Union Membership, Coverage, Density and Employment by State, 2004 (details in table note)
State
Code State Sector Obs Employment Members Covered %Mem %Cov
63 Alabama Total 2,287 1,860,961 181,286 213,109 9.7 11.5
63 Alabama Private 1,893 1,552,701 87,953 101,006 5.7 6.5
63 Alabama Public 394 308,260 93,333 112,103 30.3 36.4
63 Alabama Priv. Construction 135 116,603 5,309 5,309 4.6 4.6
63 Alabama Priv. Manufacturing 400 327,213 38,888 44,610 11.9 13.6
94 Alaska Total 2,572 267,807 53,949 60,024 20.1 22.4
94 Alaska Private 1,784 187,968 20,436 22,163 10.9 11.8
94 Alaska Public 788 79,839 33,513 37,862 42.0 47.4
94 Alaska Priv. Construction 151 15,951 3,405 3,641 21.3 22.8
94 Alaska Priv. Manufacturing 83 8,901 730 730 8.2 8.2
86 Arizona Total 2,353 2,323,083 145,299 183,167 6.3 7.9
86 Arizona Private 1,940 1,923,383 74,093 91,164 3.9 4.7
86 Arizona Public 413 399,700 71,206 92,003 17.8 23.0
86 Arizona Priv. Construction 189 190,790 6,177 7,080 3.2 3.7
86 Arizona Priv. Manufacturing 196 198,938 7,970 10,267 4.0 5.2
71 Arkansas Total 1,840 1,058,048 50,871 65,318 4.8 6.2
71 Arkansas Private 1,512 874,972 28,143 35,197 3.2 4.0
71 Arkansas Public 328 183,076 22,728 30,121 12.4 16.5
71 Arkansas Priv. Construction 94 59,731 1,441 1,441 2.4 2.4
71 Arkansas Priv. Manufacturing 333 187,817 15,854 19,073 8.4 10.2
93 California Total 11,895 14,414,248 2,384,705 2,587,552 16.5 18.0
93 California Private 9,951 12,042,250 1,129,674 1,224,630 9.4 10.2
93 California Public 1,944 2,371,998 1,255,031 1,362,922 52.9 57.5
93 California Priv. Construction 704 887,480 133,903 144,493 15.1 16.3
93 California Priv. Manufacturing 1,416 1,693,716 114,579 131,471 6.8 7.8
84 Colorado Total 3,874 2,050,104 172,021 191,283 8.4 9.3
84 Colorado Private 3,201 1,696,882 87,905 95,518 5.2 5.6
84 Colorado Public 673 353,221 84,116 95,765 23.8 27.1
84 Colorado Priv. Construction 295 160,736 10,971 11,554 6.8 7.2
84 Colorado Priv. Manufacturing 347 184,007 17,573 18,591 9.6 10.1
16 Connecticut Total 3,597 1,538,697 234,706 255,826 15.3 16.6
16 Connecticut Private 3,061 1,313,196 96,137 110,546 7.3 8.4
16 Connecticut Public 536 225,501 138,569 145,280 61.4 64.4
16 Connecticut Priv. Construction 149 66,529 13,245 14,082 19.9 21.2
16 Connecticut Priv. Manufacturing 537 226,175 22,579 24,723 10.0 10.9
51 Delaware Total 2,541 372,501 46,075 49,246 12.4 13.2
51 Delaware Private 2,176 318,689 24,577 26,016 7.7 8.2
51 Delaware Public 365 53,812 21,499 23,230 40.0 43.2
51 Delaware Priv. Construction 185 27,072 3,743 3,867 13.8 14.3
51 Delaware Priv. Manufacturing 323 47,020 7,705 7,967 16.4 16.9
53 D.C. Total 1,936 258,251 32,749 37,540 12.7 14.5
53 D.C. Private 1,396 188,296 16,599 19,065 8.8 10.1
53 D.C. Public 540 69,955 16,149 18,475 23.1 26.4
