Union Membership, Coverage, Density and Employment by State, 2002 (details in table note)
State
Code State Sector Obs Employment Members Covered %Mem %Cov
63 Alabama Total 2,522 1,795,592 161,352 188,329 9.0 10.5
63 Alabama Private 2,099 1,499,185 90,179 99,750 6.0 6.7
63 Alabama Public 423 296,407 71,173 88,579 24.0 29.9
63 Alabama Priv. Construction 135 98,222 11,719 11,719 11.9 11.9
63 Alabama Priv. Manufacturing 476 341,615 48,160 50,723 14.1 14.8
94 Alaska Total 2,617 260,246 63,584 69,866 24.4 26.8
94 Alaska Private 1,785 180,297 22,837 25,028 12.7 13.9
94 Alaska Public 832 79,949 40,748 44,838 51.0 56.1
94 Alaska Priv. Construction 189 18,582 6,100 6,344 32.8 34.1
94 Alaska Priv. Manufacturing 83 8,442 669 739 7.9 8.8
86 Arizona Total 2,354 2,068,177 115,457 136,933 5.6 6.6
86 Arizona Private 1,949 1,718,436 56,522 67,498 3.3 3.9
86 Arizona Public 405 349,742 58,935 69,435 16.9 19.9
86 Arizona Priv. Construction 174 149,921 11,048 12,074 7.4 8.1
86 Arizona Priv. Manufacturing 251 221,697 3,572 5,155 1.6 2.3
71 Arkansas Total 1,902 1,061,350 63,282 72,390 6.0 6.8
71 Arkansas Private 1,562 872,038 35,093 40,742 4.0 4.7
71 Arkansas Public 340 189,313 28,189 31,648 14.9 16.7
71 Arkansas Priv. Construction 93 51,906 2,212 2,212 4.3 4.3
71 Arkansas Priv. Manufacturing 348 192,080 17,669 20,534 9.2 10.7
93 California Total 12,375 14,452,270 2,578,731 2,760,726 17.8 19.1
93 California Private 10,333 12,039,945 1,233,430 1,313,246 10.2 10.9
93 California Public 2,042 2,412,326 1,345,301 1,447,480 55.8 60.0
93 California Priv. Construction 645 788,466 159,115 161,218 20.2 20.4
93 California Priv. Manufacturing 1,709 1,924,917 191,618 200,502 10.0 10.4
84 Colorado Total 3,836 1,939,973 151,564 173,454 7.8 8.9
84 Colorado Private 3,232 1,636,864 88,092 97,112 5.4 5.9
84 Colorado Public 604 303,109 63,472 76,342 20.9 25.2
84 Colorado Priv. Construction 288 146,426 15,543 17,577 10.6 12.0
84 Colorado Priv. Manufacturing 389 197,306 20,810 21,931 10.5 11.1
16 Connecticut Total 3,291 1,465,793 247,857 260,183 16.9 17.8
16 Connecticut Private 2,841 1,271,282 124,290 132,670 9.8 10.4
16 Connecticut Public 450 194,512 123,566 127,513 63.5 65.6
16 Connecticut Priv. Construction 135 61,013 11,862 12,917 19.4 21.2
16 Connecticut Priv. Manufacturing 546 241,499 27,965 28,939 11.6 12.0
51 Delaware Total 2,460 364,851 40,938 44,404 11.2 12.2
51 Delaware Private 2,100 312,038 22,953 24,540 7.4 7.9
51 Delaware Public 360 52,812 17,985 19,863 34.1 37.6
51 Delaware Priv. Construction 169 25,108 3,100 3,285 12.3 13.1
51 Delaware Priv. Manufacturing 346 50,328 9,009 9,009 17.9 17.9
53 D.C. Total 1,905 239,021 33,610 42,853 14.1 17.9
53 D.C. Private 1,334 168,493 16,907 23,053 10.0 13.7
