Union Membership, Coverage, Density and Employment by State, 2001 (details in table note)
State
Code State Sector Obs Employment Members Covered %Mem %Cov
63 Alabama Total 2,416 1,827,196 180,737 201,725 9.9 11.0
63 Alabama Private 2,014 1,530,181 99,867 110,272 6.5 7.2
63 Alabama Public 402 297,014 80,870 91,454 27.2 30.8
63 Alabama Priv. Construction 126 98,164 7,197 8,137 7.3 8.3
63 Alabama Priv. Manufacturing 465 353,892 55,918 58,328 15.8 16.5
94 Alaska Total 2,310 269,007 59,095 66,648 22.0 24.8
94 Alaska Private 1,610 191,485 23,598 26,673 12.3 13.9
94 Alaska Public 700 77,522 35,497 39,975 45.8 51.6
94 Alaska Priv. Construction 132 15,905 4,254 4,678 26.7 29.4
94 Alaska Priv. Manufacturing 79 9,359 886 967 9.5 10.3
86 Arizona Total 2,341 2,059,479 121,772 135,109 5.9 6.6
86 Arizona Private 1,907 1,679,985 55,459 62,358 3.3 3.7
86 Arizona Public 434 379,494 66,313 72,752 17.5 19.2
86 Arizona Priv. Construction 186 159,249 9,295 9,295 5.8 5.8
86 Arizona Priv. Manufacturing 245 217,801 7,589 9,276 3.5 4.3
71 Arkansas Total 1,916 1,025,448 64,328 79,088 6.3 7.7
71 Arkansas Private 1,560 827,407 37,462 47,469 4.5 5.7
71 Arkansas Public 356 198,041 26,866 31,619 13.6 16.0
71 Arkansas Priv. Construction 80 43,038 1,681 1,681 3.9 3.9
71 Arkansas Priv. Manufacturing 374 193,392 17,643 23,771 9.1 12.3
93 California Total 12,677 14,551,408 2,391,683 2,613,628 16.4 18.0
93 California Private 10,665 12,218,919 1,185,087 1,274,074 9.7 10.4
93 California Public 2,012 2,332,490 1,206,597 1,339,554 51.7 57.4
93 California Priv. Construction 706 831,781 178,217 180,515 21.4 21.7
93 California Priv. Manufacturing 1,868 2,096,560 179,714 193,492 8.6 9.2
84 Colorado Total 3,041 1,935,129 177,549 203,985 9.2 10.5
84 Colorado Private 2,587 1,647,298 101,929 115,329 6.2 7.0
84 Colorado Public 454 287,831 75,621 88,656 26.3 30.8
84 Colorado Priv. Construction 202 125,494 10,856 10,856 8.7 8.7
84 Colorado Priv. Manufacturing 362 229,712 21,269 22,290 9.3 9.7
16 Connecticut Total 2,420 1,485,748 223,931 234,079 15.1 15.8
16 Connecticut Private 2,078 1,277,172 108,975 116,147 8.5 9.1
16 Connecticut Public 342 208,576 114,956 117,932 55.1 56.5
16 Connecticut Priv. Construction 96 59,099 14,283 14,283 24.2 24.2
16 Connecticut Priv. Manufacturing 398 243,672 29,857 30,655 12.3 12.6
51 Delaware Total 2,149 371,356 45,896 50,424 12.4 13.6
51 Delaware Private 1,844 318,846 26,018 29,192 8.2 9.2
51 Delaware Public 305 52,510 19,878 21,232 37.9 40.4
51 Delaware Priv. Construction 134 22,715 2,629 2,754 11.6 12.1
51 Delaware Priv. Manufacturing 315 54,095 9,104 10,898 16.8 20.1
53 D.C. Total 1,847 242,386 40,543 50,523 16.7 20.8
53 D.C. Private 1,332 174,703 19,660 24,886 11.3 14.2
53 D.C. Public 515 67,683 20,883 25,638 30.9 37.9