53 D.C. Priv. Construction 58 8,452 1,925 2,077 22.8 24.6
53 D.C. Priv. Manufacturing 17 2,151 207 207 9.6 9.6
59 Florida Total 6,923 6,942,888 414,219 532,876 6.0 7.7
59 Florida Private 5,884 5,898,150 166,354 218,274 2.8 3.7
59 Florida Public 1,039 1,044,738 247,865 314,602 23.7 30.1
59 Florida Priv. Construction 555 560,630 16,726 19,719 3.0 3.5
59 Florida Priv. Manufacturing 433 431,584 9,664 14,778 2.2 3.4
58 Georgia Total 2,752 3,773,441 242,189 282,313 6.4 7.5
58 Georgia Private 2,336 3,216,206 139,163 161,586 4.3 5.0
58 Georgia Public 416 557,235 103,026 120,727 18.5 21.7
58 Georgia Priv. Construction 211 303,090 16,906 24,491 5.6 8.1
58 Georgia Priv. Manufacturing 397 545,255 42,121 45,633 7.7 8.4
95 Hawaii Total 2,438 532,601 126,379 132,151 23.7 24.8
95 Hawaii Private 1,895 414,096 66,938 68,947 16.2 16.7
95 Hawaii Public 543 118,506 59,441 63,204 50.2 53.3
95 Hawaii Priv. Construction 152 34,444 12,762 12,762 37.1 37.1
95 Hawaii Priv. Manufacturing 74 15,676 3,539 3,539 22.6 22.6
82 Idaho Total 2,018 561,086 32,756 44,399 5.8 7.9
82 Idaho Private 1,635 461,159 17,061 21,955 3.7 4.8
82 Idaho Public 383 99,928 15,694 22,444 15.7 22.5
82 Idaho Priv. Construction 122 36,715 3,427 3,427 9.3 9.3
82 Idaho Priv. Manufacturing 205 58,530 4,562 6,151 7.8 10.5
33 Illinois Total 6,272 5,410,191 908,286 970,641 16.8 17.9
33 Illinois Private 5,452 4,708,437 567,839 610,116 12.1 13.0
33 Illinois Public 820 701,754 340,447 360,525 48.5 51.4
33 Illinois Priv. Construction 398 339,762 152,204 153,903 44.8 45.3
33 Illinois Priv. Manufacturing 880 766,390 130,228 137,355 17.0 17.9
32 Indiana Total 3,349 2,716,836 310,726 337,545 11.4 12.4
32 Indiana Private 2,921 2,376,485 214,097 228,835 9.0 9.6
32 Indiana Public 428 340,351 96,629 108,710 28.4 31.9
32 Indiana Priv. Construction 197 159,371 42,907 43,739 26.9 27.4
32 Indiana Priv. Manufacturing 738 601,381 108,594 115,739 18.1 19.2
42 Iowa Total 3,316 1,344,936 141,040 170,653 10.5 12.7
42 Iowa Private 2,783 1,127,889 80,659 91,484 7.2 8.1
42 Iowa Public 533 217,047 60,381 79,169 27.8 36.5
42 Iowa Priv. Construction 166 66,953 11,994 12,814 17.9 19.1
42 Iowa Priv. Manufacturing 589 236,534 47,388 51,794 20.0 21.9
47 Kansas Total 3,164 1,222,705 103,014 131,716 8.4 10.8
47 Kansas Private 2,484 965,686 59,038 71,887 6.1 7.4
47 Kansas Public 680 257,019 43,976 59,829 17.1 23.3
47 Kansas Priv. Construction 147 58,486 6,085 6,468 10.4 11.1
47 Kansas Priv. Manufacturing 414 162,315 29,201 37,367 18.0 23.0
61 Kentucky Total 2,436 1,698,972 163,687 197,225 9.6 11.6
61 Kentucky Private 2,005 1,402,808 105,055 119,721 7.5 8.5
61 Kentucky Public 431 296,164 58,632 77,504 19.8 26.2
61 Kentucky Priv. Construction 142 103,294 15,611 18,467 15.1 17.9