53 D.C. Public 571 70,528 16,702 19,799 23.7 28.1
53 D.C. Priv. Construction 65 8,180 1,672 1,941 20.4 23.7
53 D.C. Priv. Manufacturing 49 6,126 746 1,139 12.2 18.6
59 Florida Total 7,144 6,404,443 369,817 484,499 5.8 7.6
59 Florida Private 6,148 5,522,830 152,967 207,795 2.8 3.8
59 Florida Public 996 881,613 216,850 276,704 24.6 31.4
59 Florida Priv. Construction 533 479,542 16,328 22,174 3.4 4.6
59 Florida Priv. Manufacturing 552 493,743 15,902 21,282 3.2 4.3
58 Georgia Total 2,578 3,611,146 218,089 253,413 6.0 7.0
58 Georgia Private 2,194 3,076,724 118,689 135,319 3.9 4.4
58 Georgia Public 384 534,422 99,400 118,094 18.6 22.1
58 Georgia Priv. Construction 136 192,499 12,899 12,899 6.7 6.7
58 Georgia Priv. Manufacturing 415 577,368 39,115 42,837 6.8 7.4
95 Hawaii Total 2,244 485,387 118,470 122,423 24.4 25.2
95 Hawaii Private 1,784 387,211 65,295 67,812 16.9 17.5
95 Hawaii Public 460 98,176 53,175 54,610 54.2 55.6
95 Hawaii Priv. Construction 120 26,799 12,603 13,201 47.0 49.3
95 Hawaii Priv. Manufacturing 57 12,730 2,857 2,857 22.4 22.4
82 Idaho Total 2,307 551,173 39,081 48,467 7.1 8.8
82 Idaho Private 1,882 455,693 22,212 26,217 4.9 5.8
82 Idaho Public 425 95,479 16,869 22,249 17.7 23.3
82 Idaho Priv. Construction 157 38,445 6,521 6,800 17.0 17.7
82 Idaho Priv. Manufacturing 320 76,980 4,939 5,695 6.4 7.4
33 Illinois Total 6,568 5,250,357 1,035,087 1,082,454 19.7 20.6
33 Illinois Private 5,740 4,589,657 694,742 721,739 15.1 15.7
33 Illinois Public 828 660,700 340,346 360,715 51.5 54.6
33 Illinois Priv. Construction 322 258,759 124,800 125,525 48.2 48.5
33 Illinois Priv. Manufacturing 1,071 867,578 190,994 196,156 22.0 22.6
32 Indiana Total 3,547 2,717,839 361,583 392,953 13.3 14.5
32 Indiana Private 3,031 2,326,626 247,435 261,691 10.6 11.2
32 Indiana Public 516 391,213 114,148 131,262 29.2 33.6
32 Indiana Priv. Construction 186 144,377 47,095 47,793 32.6 33.1
32 Indiana Priv. Manufacturing 774 589,091 122,211 124,523 20.7 21.1
42 Iowa Total 3,501 1,381,784 152,615 187,354 11.0 13.6
42 Iowa Private 2,949 1,165,886 88,659 101,087 7.6 8.7
42 Iowa Public 552 215,898 63,956 86,267 29.6 40.0
42 Iowa Priv. Construction 153 61,574 10,207 10,617 16.6 17.2
42 Iowa Priv. Manufacturing 696 272,997 52,755 57,388 19.3 21.0
47 Kansas Total 3,208 1,177,569 96,429 115,827 8.2 9.8
47 Kansas Private 2,610 961,644 62,582 72,026 6.5 7.5
47 Kansas Public 598 215,924 33,847 43,800 15.7 20.3
47 Kansas Priv. Construction 169 62,631 7,584 7,898 12.1 12.6
47 Kansas Priv. Manufacturing 444 163,045 28,040 33,667 17.2 20.6
61 Kentucky Total 2,423 1,665,724 166,679 187,030 10.0 11.2
61 Kentucky Private 1,983 1,363,384 103,909 114,467 7.6 8.4
61 Kentucky Public 440 302,340 62,770 72,563 20.8 24.0
61 Kentucky Priv. Construction 103 71,257 12,493 12,493 17.5 17.5
