180,705 18.5 19.0
15 Rhode Island Total 1,704 438,010 79,631 82,549 18.2 18.8
15 Rhode Island Private 1,464 376,370 37,382 39,124 9.9 10.4
15 Rhode Island Public 240 61,641 42,250 43,425 68.5 70.4
15 Rhode Island Priv. Construction 70 18,641 4,331 4,547 23.2 24.4
15 Rhode Island Priv. Manufacturing 298 76,210 8,284 8,528 10.9 11.2
57 South Carolina Total 1,754 1,739,559 70,349 88,773 4.0 5.1
57 South Carolina Private 1,442 1,428,948 39,375 48,301 2.8 3.4
57 South Carolina Public 312 310,611 30,973 40,472 10.0 13.0
57 South Carolina Priv. Construction 108 113,162 2,399 4,401 2.1 3.9
57 South Carolina Priv. Manufacturing 392 384,582 17,509 19,144 4.6 5.0
45 South Dakota Total 2,252 328,951 18,211 22,175 5.5 6.7
45 South Dakota Private 1,789 267,108 6,801 7,553 2.5 2.8
45 South Dakota Public 463 61,843 11,410 14,622 18.5 23.6
45 South Dakota Priv. Construction 106 16,134 1,066 1,066 6.6 6.6
45 South Dakota Priv. Manufacturing 283 42,740 2,213 2,406 5.2 5.6
62 Tennessee Total 2,112 2,386,577 211,512 238,774 8.9 10.0
62 Tennessee Private 1,796 2,036,247 136,543 147,872 6.7 7.3
62 Tennessee Public 316 350,330 74,969 90,902 21.4 25.9
62 Tennessee Priv. Construction 116 134,897 18,981 18,981 14.1 14.1
62 Tennessee Priv. Manufacturing 414 463,052 54,903 59,657 11.9 12.9
74 Texas Total 8,009 8,754,802 505,355 645,139 5.8 7.4
74 Texas Private 6,717 7,370,354 280,293 345,521 3.8 4.7
74 Texas Public 1,292 1,384,449 225,062 299,618 16.3 21.6
74 Texas Priv. Construction 517 560,377 22,280 27,988 4.0 5.0
74 Texas Priv. Manufacturing 1,106 1,201,132 102,666 117,964 8.5 9.8
87 Utah Total 2,318 944,812 69,281 84,864 7.3 9.0
87 Utah Private 1,920 787,490 35,371 43,669 4.5 5.5
87 Utah Public 398 157,321 33,911 41,195 21.6 26.2
87 Utah Priv. Construction 157 63,942 5,587 6,022 8.7 9.4
87 Utah Priv. Manufacturing 314 128,128 7,439 8,132 5.8 6.3
13 Vermont Total 1,634 273,571 28,215 33,910 10.3 12.4
13 Vermont Private 1,380 232,251 11,885 14,079 5.1 6.1
13 Vermont Public 254 41,320 16,330 19,831 39.5 48.0
13 Vermont Priv. Construction 70 12,068 1,383 1,383 11.5 11.5
13 Vermont Priv. Manufacturing 288 49,087 4,114 4,787 8.4 9.8
54 Virginia Total 2,657 3,199,295 179,077 226,953 5.6 7.1
54 Virginia Private 2,111 2,552,975 99,970 123,180 3.9 4.8
54 Virginia Public 546 646,320 79,107 103,773 12.2 16.1
54 Virginia Priv. Construction 162 200,337 6,211 9,551 3.1 4.8
54 Virginia Priv. Manufacturing 328 395,204 41,480 42,531 10.5 10.8
91 Washington Total 2,112 2,592,786 470,848 516,146 18.2 19.9
91 Washington Private 1,734 2,135,351 251,031 273,048 11.8 12.8
91 Washington Public 378 457,435 219,817 243,098 48.1 53.1
91 Washington Priv. Construction 141 176,005 33,581 34,630 19.1 19.7
91 Washington Priv. Manufacturing 266 324,332 74,612 79,534 23.0 24.5
55 West Virginia Total 1,937 717,772 102,857 111,359 14.3 15.5
55 West Virginia Private 1,572 586,826 72,493 76,409 12.4 13.0
55 West Virginia Public 365 130,946 30,365 34,950 23.2 26.7
55 West Virginia Priv. Construction 90 33,271 5,823 6,181 17.5 18.6
55 West Virginia Priv. Manufacturing 254 95,601 33,283 33,663 34.8 35.2
35 Wisconsin Total 2,489 2,532,978 445,979 473,132 17.6 18.7
35 Wisconsin Private 2,146 2,192,326 257,263 271,551 11.7 12.4
35 Wisconsin Public 343 340,652 188,716 201,581 55.4 59.2
35 Wisconsin Priv. Construction 112 115,796 51,536 52,435 44.5 45.3
35 Wisconsin Priv. Manufacturing 629 638,609 125,818 130,493 19.7 20.4
83 Wyoming Total 2,144 215,888 17,878 21,570 8.3 10.0
83 Wyoming Private 1,605 162,293 8,899 10,720 5.5 6.6
83 Wyoming Public 539 53,595 8,980 10,850 16.8 20.2
83 Wyoming Priv. Construction 159 16,337 1,081 1,449 6.6 8.9
83 Wyoming Priv. Manufacturing 99 9,979 871 1,117 8.7 11.2
                   
Data Sources: Current Population Survey (CPS) Outgoing Rotation Group (ORG) Earnings Files, 2000. Sample includes
employed wage and salary workers, ages 16 and over. Variable definitions are: State Code=Census state code used
in CPS, Obs=CPS sample size, Employment=wage and salary employment, Members=employed workers who are union
members, Covered=workers covered by a collective bargaining agreement, %Mem=percent of employed workers who
are union members, and %Cov=percent of employed workers who are covered by a collective bargaining agreement.
2002 by Barry T. Hirsch and David A. Macpherson. The use of data requires citation.