61 Kentucky Priv. Manufacturing 357 251,830 37,779 39,105 15.0 15.5
72 Louisiana Total 1,756 1,696,988 129,265 157,205 7.6 9.3
72 Louisiana Private 1,423 1,385,049 65,790 72,628 4.8 5.2
72 Louisiana Public 333 311,939 63,475 84,577 20.3 27.1
72 Louisiana Priv. Construction 116 112,653 7,288 7,288 6.5 6.5
72 Louisiana Priv. Manufacturing 167 161,161 26,476 28,499 16.4 17.7
11 Maine Total 3,102 564,174 63,678 74,387 11.3 13.2
11 Maine Private 2,596 473,332 27,691 30,954 5.9 6.5
11 Maine Public 506 90,842 35,986 43,433 39.6 47.8
11 Maine Priv. Construction 155 28,510 878 1,033 3.1 3.6
11 Maine Priv. Manufacturing 375 68,196 15,045 15,447 22.1 22.7
52 Maryland Total 3,381 2,502,370 271,995 312,946 10.9 12.5
52 Maryland Private 2,595 1,921,967 115,029 136,455 6.0 7.1
52 Maryland Public 786 580,402 156,966 176,491 27.0 30.4
52 Maryland Priv. Construction 230 170,413 21,148 25,397 12.4 14.9
52 Maryland Priv. Manufacturing 210 154,523 11,853 16,551 7.7 10.7
14 Massachusetts Total 3,424 2,920,040 393,287 429,943 13.5 14.7
14 Massachusetts Private 2,975 2,545,048 196,396 218,607 7.7 8.6
14 Massachusetts Public 449 374,991 196,891 211,336 52.5 56.4
14 Massachusetts Priv. Construction 164 146,538 36,218 38,600 24.7 26.3
14 Massachusetts Priv. Manufacturing 401 337,744 26,187 28,140 7.8 8.3
34 Michigan Total 4,916 4,305,330 929,821 965,554 21.6 22.4
34 Michigan Private 4,214 3,695,974 589,073 612,861 15.9 16.6
34 Michigan Public 702 609,356 340,749 352,693 55.9 57.9
34 Michigan Priv. Construction 213 192,214 56,731 57,904 29.5 30.1
34 Michigan Priv. Manufacturing 1,055 917,374 279,046 286,710 30.4 31.3
41 Minnesota Total 3,853 2,429,159 424,234 443,365 17.5 18.3
41 Minnesota Private 3,252 2,061,025 229,152 238,889 11.1 11.6
41 Minnesota Public 601 368,134 195,082 204,476 53.0 55.5
41 Minnesota Priv. Construction 214 133,296 38,561 39,794 28.9 29.9
41 Minnesota Priv. Manufacturing 565 355,801 48,195 50,259 13.5 14.1
64 Mississippi Total 1,674 1,108,211 52,902 70,057 4.8 6.3
64 Mississippi Private 1,297 865,261 34,685 39,517 4.0 4.6
64 Mississippi Public 377 242,951 18,216 30,540 7.5 12.6
64 Mississippi Priv. Construction 107 72,999 3,682 3,682 5.0 5.0
64 Mississippi Priv. Manufacturing 275 186,528 12,761 14,826 6.8 7.9
43 Missouri Total 2,849 2,546,383 314,813 356,535 12.4 14.0
43 Missouri Private 2,425 2,177,453 237,542 252,855 10.9 11.6
43 Missouri Public 424 368,931 77,271 103,679 20.9 28.1
43 Missouri Priv. Construction 168 161,166 46,780 48,936 29.0 30.4
43 Missouri Priv. Manufacturing 331 294,425 56,886 58,591 19.3 19.9
81 Montana Total 1,810 365,552 42,733 46,110 11.7 12.6
81 Montana Private 1,405 283,129 15,703 17,231 5.5 6.1
81 Montana Public 405 82,423 27,029 28,878 32.8 35.0