53 D.C. Priv. Construction 70 9,093 2,122 2,583 23.3 28.4
53 D.C. Priv. Manufacturing 51 6,808 602 814 8.8 12.0
59 Florida Total 7,312 6,476,406 426,589 554,463 6.6 8.6
59 Florida Private 6,311 5,605,679 194,921 256,579 3.5 4.6
59 Florida Public 1,001 870,727 231,668 297,883 26.6 34.2
59 Florida Priv. Construction 502 441,625 18,841 23,199 4.3 5.3
59 Florida Priv. Manufacturing 627 558,567 20,547 22,161 3.7 4.0
58 Georgia Total 2,556 3,615,100 261,255 299,797 7.2 8.3
58 Georgia Private 2,183 3,096,044 159,108 181,388 5.1 5.9
58 Georgia Public 373 519,056 102,148 118,408 19.7 22.8
58 Georgia Priv. Construction 150 212,481 26,809 26,809 12.6 12.6
58 Georgia Priv. Manufacturing 415 579,757 48,235 53,779 8.3 9.3
95 Hawaii Total 2,059 508,732 118,925 128,783 23.4 25.3
95 Hawaii Private 1,659 411,574 64,923 70,381 15.8 17.1
95 Hawaii Public 400 97,158 54,002 58,402 55.6 60.1
95 Hawaii Priv. Construction 106 25,255 10,419 10,605 41.3 42.0
95 Hawaii Priv. Manufacturing 70 17,633 2,196 2,560 12.5 14.5
82 Idaho Total 2,361 555,233 41,899 47,880 7.5 8.6
82 Idaho Private 1,890 450,045 23,145 24,662 5.1 5.5
82 Idaho Public 471 105,188 18,754 23,217 17.8 22.1
82 Idaho Priv. Construction 161 39,194 5,305 5,305 13.5 13.5
82 Idaho Priv. Manufacturing 325 74,681 5,880 6,424 7.9 8.6
33 Illinois Total 6,944 5,467,007 999,096 1,059,931 18.3 19.4
33 Illinois Private 6,041 4,744,048 650,110 689,516 13.7 14.5
33 Illinois Public 903 722,959 348,986 370,415 48.3 51.2
33 Illinois Priv. Construction 349 277,398 125,103 130,204 45.1 46.9
33 Illinois Priv. Manufacturing 1,201 960,685 192,473 201,048 20.0 20.9
32 Indiana Total 2,945 2,679,568 388,859 412,248 14.5 15.4
32 Indiana Private 2,551 2,326,361 286,716 292,428 12.3 12.6
32 Indiana Public 394 353,207 102,143 119,820 28.9 33.9
32 Indiana Priv. Construction 156 142,926 54,611 54,611 38.2 38.2
32 Indiana Priv. Manufacturing 720 645,230 132,806 133,393 20.6 20.7
42 Iowa Total 2,852 1,347,570 179,492 211,570 13.3 15.7
42 Iowa Private 2,390 1,132,660 113,040 125,930 10.0 11.1
42 Iowa Public 462 214,910 66,453 85,640 30.9 39.8
42 Iowa Priv. Construction 135 63,096 15,795 15,795 25.0 25.0
42 Iowa Priv. Manufacturing 559 264,360 59,947 67,645 22.7 25.6
47 Kansas Total 2,582 1,168,181 108,620 132,687 9.3 11.4
47 Kansas Private 2,077 943,447 75,086 87,867 8.0 9.3
47 Kansas Public 505 224,734 33,534 44,820 14.9 19.9
47 Kansas Priv. Construction 125 58,550 11,355 12,690 19.4 21.7
47 Kansas Priv. Manufacturing 373 167,746 32,595 40,737 19.4 24.3
61 Kentucky Total 2,187 1,686,509 191,576 209,800 11.4 12.4
61 Kentucky Private 1,805 1,397,118 138,360 145,806 9.9 10.4
61 Kentucky Public 382 289,391 53,216 63,995 18.4 22.1
61 Kentucky Priv. Construction 99 77,481 15,480 16,147 20.0 20.8
