Union Membership, Coverage, Density and Employment by State, 2005 (details in table note)
State
Code State Sector Obs Employment Members Covered %Mem %Cov
63 Alabama Total 2,029 1,909,493 195,200 223,252 10.2 11.7
63 Alabama Private 1,675 1,584,590 94,677 107,086 6.0 6.8
63 Alabama Public 354 324,903 100,523 116,166 30.9 35.8
63 Alabama Priv. Construction 127 126,592 9,642 11,415 7.6 9.0
63 Alabama Priv. Manufacturing 337 322,188 38,978 43,440 12.1 13.5
94 Alaska Total 2,367 274,989 62,602 66,235 22.8 24.1
94 Alaska Private 1,712 199,613 26,056 26,929 13.1 13.5
94 Alaska Public 655 75,375 36,546 39,306 48.5 52.1
94 Alaska Priv. Construction 177 20,827 6,255 6,384 30.0 30.7
94 Alaska Priv. Manufacturing 54 6,361 492 492 7.7 7.7
86 Arizona Total 2,276 2,366,360 144,665 181,476 6.1 7.7
86 Arizona Private 1,921 1,999,990 78,289 96,008 3.9 4.8
86 Arizona Public 355 366,369 66,376 85,467 18.1 23.3
86 Arizona Priv. Construction 217 231,945 7,019 7,969 3.0 3.4
86 Arizona Priv. Manufacturing 171 177,817 6,002 7,007 3.4 3.9
71 Arkansas Total 1,945 1,137,782 54,453 68,484 4.8 6.0
71 Arkansas Private 1,605 944,695 29,513 34,552 3.1 3.7
71 Arkansas Public 340 193,087 24,940 33,932 12.9 17.6
71 Arkansas Priv. Construction 116 72,963 568 568 0.8 0.8
71 Arkansas Priv. Manufacturing 334 192,310 17,043 18,968 8.9 9.9
93 California Total 13,202 14,687,035 2,423,855 2,610,195 16.5 17.8
93 California Private 11,157 12,430,214 1,209,162 1,312,834 9.7 10.6
93 California Public 2,045 2,256,821 1,214,693 1,297,361 53.8 57.5
93 California Priv. Construction 903 1,034,759 168,978 177,840 16.3 17.2
93 California Priv. Manufacturing 1,493 1,653,230 139,651 149,192 8.4 9.0
84 Colorado Total 3,803 2,052,170 169,972 192,672 8.3 9.4
84 Colorado Private 3,183 1,720,366 90,951 101,059 5.3 5.9
84 Colorado Public 620 331,803 79,021 91,613 23.8 27.6
84 Colorado Priv. Construction 286 157,963 9,966 11,199 6.3 7.1
84 Colorado Priv. Manufacturing 373 201,785 17,576 19,058 8.7 9.4
16 Connecticut Total 3,954 1,549,515 246,685 262,781 15.9 17.0
16 Connecticut Private 3,363 1,319,211 100,431 109,094 7.6 8.3
16 Connecticut Public 591 230,305 146,254 153,686 63.5 66.7
16 Connecticut Priv. Construction 182 72,262 12,087 12,087 16.7 16.7
16 Connecticut Priv. Manufacturing 558 214,440 23,532 24,852 11.0 11.6
51 Delaware Total 2,799 385,935 45,678 49,732 11.8 12.9
51 Delaware Private 2,355 325,906 22,651 24,990 7.0 7.7
51 Delaware Public 444 60,029 23,027 24,742 38.4 41.2
51 Delaware Priv. Construction 213 30,170 3,955 4,260 13.1 14.1
51 Delaware Priv. Manufacturing 317 43,628 7,131 7,663 16.3 17.6
53 D.C. Total 2,259 258,962 29,331 33,264 11.3 12.8
53 D.C. Private 1,639 187,732 14,315 15,514 7.6 8.3
53 D.C. Public 620 71,230 15,016 17,751 21.1 24.9
53 D.C. Priv. Construction 68 7,643 1,902 1,902 24.9 24.9
53 D.C. Priv. Manufacturing 25 3,000 0 0 0.0 0.0
59 Florida Total 7,164 7,388,854 400,993 531,632 5.4 7.2
59 Florida Private 6,105 6,307,446 159,481 210,684 2.5 3.3
59 Florida Public 1,059 1,081,408 241,512 320,948 22.3 29.7
59 Florida Priv. Construction 588 619,535 22,902 26,668 3.7 4.3
59 Florida Priv. Manufacturing 465 476,679 15,052 18,627 3.2 3.9
58 Georgia Total 3,449 3,764,600 189,971 226,091 5.0 6.0
58 Georgia Private 2,893 3,175,626 118,925 136,705 3.7 4.3