61 Kentucky Priv. Manufacturing 367 251,423 42,271 45,698 16.8 18.2
72 Louisiana Total 1,848 1,681,835 140,930 173,312 8.4 10.3
72 Louisiana Private 1,481 1,350,763 69,052 84,718 5.1 6.3
72 Louisiana Public 367 331,072 71,878 88,594 21.7 26.8
72 Louisiana Priv. Construction 110 100,731 5,538 5,538 5.5 5.5
72 Louisiana Priv. Manufacturing 187 168,101 28,879 28,879 17.2 17.2
11 Maine Total 3,006 561,771 72,850 84,084 13.0 15.0
11 Maine Private 2,500 469,727 33,619 35,765 7.2 7.6
11 Maine Public 506 92,044 39,231 48,318 42.6 52.5
11 Maine Priv. Construction 174 34,180 1,626 1,626 4.8 4.8
11 Maine Priv. Manufacturing 370 68,978 18,380 18,735 26.6 27.2
52 Maryland Total 3,149 2,496,324 362,011 419,853 14.5 16.8
52 Maryland Private 2,414 1,920,535 164,658 188,731 8.6 9.8
52 Maryland Public 735 575,789 197,354 231,122 34.3 40.1
52 Maryland Priv. Construction 186 152,197 27,828 29,814 18.3 19.6
52 Maryland Priv. Manufacturing 218 167,702 26,144 28,105 15.6 16.8
14 Massachusetts Total 3,845 2,864,759 412,061 447,250 14.4 15.6
14 Massachusetts Private 3,324 2,481,846 188,525 211,203 7.6 8.5
14 Massachusetts Public 521 382,913 223,536 236,047 58.4 61.6
14 Massachusetts Priv. Construction 182 138,763 31,683 32,510 22.8 23.4
14 Massachusetts Priv. Manufacturing 513 378,640 33,121 35,145 8.7 9.3
34 Michigan Total 5,075 4,244,269 896,486 931,965 21.1 22.0
34 Michigan Private 4,346 3,645,897 571,734 593,990 15.7 16.3
34 Michigan Public 729 598,372 324,752 337,975 54.3 56.5
34 Michigan Priv. Construction 241 204,529 55,278 57,166 27.0 27.9
34 Michigan Priv. Manufacturing 1,133 954,418 260,469 264,527 27.3 27.7
41 Minnesota Total 3,908 2,369,609 415,557 432,055 17.5 18.2
41 Minnesota Private 3,335 2,034,356 219,474 226,864 10.8 11.2
41 Minnesota Public 573 335,253 196,084 205,191 58.5 61.2
41 Minnesota Priv. Construction 193 118,264 38,675 38,675 32.7 32.7
41 Minnesota Priv. Manufacturing 639 385,590 48,057 50,440 12.5 13.1
64 Mississippi Total 1,628 1,058,794 70,613 85,473 6.7 8.1
64 Mississippi Private 1,299 844,132 50,768 59,899 6.0 7.1
64 Mississippi Public 329 214,662 19,845 25,574 9.2 11.9
64 Mississippi Priv. Construction 75 50,631 3,992 5,319 7.9 10.5
64 Mississippi Priv. Manufacturing 316 208,133 18,466 20,963 8.9 10.1
43 Missouri Total 2,981 2,486,823 328,726 361,722 13.2 14.5
43 Missouri Private 2,492 2,086,777 231,677 246,635 11.1 11.8
43 Missouri Public 489 400,045 97,049 115,087 24.3 28.8
43 Missouri Priv. Construction 190 161,491 44,491 45,302 27.5 28.1
43 Missouri Priv. Manufacturing 399 329,548 75,793 76,324 23.0 23.2
81 Montana Total 1,904 365,368 51,671 56,535 14.1 15.5
81 Montana Private 1,452 279,495 20,116 21,860 7.2 7.8
81 Montana Public 452 85,873 31,554 34,675 36.7 40.4
