Union Membership, Coverage, Density and Employment by State, 2003 (details in table note)
State
Code State Sector Obs Employment Members Covered %Mem %Cov
63 Alabama Total 2,438 1,821,559 146,952 172,413 8.1 9.5
63 Alabama Private 2,017 1,515,995 79,477 90,587 5.2 6.0
63 Alabama Public 421 305,564 67,475 81,825 22.1 26.8
63 Alabama Priv. Construction 130 100,694 2,036 2,729 2.0 2.7
63 Alabama Priv. Manufacturing 446 333,461 45,269 52,127 13.6 15.6
94 Alaska Total 2,550 264,787 59,096 65,033 22.3 24.6
94 Alaska Private 1,729 180,406 20,574 22,728 11.4 12.6
94 Alaska Public 821 84,380 38,521 42,305 45.7 50.1
94 Alaska Priv. Construction 161 16,722 5,643 5,972 33.7 35.7
94 Alaska Priv. Manufacturing 70 7,499 472 472 6.3 6.3
86 Arizona Total 2,379 2,190,769 113,074 139,732 5.2 6.4
86 Arizona Private 2,020 1,865,036 62,762 76,578 3.4 4.1
86 Arizona Public 359 325,733 50,312 63,154 15.4 19.4
86 Arizona Priv. Construction 172 164,013 10,864 12,805 6.6 7.8
86 Arizona Priv. Manufacturing 232 217,906 2,483 3,428 1.1 1.6
71 Arkansas Total 1,805 1,034,544 49,767 60,582 4.8 5.9
71 Arkansas Private 1,514 875,126 30,094 36,018 3.4 4.1
71 Arkansas Public 291 159,418 19,673 24,563 12.3 15.4
71 Arkansas Priv. Construction 88 51,539 1,718 1,718 3.3 3.3
71 Arkansas Priv. Manufacturing 324 184,457 15,990 18,148 8.7 9.8
93 California Total 11,835 14,349,849 2,414,208 2,646,878 16.8 18.4
93 California Private 9,903 11,991,189 1,155,116 1,277,216 9.6 10.7
93 California Public 1,932 2,358,660 1,259,093 1,369,662 53.4 58.1
93 California Priv. Construction 652 849,684 170,060 171,445 20.0 20.2
93 California Priv. Manufacturing 1,556 1,850,838 140,396 157,664 7.6 8.5
84 Colorado Total 3,892 2,007,294 155,859 180,217 7.8 9.0
84 Colorado Private 3,287 1,695,604 88,918 99,191 5.2 5.8
84 Colorado Public 605 311,690 66,941 81,026 21.5 26.0
84 Colorado Priv. Construction 293 151,776 10,716 12,796 7.1 8.4
84 Colorado Priv. Manufacturing 357 185,803 15,788 17,327 8.5 9.3
16 Connecticut Total 3,256 1,488,685 228,740 243,995 15.4 16.4
16 Connecticut Private 2,803 1,284,091 106,707 112,775 8.3 8.8
16 Connecticut Public 453 204,593 122,033 131,220 59.6 64.1
16 Connecticut Priv. Construction 151 70,913 15,789 16,738 22.3 23.6
16 Connecticut Priv. Manufacturing 479 221,252 22,804 23,353 10.3 10.6
51 Delaware Total 2,454 366,231 41,905 45,739 11.4 12.5
51 Delaware Private 2,091 312,955 20,804 22,979 6.6 7.3
51 Delaware Public 363 53,275 21,101 22,760 39.6 42.7
51 Delaware Priv. Construction 156 23,896 3,302 3,302 13.8 13.8
51 Delaware Priv. Manufacturing 323 47,222 6,074 6,622 12.9 14.0
53 D.C. Total 1,848 267,943 38,993 46,042 14.6 17.2
53 D.C. Private 1,278 187,959 18,397 22,753 9.8 12.1
53 D.C. Public 570 79,984 20,597 23,289 25.8 29.1