61 Kentucky Priv. Manufacturing 361 277,084 58,014 59,603 20.9 21.5
72 Louisiana Total 1,865 1,751,769 137,117 178,179 7.8 10.2
72 Louisiana Private 1,496 1,418,295 68,072 84,442 4.8 6.0
72 Louisiana Public 369 333,474 69,045 93,737 20.7 28.1
72 Louisiana Priv. Construction 127 116,710 16,180 17,774 13.9 15.2
72 Louisiana Priv. Manufacturing 178 165,857 25,996 31,798 15.7 19.2
11 Maine Total 2,389 564,467 72,366 82,155 12.8 14.6
11 Maine Private 2,003 473,875 32,308 34,909 6.8 7.4
11 Maine Public 386 90,591 40,058 47,247 44.2 52.2
11 Maine Priv. Construction 150 36,287 2,667 2,667 7.3 7.3
11 Maine Priv. Manufacturing 325 74,914 18,392 19,104 24.6 25.5
52 Maryland Total 2,590 2,439,813 334,644 399,337 13.7 16.4
52 Maryland Private 1,964 1,856,402 144,310 161,872 7.8 8.7
52 Maryland Public 626 583,411 190,334 237,465 32.6 40.7
52 Maryland Priv. Construction 162 155,626 25,118 26,774 16.1 17.2
52 Maryland Priv. Manufacturing 187 177,729 34,448 37,171 19.4 20.9
14 Massachusetts Total 3,745 2,838,618 421,008 451,651 14.8 15.9
14 Massachusetts Private 3,210 2,438,385 213,190 229,376 8.7 9.4
14 Massachusetts Public 535 400,233 207,818 222,275 51.9 55.5
14 Massachusetts Priv. Construction 191 144,548 40,756 41,561 28.2 28.8
14 Massachusetts Priv. Manufacturing 508 379,123 32,368 33,093 8.5 8.7
34 Michigan Total 5,490 4,454,835 972,675 1,010,872 21.8 22.7
34 Michigan Private 4,721 3,832,345 622,819 646,187 16.3 16.9
34 Michigan Public 769 622,491 349,856 364,686 56.2 58.6
34 Michigan Priv. Construction 283 230,908 66,103 66,911 28.6 29.0
34 Michigan Priv. Manufacturing 1,276 1,047,954 305,961 309,058 29.2 29.5
41 Minnesota Total 3,175 2,342,744 416,801 432,332 17.8 18.5
41 Minnesota Private 2,718 2,018,946 232,311 242,053 11.5 12.0
41 Minnesota Public 457 323,798 184,491 190,279 57.0 58.8
41 Minnesota Priv. Construction 165 118,742 37,752 38,292 31.8 32.2
41 Minnesota Priv. Manufacturing 543 400,670 50,577 52,589 12.6 13.1
64 Mississippi Total 1,602 1,105,322 60,316 97,764 5.5 8.8
64 Mississippi Private 1,293 897,284 46,591 64,994 5.2 7.2
64 Mississippi Public 309 208,038 13,724 32,770 6.6 15.8
64 Mississippi Priv. Construction 77 51,073 4,548 4,548 8.9 8.9
64 Mississippi Priv. Manufacturing 311 216,880 19,971 28,065 9.2 12.9
43 Missouri Total 2,579 2,565,816 345,806 377,100 13.5 14.7
43 Missouri Private 2,185 2,184,258 254,508 270,176 11.7 12.4
43 Missouri Public 394 381,558 91,298 106,925 23.9 28.0
43 Missouri Priv. Construction 173 173,926 60,972 60,972 35.1 35.1
43 Missouri Priv. Manufacturing 376 363,989 59,818 60,785 16.4 16.7
81 Montana Total 1,934 365,176 48,069 54,749 13.2 15.0
81 Montana Private 1,516 286,832 20,992 24,715 7.3 8.6
81 Montana Public 418 78,344 27,077 30,035 34.6 38.3