81 Montana Priv. Construction 122 24,200 3,858 3,858 15.9 15.9
81 Montana Priv. Manufacturing 91 18,136 2,051 2,051 11.3 11.3
46 Nebraska Total 3,116 831,310 69,168 83,279 8.3 10.0
46 Nebraska Private 2,561 684,457 34,432 38,989 5.0 5.7
46 Nebraska Public 555 146,854 34,735 44,289 23.7 30.2
46 Nebraska Priv. Construction 179 48,653 6,083 6,083 12.5 12.5
46 Nebraska Priv. Manufacturing 349 92,100 9,979 12,220 10.8 13.3
88 Nevada Total 3,229 1,006,042 125,992 143,912 12.5 14.3
88 Nevada Private 2,839 888,535 88,704 97,399 10.0 11.0
88 Nevada Public 390 117,507 37,288 46,512 31.7 39.6
88 Nevada Priv. Construction 294 96,518 15,020 15,647 15.6 16.2
88 Nevada Priv. Manufacturing 154 47,132 1,283 1,283 2.7 2.7
12 New Hampshire Total 3,674 618,441 60,945 68,299 9.9 11.0
12 New Hampshire Private 3,155 532,768 25,518 27,541 4.8 5.2
12 New Hampshire Public 519 85,673 35,427 40,758 41.4 47.6
12 New Hampshire Priv. Construction 198 34,380 4,404 4,404 12.8 12.8
12 New Hampshire Priv. Manufacturing 616 103,906 5,548 6,528 5.3 6.3
22 New Jersey Total 4,460 3,768,505 744,825 813,489 19.8 21.6
22 New Jersey Private 3,727 3,160,579 366,168 401,011 11.6 12.7
22 New Jersey Public 733 607,926 378,657 412,477 62.3 67.8
22 New Jersey Priv. Construction 196 167,399 52,816 53,722 31.6 32.1
22 New Jersey Priv. Manufacturing 490 413,624 48,710 53,316 11.8 12.9
85 New Mexico Total 1,857 734,422 49,008 65,344 6.7 8.9
85 New Mexico Private 1,365 546,437 18,756 22,213 3.4 4.1
85 New Mexico Public 492 187,985 30,252 43,131 16.1 22.9
85 New Mexico Priv. Construction 127 53,345 2,377 2,377 4.5 4.5
85 New Mexico Priv. Manufacturing 94 39,219 2,922 3,411 7.4 8.7
21 New York Total 8,026 7,900,885 1,995,770 2,084,596 25.3 26.4
21 New York Private 6,514 6,443,991 973,556 1,028,048 15.1 16.0
21 New York Public 1,512 1,456,894 1,022,215 1,056,548 70.2 72.5
21 New York Priv. Construction 390 398,197 112,141 115,133 28.2 28.9
21 New York Priv. Manufacturing 721 689,258 117,727 122,406 17.1 17.8
56 North Carolina Total 3,717 3,549,242 97,015 126,515 2.7 3.6
56 North Carolina Private 3,125 2,994,345 47,824 66,832 1.6 2.2
56 North Carolina Public 592 554,897 49,191 59,683 8.9 10.8
56 North Carolina Priv. Construction 244 245,416 1,934 1,934 0.8 0.8
56 North Carolina Priv. Manufacturing 628 587,883 10,220 14,311 1.7 2.4
44 North Dakota Total 2,577 292,101 22,383 26,194 7.7 9.0
44 North Dakota Private 1,976 226,830 9,227 10,259 4.1 4.5
44 North Dakota Public 601 65,271 13,156 15,936 20.2 24.4
44 North Dakota Priv. Construction 141 16,545 1,987 2,115 12.0 12.8
44 North Dakota Priv. Manufacturing 177 20,143 1,964 2,056 9.8 10.2
31 Ohio Total 5,487 4,997,665 758,560 820,266 15.2 16.4