53 D.C. Priv. Construction 49 7,585 1,502 1,825 19.8 24.1
53 D.C. Priv. Manufacturing 21 3,029 346 346 11.4 11.4
59 Florida Total 7,073 6,651,640 407,180 557,035 6.1 8.4
59 Florida Private 6,046 5,680,667 188,387 251,030 3.3 4.4
59 Florida Public 1,027 970,973 218,793 306,005 22.5 31.5
59 Florida Priv. Construction 537 506,063 22,406 25,185 4.4 5.0
59 Florida Priv. Manufacturing 500 470,743 13,517 21,394 2.9 4.5
58 Georgia Total 2,537 3,703,409 249,192 297,972 6.7 8.0
58 Georgia Private 2,139 3,138,237 141,497 171,201 4.5 5.5
58 Georgia Public 398 565,172 107,695 126,771 19.1 22.4
58 Georgia Priv. Construction 159 241,956 19,060 25,149 7.9 10.4
58 Georgia Priv. Manufacturing 347 509,350 40,312 46,399 7.9 9.1
95 Hawaii Total 2,247 510,561 121,723 126,717 23.8 24.8
95 Hawaii Private 1,729 395,648 63,624 65,093 16.1 16.5
95 Hawaii Public 518 114,913 58,099 61,624 50.6 53.6
95 Hawaii Priv. Construction 137 31,469 11,116 11,116 35.3 35.3
95 Hawaii Priv. Manufacturing 70 15,191 2,256 2,256 14.9 14.9
82 Idaho Total 2,202 548,429 38,644 46,952 7.0 8.6
82 Idaho Private 1,787 451,876 20,400 24,059 4.5 5.3
82 Idaho Public 415 96,554 18,245 22,893 18.9 23.7
82 Idaho Priv. Construction 140 36,442 4,025 4,025 11.0 11.0
82 Idaho Priv. Manufacturing 231 57,929 5,516 6,838 9.5 11.8
33 Illinois Total 6,410 5,398,828 966,860 1,003,385 17.9 18.6
33 Illinois Private 5,531 4,670,934 604,544 624,455 12.9 13.4
33 Illinois Public 879 727,894 362,316 378,930 49.8 52.1
33 Illinois Priv. Construction 396 336,970 145,114 150,294 43.1 44.6
33 Illinois Priv. Manufacturing 934 806,459 150,396 151,851 18.6 18.8
32 Indiana Total 3,615 2,768,266 327,426 352,009 11.8 12.7
32 Indiana Private 3,135 2,410,575 223,473 239,121 9.3 9.9
32 Indiana Public 480 357,691 103,953 112,888 29.1 31.6
32 Indiana Priv. Construction 196 153,697 40,862 40,862 26.6 26.6
32 Indiana Priv. Manufacturing 765 584,293 114,672 122,362 19.6 20.9
42 Iowa Total 3,356 1,364,928 156,804 196,256 11.5 14.4
42 Iowa Private 2,785 1,131,086 88,631 99,739 7.8 8.8
42 Iowa Public 571 233,843 68,173 96,517 29.2 41.3
42 Iowa Priv. Construction 129 51,085 11,859 12,573 23.2 24.6
42 Iowa Priv. Manufacturing 646 260,280 51,953 56,292 20.0 21.6
47 Kansas Total 3,205 1,203,971 95,543 123,907 7.9 10.3
47 Kansas Private 2,545 960,814 59,976 72,273 6.2 7.5
47 Kansas Public 660 243,157 35,568 51,634 14.6 21.2
47 Kansas Priv. Construction 161 61,962 7,047 7,047 11.4 11.4
47 Kansas Priv. Manufacturing 413 154,983 26,966 36,112 17.4 23.3
61 Kentucky Total 2,321 1,680,547 174,987 215,893 10.4 12.8
61 Kentucky Private 1,892 1,377,670 119,894 135,718 8.7 9.9
61 Kentucky Public 429 302,877 55,094 80,175 18.2 26.5
61 Kentucky Priv. Construction 111 82,691 14,792 15,547 17.9 18.8