81 Montana Priv. Construction 98 18,947 3,510 3,715 18.5 19.6
81 Montana Priv. Manufacturing 139 25,762 1,938 2,093 7.5 8.1
46 Nebraska Total 2,663 755,181 60,090 82,429 8.0 10.9
46 Nebraska Private 2,216 631,121 31,979 43,176 5.1 6.8
46 Nebraska Public 447 124,060 28,111 39,252 22.7 31.6
46 Nebraska Priv. Construction 112 31,617 2,841 3,023 9.0 9.6
46 Nebraska Priv. Manufacturing 352 99,676 11,968 19,059 12.0 19.1
88 Nevada Total 2,873 872,323 145,965 157,583 16.7 18.1
88 Nevada Private 2,496 759,328 103,046 107,820 13.6 14.2
88 Nevada Public 377 112,996 42,919 49,764 38.0 44.0
88 Nevada Priv. Construction 243 73,919 15,623 15,623 21.1 21.1
88 Nevada Priv. Manufacturing 132 38,675 3,658 3,658 9.5 9.5
12 New Hampshire Total 2,639 595,378 56,944 63,208 9.6 10.6
12 New Hampshire Private 2,296 521,911 25,041 26,729 4.8 5.1
12 New Hampshire Public 343 73,467 31,903 36,479 43.4 49.7
12 New Hampshire Priv. Construction 150 33,448 4,304 4,304 12.9 12.9
12 New Hampshire Priv. Manufacturing 526 117,313 6,236 6,375 5.3 5.4
22 New Jersey Total 4,921 3,637,971 709,549 756,491 19.5 20.8
22 New Jersey Private 4,212 3,114,793 396,603 432,630 12.7 13.9
22 New Jersey Public 709 523,179 312,945 323,861 59.8 61.9
22 New Jersey Priv. Construction 228 170,727 59,769 59,769 35.0 35.0
22 New Jersey Priv. Manufacturing 676 496,941 72,265 78,380 14.5 15.8
85 New Mexico Total 1,988 702,813 55,957 66,985 8.0 9.5
85 New Mexico Private 1,504 537,987 28,399 32,290 5.3 6.0
85 New Mexico Public 484 164,826 27,558 34,695 16.7 21.0
85 New Mexico Priv. Construction 116 42,546 2,851 2,851 6.7 6.7
85 New Mexico Priv. Manufacturing 146 52,770 3,125 3,605 5.9 6.8
21 New York Total 9,352 7,583,877 2,024,878 2,099,443 26.7 27.7
21 New York Private 7,635 6,208,119 1,035,675 1,087,551 16.7 17.5
21 New York Public 1,717 1,375,759 989,203 1,011,892 71.9 73.6
21 New York Priv. Construction 462 379,697 123,887 127,950 32.6 33.7
21 New York Priv. Manufacturing 1,102 883,620 167,493 172,309 19.0 19.5
56 North Carolina Total 3,929 3,388,611 124,308 145,073 3.7 4.3
56 North Carolina Private 3,334 2,879,474 67,106 75,784 2.3 2.6
56 North Carolina Public 595 509,136 57,202 69,289 11.2 13.6
56 North Carolina Priv. Construction 258 226,575 5,481 5,481 2.4 2.4
56 North Carolina Priv. Manufacturing 798 688,145 16,170 21,035 2.3 3.1
44 North Dakota Total 2,482 285,112 20,494 23,419 7.2 8.2
44 North Dakota Private 1,957 225,649 9,894 10,674 4.4 4.7
44 North Dakota Public 525 59,463 10,600 12,745 17.8 21.4
44 North Dakota Priv. Construction 122 14,041 1,593 1,717 11.3 12.2
44 North Dakota Priv. Manufacturing 200 22,109 1,991 2,097 9.0 9.5
31 Ohio Total 6,219 5,076,343 899,131 966,495 17.7 19.0
31 Ohio Private 5,319 4,357,284 538,189 574,147 12.4 13.2