58 Georgia Public 556 588,975 71,046 89,386 12.1 15.2
58 Georgia Priv. Construction 243 266,814 11,802 12,822 4.4 4.8
58 Georgia Priv. Manufacturing 445 482,975 34,449 36,308 7.1 7.5
95 Hawaii Total 2,688 545,125 140,608 145,277 25.8 26.7
95 Hawaii Private 2,094 426,260 72,072 74,655 16.9 17.5
95 Hawaii Public 594 118,865 68,535 70,622 57.7 59.4
95 Hawaii Priv. Construction 194 39,045 15,452 15,452 39.6 39.6
95 Hawaii Priv. Manufacturing 77 15,551 3,030 3,030 19.5 19.5
82 Idaho Total 2,082 605,583 31,316 38,113 5.2 6.3
82 Idaho Private 1,713 501,797 16,549 17,718 3.3 3.5
82 Idaho Public 369 103,786 14,767 20,395 14.2 19.7
82 Idaho Priv. Construction 131 39,109 2,040 2,040 5.2 5.2
82 Idaho Priv. Manufacturing 250 72,774 4,723 4,723 6.5 6.5
33 Illinois Total 5,770 5,472,594 926,805 964,593 16.9 17.6
33 Illinois Private 4,967 4,709,006 556,341 574,526 11.8 12.2
33 Illinois Public 803 763,589 370,464 390,067 48.5 51.1
33 Illinois Priv. Construction 325 312,478 124,947 127,398 40.0 40.8
33 Illinois Priv. Manufacturing 783 730,202 122,210 125,472 16.7 17.2
32 Indiana Total 3,147 2,788,753 345,650 367,814 12.4 13.2
32 Indiana Private 2,731 2,428,192 244,028 254,887 10.0 10.5
32 Indiana Public 416 360,561 101,622 112,926 28.2 31.3
32 Indiana Priv. Construction 171 164,915 33,082 33,082 20.1 20.1
32 Indiana Priv. Manufacturing 697 609,768 131,160 136,208 21.5 22.3
42 Iowa Total 3,462 1,368,785 157,061 185,437 11.5 13.5
42 Iowa Private 2,895 1,146,488 84,132 93,612 7.3 8.2
42 Iowa Public 567 222,297 72,929 91,825 32.8 41.3
42 Iowa Priv. Construction 188 76,031 13,416 13,824 17.6 18.2
42 Iowa Priv. Manufacturing 583 231,137 48,558 51,780 21.0 22.4
47 Kansas Total 2,764 1,209,795 85,238 115,065 7.0 9.5
47 Kansas Private 2,209 969,247 49,600 61,281 5.1 6.3
47 Kansas Public 555 240,548 35,638 53,784 14.8 22.4
47 Kansas Priv. Construction 117 53,487 6,669 7,707 12.5 14.4
47 Kansas Priv. Manufacturing 409 179,891 25,105 31,766 14.0 17.7
61 Kentucky Total 2,375 1,695,878 163,998 183,853 9.7 10.8
61 Kentucky Private 1,920 1,378,336 105,045 110,909 7.6 8.0
61 Kentucky Public 455 317,543 58,953 72,944 18.6 23.0
61 Kentucky Priv. Construction 127 92,719 7,789 7,789 8.4 8.4
61 Kentucky Priv. Manufacturing 347 249,808 33,081 34,033 13.2 13.6
72 Louisiana Total 1,591 1,778,228 114,273 131,592 6.4 7.4
72 Louisiana Private 1,298 1,465,346 70,547 79,521 4.8 5.4
72 Louisiana Public 293 312,881 43,726 52,071 14.0 16.6
72 Louisiana Priv. Construction 108 129,586 7,835 7,835 6.0 6.0
72 Louisiana Priv. Manufacturing 136 150,907 28,678 31,729 19.0 21.0
11 Maine Total 3,468 581,710 68,966 78,845 11.9 13.6
11 Maine Private 2,876 483,828 27,063 29,464 5.6 6.1
11 Maine Public 592 97,882 41,903 49,381 42.8 50.4
11 Maine Priv. Construction 164 27,619 1,701 1,888 6.2 6.8
11 Maine Priv. Manufacturing 382 64,587 11,873 12,539 18.4 19.4
52 Maryland Total 4,049 2,530,025 336,743 379,292 13.3 15.0
52 Maryland Private 3,129 1,931,410 143,414 160,579 7.4 8.3
52 Maryland Public 920 598,615 193,329 218,713 32.3 36.5
52 Maryland Priv. Construction 312 186,490 24,421 25,447 13.1 13.6
52 Maryland Priv. Manufacturing 253 151,408 23,028 23,028 15.2 15.2
14 Massachusetts Total 3,001 2,886,335 402,161 431,385 13.9 14.9
14 Massachusetts Private 2,606 2,517,639 187,360 200,329 7.4 8.0