31 Ohio Private 4,727 4,335,474 455,801 485,666 10.5 11.2
31 Ohio Public 760 662,191 302,759 334,599 45.7 50.5
31 Ohio Priv. Construction 244 234,368 45,622 47,480 19.5 20.3
31 Ohio Priv. Manufacturing 924 867,081 191,565 200,057 22.1 23.1
73 Oklahoma Total 1,944 1,402,063 86,202 100,246 6.1 7.1
73 Oklahoma Private 1,572 1,134,909 39,705 43,941 3.5 3.9
73 Oklahoma Public 372 267,154 46,497 56,305 17.4 21.1
73 Oklahoma Priv. Construction 101 74,285 3,012 3,012 4.1 4.1
73 Oklahoma Priv. Manufacturing 206 144,312 13,214 13,697 9.2 9.5
92 Oregon Total 2,500 1,470,595 223,503 243,227 15.2 16.5
92 Oregon Private 2,094 1,239,444 100,533 108,478 8.1 8.8
92 Oregon Public 406 231,151 122,970 134,749 53.2 58.3
92 Oregon Priv. Construction 145 86,946 9,510 9,510 10.9 10.9
92 Oregon Priv. Manufacturing 350 212,065 20,745 20,745 9.8 9.8
23 Pennsylvania Total 6,404 5,297,752 792,720 841,671 15.0 15.9
23 Pennsylvania Private 5,551 4,585,918 443,528 463,660 9.7 10.1
23 Pennsylvania Public 853 711,834 349,192 378,011 49.1 53.1
23 Pennsylvania Priv. Construction 319 272,702 54,479 54,479 20.0 20.0
23 Pennsylvania Priv. Manufacturing 966 796,934 153,121 156,053 19.2 19.6
15 Rhode Island Total 3,344 486,616 79,437 82,561 16.3 17.0
15 Rhode Island Private 2,849 416,188 36,741 39,139 8.8 9.4
15 Rhode Island Public 495 70,428 42,696 43,422 60.6 61.7
15 Rhode Island Priv. Construction 144 20,869 4,999 5,307 24.0 25.4
15 Rhode Island Priv. Manufacturing 507 72,996 7,302 8,035 10.0 11.0
57 South Carolina Total 2,187 1,764,806 53,536 74,333 3.0 4.2
57 South Carolina Private 1,780 1,446,301 37,078 41,278 2.6 2.9
57 South Carolina Public 407 318,505 16,458 33,055 5.2 10.4
57 South Carolina Priv. Construction 105 92,438 0 0 0.0 0.0
57 South Carolina Priv. Manufacturing 398 311,532 13,995 13,995 4.5 4.5
45 South Dakota Total 2,935 346,870 20,780 26,832 6.0 7.7
45 South Dakota Private 2,366 282,248 8,287 10,233 2.9 3.6
45 South Dakota Public 569 64,622 12,493 16,599 19.3 25.7
45 South Dakota Priv. Construction 155 18,477 803 803 4.3 4.3
45 South Dakota Priv. Manufacturing 375 44,277 3,345 3,886 7.6 8.8
62 Tennessee Total 2,222 2,465,314 164,202 190,959 6.7 7.7
62 Tennessee Private 1,880 2,097,194 103,336 111,640 4.9 5.3
62 Tennessee Public 342 368,119 60,866 79,320 16.5 21.5
62 Tennessee Priv. Construction 115 127,172 9,370 9,370 7.4 7.4
62 Tennessee Priv. Manufacturing 368 407,927 42,507 45,526 10.4 11.2
74 Texas Total 7,591 9,072,286 457,310 572,827 5.0 6.3
74 Texas Private 6,334 7,610,210 207,183 252,573 2.7 3.3
74 Texas Public 1,257 1,462,075 250,127 320,254 17.1 21.9
74 Texas Priv. Construction 564 689,761 21,220 23,413 3.1 3.4
74 Texas Priv. Manufacturing 868 1,040,183 76,308 86,389 7.3 8.3
87 Utah Total 2,509 1,000,563 57,543 66,606 5.8 6.7