81 Montana Priv. Construction 123 24,347 2,894 3,215 11.9 13.2
81 Montana Priv. Manufacturing 133 25,130 2,063 2,236 8.2 8.9
46 Nebraska Total 3,185 773,365 61,592 85,666 8.0 11.1
46 Nebraska Private 2,658 649,166 31,613 42,009 4.9 6.5
46 Nebraska Public 527 124,200 29,979 43,657 24.1 35.2
46 Nebraska Priv. Construction 139 34,804 3,986 3,986 11.5 11.5
46 Nebraska Priv. Manufacturing 373 89,601 8,691 13,628 9.7 15.2
88 Nevada Total 3,655 897,270 136,510 149,627 15.2 16.7
88 Nevada Private 3,137 772,730 94,352 98,476 12.2 12.7
88 Nevada Public 518 124,540 42,158 51,151 33.9 41.1
88 Nevada Priv. Construction 327 80,038 17,076 17,076 21.3 21.3
88 Nevada Priv. Manufacturing 175 41,218 1,967 1,967 4.8 4.8
12 New Hampshire Total 3,405 588,153 57,585 65,775 9.8 11.2
12 New Hampshire Private 2,918 506,802 22,750 25,063 4.5 4.9
12 New Hampshire Public 487 81,351 34,836 40,712 42.8 50.0
12 New Hampshire Priv. Construction 178 31,357 5,796 5,796 18.5 18.5
12 New Hampshire Priv. Manufacturing 603 104,929 5,484 5,982 5.2 5.7
22 New Jersey Total 4,797 3,595,028 711,177 747,724 19.8 20.8
22 New Jersey Private 4,035 3,028,934 353,074 377,236 11.7 12.5
22 New Jersey Public 762 566,094 358,103 370,488 63.3 65.4
22 New Jersey Priv. Construction 213 164,516 52,029 52,029 31.6 31.6
22 New Jersey Priv. Manufacturing 575 430,105 58,167 61,220 13.5 14.2
85 New Mexico Total 1,984 703,917 48,231 60,499 6.9 8.6
85 New Mexico Private 1,493 530,512 18,480 21,042 3.5 4.0
85 New Mexico Public 491 173,405 29,751 39,457 17.2 22.8
85 New Mexico Priv. Construction 128 46,383 2,696 2,696 5.8 5.8
85 New Mexico Priv. Manufacturing 129 44,038 3,647 3,647 8.3 8.3
21 New York Total 9,102 7,589,845 1,944,654 2,030,398 25.6 26.8
21 New York Private 7,357 6,147,256 968,797 1,022,936 15.8 16.6
21 New York Public 1,745 1,442,590 975,857 1,007,462 67.6 69.8
21 New York Priv. Construction 398 337,855 114,330 119,090 33.8 35.2
21 New York Priv. Manufacturing 1,042 855,419 160,309 166,772 18.7 19.5
56 North Carolina Total 3,738 3,310,822 112,896 133,838 3.4 4.0
56 North Carolina Private 3,142 2,792,836 58,580 68,464 2.1 2.5
56 North Carolina Public 596 517,986 54,317 65,374 10.5 12.6
56 North Carolina Priv. Construction 252 226,180 5,275 5,275 2.3 2.3
56 North Carolina Priv. Manufacturing 689 617,289 16,780 20,957 2.7 3.4
44 North Dakota Total 2,667 275,370 22,328 26,764 8.1 9.7
44 North Dakota Private 2,088 216,606 10,420 11,337 4.8 5.2
44 North Dakota Public 579 58,764 11,907 15,428 20.3 26.3
44 North Dakota Priv. Construction 131 14,256 1,500 1,500 10.5 10.5
44 North Dakota Priv. Manufacturing 219 22,522 2,920 3,012 13.0 13.4
31 Ohio Total 6,065 4,984,597 835,385 890,709 16.8 17.9