31 Ohio Public 900 719,060 360,942 392,348 50.2 54.6
31 Ohio Priv. Construction 288 234,172 59,493 60,982 25.4 26.0
31 Ohio Priv. Manufacturing 1,155 957,855 247,266 254,738 25.8 26.6
73 Oklahoma Total 2,243 1,377,767 115,933 128,408 8.4 9.3
73 Oklahoma Private 1,810 1,117,134 63,372 66,604 5.7 6.0
73 Oklahoma Public 433 260,632 52,561 61,804 20.2 23.7
73 Oklahoma Priv. Construction 117 74,288 8,262 8,965 11.1 12.1
73 Oklahoma Priv. Manufacturing 345 214,484 24,944 25,545 11.6 11.9
92 Oregon Total 2,408 1,443,697 223,209 240,766 15.5 16.7
92 Oregon Private 2,028 1,218,710 110,480 117,373 9.1 9.6
92 Oregon Public 380 224,987 112,729 123,393 50.1 54.8
92 Oregon Priv. Construction 122 73,076 14,554 15,165 19.9 20.8
92 Oregon Priv. Manufacturing 395 240,545 29,668 30,386 12.3 12.6
23 Pennsylvania Total 6,741 5,226,656 892,698 960,320 17.1 18.4
23 Pennsylvania Private 5,862 4,542,201 503,300 532,391 11.1 11.7
23 Pennsylvania Public 879 684,455 389,398 427,929 56.9 62.5
23 Pennsylvania Priv. Construction 318 250,563 57,402 59,959 22.9 23.9
23 Pennsylvania Priv. Manufacturing 1,146 902,875 179,970 186,354 19.9 20.6
15 Rhode Island Total 2,486 436,530 73,547 76,045 16.8 17.4
15 Rhode Island Private 2,145 378,734 36,046 37,730 9.5 10.0
15 Rhode Island Public 341 57,796 37,501 38,315 64.9 66.3
15 Rhode Island Priv. Construction 97 16,564 4,592 4,892 27.7 29.5
15 Rhode Island Priv. Manufacturing 425 74,881 7,013 7,348 9.4 9.8
57 South Carolina Total 1,861 1,631,717 79,612 98,865 4.9 6.1
57 South Carolina Private 1,505 1,316,883 44,446 53,048 3.4 4.0
57 South Carolina Public 356 314,833 35,166 45,817 11.2 14.6
57 South Carolina Priv. Construction 116 103,783 3,115 4,314 3.0 4.2
57 South Carolina Priv. Manufacturing 346 307,624 19,368 20,311 6.3 6.6
45 South Dakota Total 2,658 331,176 19,348 24,046 5.8 7.3
45 South Dakota Private 2,110 267,208 9,368 10,882 3.5 4.1
45 South Dakota Public 548 63,967 9,980 13,163 15.6 20.6
45 South Dakota Priv. Construction 121 15,409 1,194 1,194 7.7 7.7
45 South Dakota Priv. Manufacturing 294 37,147 2,843 2,958 7.7 8.0
62 Tennessee Total 2,095 2,376,801 185,057 208,296 7.8 8.8
62 Tennessee Private 1,777 2,023,662 122,253 127,986 6.0 6.3
62 Tennessee Public 318 353,139 62,804 80,310 17.8 22.7
62 Tennessee Priv. Construction 142 158,184 17,782 17,782 11.2 11.2
62 Tennessee Priv. Manufacturing 393 441,922 60,529 62,800 13.7 14.2
74 Texas Total 7,641 8,854,562 501,982 597,990 5.7 6.8
74 Texas Private 6,396 7,434,775 267,640 314,587 3.6 4.2
74 Texas Public 1,245 1,419,787 234,342 283,403 16.5 20.0
74 Texas Priv. Construction 515 579,856 17,867 19,734 3.1 3.4
74 Texas Priv. Manufacturing 1,002 1,165,635 95,403 103,782 8.2 8.9
87 Utah Total 2,435 941,641 64,993 73,210 6.9 7.8