61 Kentucky Priv. Manufacturing 358 259,494 50,864 52,363 19.6 20.2
72 Louisiana Total 1,790 1,685,217 109,192 132,379 6.5 7.9
72 Louisiana Private 1,480 1,403,973 61,359 76,071 4.4 5.4
72 Louisiana Public 310 281,244 47,832 56,309 17.0 20.0
72 Louisiana Priv. Construction 125 118,411 6,179 8,021 5.2 6.8
72 Louisiana Priv. Manufacturing 172 159,718 23,863 28,951 14.9 18.1
11 Maine Total 3,071 566,855 72,508 81,150 12.8 14.3
11 Maine Private 2,589 479,660 32,277 34,326 6.7 7.2
11 Maine Public 482 87,195 40,231 46,824 46.1 53.7
11 Maine Priv. Construction 152 28,682 2,619 2,619 9.1 9.1
11 Maine Priv. Manufacturing 384 70,152 16,982 17,394 24.2 24.8
52 Maryland Total 3,024 2,480,920 354,080 409,958 14.3 16.5
52 Maryland Private 2,307 1,900,971 175,444 199,671 9.2 10.5
52 Maryland Public 717 579,948 178,635 210,287 30.8 36.3
52 Maryland Priv. Construction 208 165,664 23,256 24,272 14.0 14.7
52 Maryland Priv. Manufacturing 194 152,649 24,462 26,630 16.0 17.4
14 Massachusetts Total 3,682 2,925,300 415,509 454,415 14.2 15.5
14 Massachusetts Private 3,173 2,529,557 200,301 228,929 7.9 9.1
14 Massachusetts Public 509 395,743 215,208 225,486 54.4 57.0
14 Massachusetts Priv. Construction 181 149,665 37,862 39,324 25.3 26.3
14 Massachusetts Priv. Manufacturing 478 376,422 27,644 28,406 7.3 7.5
34 Michigan Total 5,052 4,188,078 918,965 968,168 21.9 23.1
34 Michigan Private 4,354 3,603,215 597,121 632,019 16.6 17.5
34 Michigan Public 698 584,863 321,844 336,149 55.0 57.5
34 Michigan Priv. Construction 238 202,436 42,870 44,514 21.2 22.0
34 Michigan Priv. Manufacturing 1,168 973,174 280,377 290,085 28.8 29.8
41 Minnesota Total 3,819 2,434,825 414,004 440,700 17.0 18.1
41 Minnesota Private 3,230 2,071,104 208,562 220,619 10.1 10.7
41 Minnesota Public 589 363,721 205,442 220,081 56.5 60.5
41 Minnesota Priv. Construction 199 127,372 36,799 41,166 28.9 32.3
41 Minnesota Priv. Manufacturing 598 381,947 43,918 44,540 11.5 11.7
64 Mississippi Total 1,663 1,116,713 55,359 73,148 5.0 6.6
64 Mississippi Private 1,339 900,956 40,697 47,046 4.5 5.2
64 Mississippi Public 324 215,757 14,663 26,102 6.8 12.1
64 Mississippi Priv. Construction 90 65,280 4,955 4,955 7.6 7.6
64 Mississippi Priv. Manufacturing 288 199,600 16,939 20,455 8.5 10.2
43 Missouri Total 3,022 2,546,157 336,466 362,675 13.2 14.2
43 Missouri Private 2,534 2,140,436 231,660 242,374 10.8 11.3
43 Missouri Public 488 405,721 104,806 120,301 25.8 29.7
43 Missouri Priv. Construction 190 161,506 40,244 40,244 24.9 24.9
43 Missouri Priv. Manufacturing 337 280,757 62,353 62,353 22.2 22.2
81 Montana Total 1,869 359,610 50,324 53,721 14.0 14.9
81 Montana Private 1,414 273,511 21,181 22,184 7.7 8.1
81 Montana Public 455 86,099 29,142 31,537 33.8 36.6