31 Ohio Private 5,213 4,298,981 497,820 529,710 11.6 12.3
31 Ohio Public 852 685,616 337,565 360,998 49.2 52.7
31 Ohio Priv. Construction 255 214,391 40,584 42,896 18.9 20.0
31 Ohio Priv. Manufacturing 1,066 900,652 213,084 220,766 23.7 24.5
73 Oklahoma Total 2,317 1,416,483 126,591 149,727 8.9 10.6
73 Oklahoma Private 1,862 1,143,879 59,694 65,307 5.2 5.7
73 Oklahoma Public 455 272,604 66,897 84,420 24.5 31.0
73 Oklahoma Priv. Construction 116 71,829 7,188 8,383 10.0 11.7
73 Oklahoma Priv. Manufacturing 302 183,729 25,761 26,856 14.0 14.6
92 Oregon Total 2,817 1,439,289 226,277 239,028 15.7 16.6
92 Oregon Private 2,382 1,223,873 114,668 119,232 9.4 9.7
92 Oregon Public 435 215,417 111,609 119,795 51.8 55.6
92 Oregon Priv. Construction 140 71,210 12,717 12,717 17.9 17.9
92 Oregon Priv. Manufacturing 447 234,870 30,364 31,590 12.9 13.4
23 Pennsylvania Total 6,840 5,262,894 824,915 877,671 15.7 16.7
23 Pennsylvania Private 5,979 4,607,283 462,584 490,341 10.0 10.6
23 Pennsylvania Public 861 655,611 362,331 387,330 55.3 59.1
23 Pennsylvania Priv. Construction 306 240,444 59,561 63,547 24.8 26.4
23 Pennsylvania Priv. Manufacturing 1,087 854,809 150,436 153,743 17.6 18.0
15 Rhode Island Total 3,343 435,005 75,625 78,260 17.4 18.0
15 Rhode Island Private 2,848 371,302 33,966 35,658 9.1 9.6
15 Rhode Island Public 495 63,703 41,660 42,603 65.4 66.9
15 Rhode Island Priv. Construction 123 16,596 5,113 5,113 30.8 30.8
15 Rhode Island Priv. Manufacturing 561 72,666 6,309 6,673 8.7 9.2
57 South Carolina Total 2,183 1,664,551 82,586 103,188 5.0 6.2
57 South Carolina Private 1,747 1,337,104 49,668 58,809 3.7 4.4
57 South Carolina Public 436 327,448 32,918 44,378 10.1 13.6
57 South Carolina Priv. Construction 125 95,380 2,819 2,819 3.0 3.0
57 South Carolina Priv. Manufacturing 381 289,005 19,407 23,405 6.7 8.1
45 South Dakota Total 3,088 334,772 18,566 23,077 5.5 6.9
45 South Dakota Private 2,450 272,052 8,775 10,228 3.2 3.8
45 South Dakota Public 638 62,720 9,792 12,849 15.6 20.5
45 South Dakota Priv. Construction 146 17,117 827 827 4.8 4.8
45 South Dakota Priv. Manufacturing 373 41,543 3,104 3,208 7.5 7.7
62 Tennessee Total 2,262 2,436,294 221,406 256,241 9.1 10.5
62 Tennessee Private 1,891 2,044,428 132,947 148,879 6.5 7.3
62 Tennessee Public 371 391,866 88,459 107,362 22.6 27.4
62 Tennessee Priv. Construction 125 137,455 16,306 16,306 11.9 11.9
62 Tennessee Priv. Manufacturing 421 449,458 69,385 81,242 15.4 18.1
74 Texas Total 7,525 8,839,055 458,447 576,564 5.2 6.5
74 Texas Private 6,285 7,406,287 245,538 295,143 3.3 4.0
74 Texas Public 1,240 1,432,768 212,909 281,421 14.9 19.6
74 Texas Priv. Construction 536 621,845 39,035 41,320 6.3 6.6
74 Texas Priv. Manufacturing 882 1,022,719 84,299 93,953 8.2 9.2