87 Utah Private 1,997 775,269 28,294 31,602 3.6 4.1
87 Utah Public 438 166,372 36,698 41,608 22.1 25.0
87 Utah Priv. Construction 179 69,103 4,957 5,336 7.2 7.7
87 Utah Priv. Manufacturing 339 129,923 6,414 6,801 4.9 5.2
13 Vermont Total 2,213 276,504 29,681 33,965 10.7 12.3
13 Vermont Private 1,881 235,518 13,308 15,024 5.7 6.4
13 Vermont Public 332 40,986 16,373 18,941 39.9 46.2
13 Vermont Priv. Construction 114 15,341 1,774 1,951 11.6 12.7
13 Vermont Priv. Manufacturing 381 47,201 5,295 5,419 11.2 11.5
54 Virginia Total 2,990 3,249,403 172,079 215,678 5.3 6.6
54 Virginia Private 2,386 2,600,504 92,836 110,402 3.6 4.2
54 Virginia Public 604 648,899 79,243 105,276 12.2 16.2
54 Virginia Priv. Construction 191 208,782 11,046 12,895 5.3 6.2
54 Virginia Priv. Manufacturing 367 410,150 35,839 38,104 8.7 9.3
91 Washington Total 2,540 2,478,012 460,316 496,548 18.6 20.0
91 Washington Private 2,118 2,081,859 283,682 298,606 13.6 14.3
91 Washington Public 422 396,153 176,633 197,941 44.6 50.0
91 Washington Priv. Construction 146 139,440 36,030 36,030 25.8 25.8
91 Washington Priv. Manufacturing 317 309,580 88,754 89,520 28.7 28.9
55 West Virginia Total 2,208 728,042 106,340 115,849 14.6 15.9
55 West Virginia Private 1,810 598,898 73,166 77,689 12.2 13.0
55 West Virginia Public 398 129,143 33,174 38,161 25.7 29.5
55 West Virginia Priv. Construction 117 37,062 8,653 8,653 23.3 23.3
55 West Virginia Priv. Manufacturing 275 90,682 27,055 27,988 29.8 30.9
35 Wisconsin Total 3,293 2,539,262 416,359 446,431 16.4 17.6
35 Wisconsin Private 2,861 2,207,096 248,522 266,682 11.3 12.1
35 Wisconsin Public 432 332,166 167,837 179,749 50.5 54.1
35 Wisconsin Priv. Construction 194 156,788 40,283 42,366 25.7 27.0
35 Wisconsin Priv. Manufacturing 776 602,405 119,550 126,073 19.8 20.9
83 Wyoming Total 2,371 218,221 19,655 24,032 9.0 11.0
83 Wyoming Private 1,776 163,581 10,058 11,631 6.1 7.1
83 Wyoming Public 595 54,640 9,597 12,401 17.6 22.7
83 Wyoming Priv. Construction 139 13,334 830 905 6.2 6.8
83 Wyoming Priv. Manufacturing 119 11,061 534 712 4.8 6.4
                   
Data Sources: Current Population Survey (CPS) Outgoing Rotation Group (ORG) Earnings Files, 2001. Sample includes
employed wage and salary workers, ages 16 and over. Variable definitions are: State Code=Census state code used
in CPS, Obs=CPS sample size, Employment=wage and salary employment, Members=employed workers who are union
members, Covered=workers covered by a collective bargaining agreement, %Mem=percent of employed workers who
are union members, and %Cov=percent of employed workers who are covered by a collective bargaining agreement.
2002 by Barry T. Hirsch and David A. Macpherson. The use of data requires citation.