81 Montana Priv. Construction 142 29,207 5,024 5,024 17.2 17.2
81 Montana Priv. Manufacturing 98 18,358 2,980 2,980 16.2 16.2
46 Nebraska Total 3,191 818,686 64,364 87,163 7.9 10.6
46 Nebraska Private 2,646 682,428 29,752 39,663 4.4 5.8
46 Nebraska Public 545 136,258 34,612 47,500 25.4 34.9
46 Nebraska Priv. Construction 163 43,285 4,131 4,369 9.5 10.1
46 Nebraska Priv. Manufacturing 349 91,258 10,240 13,875 11.2 15.2
88 Nevada Total 3,714 942,726 136,060 148,514 14.4 15.8
88 Nevada Private 3,225 823,191 97,710 104,053 11.9 12.6
88 Nevada Public 489 119,535 38,350 44,462 32.1 37.2
88 Nevada Priv. Construction 313 84,037 15,702 15,974 18.7 19.0
88 Nevada Priv. Manufacturing 157 38,645 2,406 2,697 6.2 7.0
12 New Hampshire Total 3,508 606,755 56,475 68,838 9.3 11.3
12 New Hampshire Private 3,019 525,187 24,497 29,043 4.7 5.5
12 New Hampshire Public 489 81,568 31,978 39,795 39.2 48.8
12 New Hampshire Priv. Construction 177 30,479 5,298 5,650 17.4 18.5
12 New Hampshire Priv. Manufacturing 600 103,858 4,751 5,426 4.6 5.2
22 New Jersey Total 4,723 3,776,691 737,080 800,749 19.5 21.2
22 New Jersey Private 3,956 3,175,860 371,115 409,830 11.7 12.9
22 New Jersey Public 767 600,831 365,965 390,919 60.9 65.1
22 New Jersey Priv. Construction 217 176,045 48,172 48,915 27.4 27.8
22 New Jersey Priv. Manufacturing 521 415,720 47,971 50,916 11.5 12.2
85 New Mexico Total 1,945 741,031 56,688 70,498 7.6 9.5
85 New Mexico Private 1,429 548,377 26,094 28,893 4.8 5.3
85 New Mexico Public 516 192,654 30,594 41,605 15.9 21.6
85 New Mexico Priv. Construction 117 45,442 3,747 4,583 8.2 10.1
85 New Mexico Priv. Manufacturing 86 33,800 3,809 3,809 11.3 11.3
21 New York Total 8,566 7,874,047 1,935,825 2,017,203 24.6 25.6
21 New York Private 6,949 6,421,110 947,671 990,802 14.8 15.4
21 New York Public 1,617 1,452,937 988,154 1,026,401 68.0 70.6
21 New York Priv. Construction 402 385,564 114,283 117,305 29.6 30.4
21 New York Priv. Manufacturing 844 742,389 128,149 131,100 17.3 17.7
56 North Carolina Total 3,829 3,576,403 111,439 134,635 3.1 3.8
56 North Carolina Private 3,209 3,006,697 62,729 74,928 2.1 2.5
56 North Carolina Public 620 569,706 48,710 59,707 8.6 10.5
56 North Carolina Priv. Construction 270 260,569 5,510 5,510 2.1 2.1
56 North Carolina Priv. Manufacturing 650 603,022 18,851 22,381 3.1 3.7
44 North Dakota Total 2,566 284,458 20,898 25,734 7.3 9.0
44 North Dakota Private 2,003 224,473 7,865 9,186 3.5 4.1
44 North Dakota Public 563 59,985 13,033 16,547 21.7 27.6
44 North Dakota Priv. Construction 143 15,996 1,398 1,627 8.7 10.2
44 North Dakota Priv. Manufacturing 182 20,100 1,971 2,167 9.8 10.8
31 Ohio Total 5,871 5,099,815 850,345 922,839 16.7 18.1