87 Utah Total 2,741 948,481 58,971 71,644 6.2 7.6
87 Utah Private 2,227 775,548 22,106 26,877 2.9 3.5
87 Utah Public 514 172,934 36,865 44,768 21.3 25.9
87 Utah Priv. Construction 177 61,757 2,907 3,213 4.7 5.2
87 Utah Priv. Manufacturing 332 113,137 5,755 6,793 5.1 6.0
13 Vermont Total 2,867 278,875 26,438 30,396 9.5 10.9
13 Vermont Private 2,403 234,903 11,731 12,910 5.0 5.5
13 Vermont Public 464 43,972 14,707 17,485 33.4 39.8
13 Vermont Priv. Construction 138 13,772 769 769 5.6 5.6
13 Vermont Priv. Manufacturing 479 48,324 3,173 3,173 6.6 6.6
54 Virginia Total 3,337 3,255,207 196,357 254,998 6.0 7.8
54 Virginia Private 2,632 2,575,372 90,065 112,247 3.5 4.4
54 Virginia Public 705 679,835 106,292 142,750 15.6 21.0
54 Virginia Priv. Construction 202 201,150 9,247 9,247 4.6 4.6
54 Virginia Priv. Manufacturing 358 348,630 31,174 33,067 8.9 9.5
91 Washington Total 3,201 2,530,861 471,778 508,950 18.6 20.1
91 Washington Private 2,647 2,098,838 286,378 301,976 13.6 14.4
91 Washington Public 554 432,024 185,400 206,974 42.9 47.9
91 Washington Priv. Construction 154 124,906 32,148 33,062 25.7 26.5
91 Washington Priv. Manufacturing 412 326,515 80,803 83,267 24.7 25.5
55 West Virginia Total 2,349 704,829 93,294 98,407 13.2 14.0
55 West Virginia Private 1,914 576,176 60,391 61,260 10.5 10.6
55 West Virginia Public 435 128,653 32,904 37,147 25.6 28.9
55 West Virginia Priv. Construction 130 38,442 8,119 8,445 21.1 22.0
55 West Virginia Priv. Manufacturing 266 81,535 17,992 18,331 22.1 22.5
35 Wisconsin Total 3,954 2,474,480 385,232 405,433 15.6 16.4
35 Wisconsin Private 3,421 2,144,524 211,778 222,442 9.9 10.4
35 Wisconsin Public 533 329,956 173,454 182,991 52.6 55.5
35 Wisconsin Priv. Construction 203 131,648 38,995 38,995 29.6 29.6
35 Wisconsin Priv. Manufacturing 899 559,413 97,081 99,239 17.4 17.7
83 Wyoming Total 2,589 217,553 16,732 21,245 7.7 9.8
83 Wyoming Private 1,943 164,209 8,955 10,651 5.5 6.5
83 Wyoming Public 646 53,344 7,777 10,594 14.6 19.9
83 Wyoming Priv. Construction 197 17,350 784 784 4.5 4.5
83 Wyoming Priv. Manufacturing 129 10,893 339 523 3.1 4.8
                   
Data Sources: Current Population Survey (CPS) Outgoing Rotation Group (ORG) Earnings Files, 2002. Sample includes
employed wage and salary workers, ages 16 and over. Variable definitions are: State Code=Census state code used
in CPS, Obs=CPS sample size, Employment=wage and salary employment, Members=employed workers who are union
members, Covered=workers covered by a collective bargaining agreement, %Mem=percent of employed workers who
are union members, and %Cov=percent of employed workers who are covered by a collective bargaining agreement.
2003 by Barry T. Hirsch and David A. Macpherson. The use of data requires citation.