87 Utah Private 2,059 827,907 23,934 29,252 2.9 3.5
87 Utah Public 450 172,656 33,608 37,354 19.5 21.6
87 Utah Priv. Construction 163 68,218 5,889 6,347 8.6 9.3
87 Utah Priv. Manufacturing 314 123,180 1,077 1,427 0.9 1.2
13 Vermont Total 2,846 291,125 28,660 33,286 9.8 11.4
13 Vermont Private 2,409 247,464 10,391 11,897 4.2 4.8
13 Vermont Public 437 43,661 18,269 21,390 41.8 49.0
13 Vermont Priv. Construction 147 15,176 510 510 3.4 3.4
13 Vermont Priv. Manufacturing 348 35,308 1,080 1,304 3.1 3.7
54 Virginia Total 3,209 3,307,571 176,051 217,838 5.3 6.6
54 Virginia Private 2,560 2,646,401 89,736 108,639 3.4 4.1
54 Virginia Public 649 661,170 86,316 109,199 13.1 16.5
54 Virginia Priv. Construction 202 209,091 4,325 4,325 2.1 2.1
54 Virginia Priv. Manufacturing 287 295,910 24,606 27,713 8.3 9.4
91 Washington Total 3,167 2,644,712 509,751 535,695 19.3 20.3
91 Washington Private 2,582 2,170,291 287,525 297,906 13.2 13.7
91 Washington Public 585 474,421 222,226 237,789 46.8 50.1
91 Washington Priv. Construction 173 149,660 36,837 36,837 24.6 24.6
91 Washington Priv. Manufacturing 388 334,894 55,515 56,311 16.6 16.8
55 West Virginia Total 2,191 700,138 99,421 109,638 14.2 15.7
55 West Virginia Private 1,758 564,390 59,535 64,059 10.5 11.4
55 West Virginia Public 433 135,748 39,886 45,578 29.4 33.6
55 West Virginia Priv. Construction 133 43,148 10,271 10,811 23.8 25.1
55 West Virginia Priv. Manufacturing 221 74,925 15,779 16,796 21.1 22.4
35 Wisconsin Total 3,871 2,597,010 414,327 439,136 16.0 16.9
35 Wisconsin Private 3,352 2,253,102 235,209 246,987 10.4 11.0
35 Wisconsin Public 519 343,907 179,118 192,150 52.1 55.9
35 Wisconsin Priv. Construction 196 133,303 31,403 31,403 23.6 23.6
35 Wisconsin Priv. Manufacturing 828 549,490 98,935 104,241 18.0 19.0
83 Wyoming Total 2,467 222,284 17,813 21,872 8.0 9.8
83 Wyoming Private 1,870 170,713 9,055 10,444 5.3 6.1
83 Wyoming Public 597 51,570 8,758 11,428 17.0 22.2
83 Wyoming Priv. Construction 175 15,753 928 928 5.9 5.9
83 Wyoming Priv. Manufacturing 111 9,928 1,087 1,268 11.0 12.8
                   
Data Sources: Current Population Survey (CPS) Outgoing Rotation Group (ORG) Earnings Files, 2004. Sample includes
employed wage and salary workers, ages 16 and over. Variable definitions are: State Code=Census state code used
in CPS, Obs=CPS sample size, Employment=wage and salary employment, Members=employed workers who are union
members, Covered=workers covered by a collective bargaining agreement, %Mem=percent of employed workers who
are union members, and %Cov=percent of employed workers who are covered by a collective bargaining agreement.
2005 by Barry T. Hirsch and David A. Macpherson. The use of data requires citation.