31 Ohio Private 5,022 4,379,513 492,347 526,036 11.2 12.0
31 Ohio Public 849 720,302 357,999 396,803 49.7 55.1
31 Ohio Priv. Construction 249 222,103 40,931 42,447 18.4 19.1
31 Ohio Priv. Manufacturing 1,016 915,434 214,597 220,301 23.4 24.1
73 Oklahoma Total 2,137 1,405,877 96,221 111,094 6.8 7.9
73 Oklahoma Private 1,758 1,168,464 45,921 55,272 3.9 4.7
73 Oklahoma Public 379 237,412 50,301 55,822 21.2 23.5
73 Oklahoma Priv. Construction 119 81,421 4,198 4,198 5.2 5.2
73 Oklahoma Priv. Manufacturing 239 152,654 14,831 15,430 9.7 10.1
92 Oregon Total 2,775 1,465,598 229,851 240,131 15.7 16.4
92 Oregon Private 2,360 1,250,683 111,829 117,253 8.9 9.4
92 Oregon Public 415 214,915 118,021 122,877 54.9 57.2
92 Oregon Priv. Construction 142 73,880 12,065 12,065 16.3 16.3
92 Oregon Priv. Manufacturing 382 205,655 20,425 20,425 9.9 9.9
23 Pennsylvania Total 6,676 5,260,618 794,325 847,323 15.1 16.1
23 Pennsylvania Private 5,811 4,576,669 429,750 453,665 9.4 9.9
23 Pennsylvania Public 865 683,949 364,575 393,658 53.3 57.6
23 Pennsylvania Priv. Construction 320 253,912 54,427 54,427 21.4 21.4
23 Pennsylvania Priv. Manufacturing 1,008 811,043 145,842 150,977 18.0 18.6
15 Rhode Island Total 3,409 493,892 83,990 86,473 17.0 17.5
15 Rhode Island Private 2,907 423,317 38,052 39,725 9.0 9.4
15 Rhode Island Public 502 70,575 45,938 46,747 65.1 66.2
15 Rhode Island Priv. Construction 139 20,330 4,618 4,957 22.7 24.4
15 Rhode Island Priv. Manufacturing 528 76,448 6,673 6,673 8.7 8.7
57 South Carolina Total 2,123 1,688,568 71,333 89,736 4.2 5.3
57 South Carolina Private 1,735 1,392,131 37,824 43,987 2.7 3.2
57 South Carolina Public 388 296,438 33,509 45,749 11.3 15.4
57 South Carolina Priv. Construction 125 99,790 2,558 4,266 2.6 4.3
57 South Carolina Priv. Manufacturing 385 300,563 13,447 15,011 4.5 5.0
45 South Dakota Total 3,035 353,191 19,062 22,676 5.4 6.4
45 South Dakota Private 2,429 289,355 9,105 9,995 3.1 3.5
45 South Dakota Public 606 63,836 9,957 12,682 15.6 19.9
45 South Dakota Priv. Construction 158 19,189 584 584 3.0 3.0
45 South Dakota Priv. Manufacturing 395 47,110 4,017 4,375 8.5 9.3
62 Tennessee Total 2,170 2,384,084 178,837 218,358 7.5 9.2
62 Tennessee Private 1,806 1,990,285 103,883 127,509 5.2 6.4
62 Tennessee Public 364 393,799 74,954 90,849 19.0 23.1
62 Tennessee Priv. Construction 90 101,332 8,358 9,567 8.2 9.4
62 Tennessee Priv. Manufacturing 353 388,634 38,659 41,926 9.9 10.8
74 Texas Total 7,568 9,072,363 508,226 620,866 5.6 6.8
74 Texas Private 6,349 7,640,800 257,774 302,955 3.4 4.0
74 Texas Public 1,219 1,431,563 250,452 317,911 17.5 22.2
74 Texas Priv. Construction 494 617,970 24,053 25,163 3.9 4.1
74 Texas Priv. Manufacturing 853 1,033,328 91,356 99,189 8.8 9.6
87 Utah Total 2,652 1,014,866 53,016 68,742 5.2 6.8
87 Utah Private 2,174 839,574 18,217 26,749 2.2 3.2
87 Utah Public 478 175,292 34,798 41,993 19.9 24.0
87 Utah Priv. Construction 158 62,027 4,976 4,976 8.0 8.0
87 Utah Priv. Manufacturing 320 122,042 3,000 5,190 2.5 4.3
13 Vermont Total 2,778 281,484 27,170 32,900 9.7 11.7
13 Vermont Private 2,311 234,787 11,092 12,244 4.7 5.2
13 Vermont Public 467 46,697 16,079 20,656 34.4 44.2
13 Vermont Priv. Construction 145 14,770 303 303 2.1 2.1
13 Vermont Priv. Manufacturing 376 38,032 1,802 1,802 4.7 4.7
54 Virginia Total 3,218 3,243,375 209,897 250,954 6.5 7.7
54 Virginia Private 2,537 2,575,806 104,907 124,022 4.1 4.8
54 Virginia Public 681 667,569 104,990 126,931 15.7 19.0
54 Virginia Priv. Construction 205 214,210 11,466 12,712 5.4 5.9
54 Virginia Priv. Manufacturing 269 272,971 26,231 29,410 9.6 10.8
91 Washington Total 3,150 2,539,487 501,545 530,661 19.7 20.9
91 Washington Private 2,543 2,071,470 271,820 284,340 13.1 13.7
91 Washington Public 607 468,018 229,724 246,321 49.1 52.6
91 Washington Priv. Construction 151 125,488 25,394 26,041 20.2 20.8
91 Washington Priv. Manufacturing 387 314,422 57,294 59,296 18.2 18.9
55 West Virginia Total 2,273 670,912 87,771 95,252 13.1 14.2
55 West Virginia Private 1,819 540,087 55,750 57,927 10.3 10.7
55 West Virginia Public 454 130,825 32,021 37,326 24.5 28.5
55 West Virginia Priv. Construction 120 37,043 9,635 9,902 26.0 26.7
55 West Virginia Priv. Manufacturing 227 69,305 19,242 19,242 27.8 27.8
35 Wisconsin Total 4,028 2,612,743 414,360 437,948 15.9 16.8
35 Wisconsin Private 3,489 2,265,385 225,433 239,092 10.0 10.6
35 Wisconsin Public 539 347,357 188,927 198,855 54.4 57.2
35 Wisconsin Priv. Construction 212 138,598 39,057 40,411 28.2 29.2
35 Wisconsin Priv. Manufacturing 840 539,900 90,843 93,974 16.8 17.4
83 Wyoming Total 2,510 224,296 17,832 22,009 8.0 9.8
83 Wyoming Private 1,913 172,729 8,816 9,738 5.1 5.6
83 Wyoming Public 597 51,567 9,015 12,271 17.5 23.8
83 Wyoming Priv. Construction 162 15,264 567 726 3.7 4.8
83 Wyoming Priv. Manufacturing 116 10,503 917 993 8.7 9.5
                   
Data Sources: Current Population Survey (CPS) Outgoing Rotation Group (ORG) Earnings Files, 2003. Sample includes
employed wage and salary workers, ages 16 and over. Variable definitions are: State Code=Census state code used
in CPS, Obs=CPS sample size, Employment=wage and salary employment, Members=employed workers who are union
members, Covered=workers covered by a collective bargaining agreement, %Mem=percent of employed workers who
are union members, and %Cov=percent of employed workers who are covered by a collective bargaining agreement.
2004 by Barry T. Hirsch and David A. Macpherson. The use of data requires citation.