14 Massachusetts Public 395 368,696 214,801 231,057 58.3 62.7
14 Massachusetts Priv. Construction 161 156,447 27,636 27,636 17.7 17.7
14 Massachusetts Priv. Manufacturing 302 279,938 24,456 25,488 8.7 9.1
34 Michigan Total 4,673 4,288,106 880,066 916,386 20.5 21.4
34 Michigan Private 4,008 3,688,117 532,257 556,741 14.4 15.1
34 Michigan Public 665 599,989 347,809 359,645 58.0 59.9
34 Michigan Priv. Construction 220 207,937 51,177 53,028 24.6 25.5
34 Michigan Priv. Manufacturing 994 919,946 245,237 248,738 26.7 27.0
41 Minnesota Total 4,524 2,494,021 392,160 409,920 15.7 16.4
41 Minnesota Private 3,879 2,142,169 207,003 212,974 9.7 9.9
41 Minnesota Public 645 351,853 185,157 196,946 52.6 56.0
41 Minnesota Priv. Construction 222 121,519 31,854 33,330 26.2 27.4
41 Minnesota Priv. Manufacturing 676 365,946 37,135 38,001 10.1 10.4
64 Mississippi Total 1,559 1,089,451 77,157 105,302 7.1 9.7
64 Mississippi Private 1,222 862,740 44,165 54,528 5.1 6.3
64 Mississippi Public 337 226,712 32,992 50,774 14.6 22.4
64 Mississippi Priv. Construction 86 64,798 4,136 4,776 6.4 7.4
64 Mississippi Priv. Manufacturing 299 213,716 21,670 26,594 10.1 12.4
43 Missouri Total 3,083 2,532,368 290,007 318,567 11.5 12.6
43 Missouri Private 2,626 2,170,231 212,459 225,550 9.8 10.4
43 Missouri Public 457 362,137 77,548 93,017 21.4 25.7
43 Missouri Priv. Construction 173 146,260 34,921 34,921 23.9 23.9
43 Missouri Priv. Manufacturing 422 348,552 73,082 76,953 21.0 22.1
81 Montana Total 1,732 391,390 41,736 47,752 10.7 12.2
81 Montana Private 1,345 306,881 17,592 19,798 5.7 6.5
81 Montana Public 387 84,509 24,144 27,954 28.6 33.1
81 Montana Priv. Construction 121 28,946 3,037 3,037 10.5 10.5
81 Montana Priv. Manufacturing 92 19,570 1,936 1,936 9.9 9.9
46 Nebraska Total 3,021 830,336 69,307 78,533 8.3 9.5
46 Nebraska Private 2,496 687,306 30,851 33,991 4.5 4.9
46 Nebraska Public 525 143,031 38,456 44,542 26.9 31.1
46 Nebraska Priv. Construction 159 43,553 3,091 3,091 7.1 7.1
46 Nebraska Priv. Manufacturing 410 111,677 12,558 13,929 11.2 12.5
88 Nevada Total 2,765 1,050,501 145,320 158,343 13.8 15.1
88 Nevada Private 2,447 931,933 111,927 120,385 12.0 12.9
88 Nevada Public 318 118,568 33,392 37,957 28.2 32.0
88 Nevada Priv. Construction 309 120,864 24,221 25,322 20.0 21.0
88 Nevada Priv. Manufacturing 116 43,903 3,447 3,854 7.9 8.8
12 New Hampshire Total 3,908 627,359 65,022 72,105 10.4 11.5
12 New Hampshire Private 3,350 540,432 21,677 24,383 4.0 4.5
12 New Hampshire Public 558 86,928 43,345 47,722 49.9 54.9
12 New Hampshire Priv. Construction 213 35,058 2,639 2,983 7.5 8.5
12 New Hampshire Priv. Manufacturing 609 97,051 4,282 4,574 4.4 4.7
22 New Jersey Total 3,997 3,868,492 791,272 837,738 20.5 21.7
22 New Jersey Private 3,338 3,230,812 382,223 403,020 11.8 12.5
22 New Jersey Public 659 637,680 409,048 434,718 64.1 68.2
22 New Jersey Priv. Construction 185 180,549 47,056 48,096 26.1 26.6
22 New Jersey Priv. Manufacturing 439 430,093 72,475 75,094 16.9 17.5
85 New Mexico Total 1,678 777,367 62,835 83,337 8.1 10.7
85 New Mexico Private 1,234 579,141 19,940 25,603 3.4 4.4
85 New Mexico Public 444 198,226 42,894 57,734 21.6 29.1
85 New Mexico Priv. Construction 123 61,699 6,160 6,160 10.0 10.0
85 New Mexico Priv. Manufacturing 68 32,587 2,154 3,387 6.6 10.4
21 New York Total 7,653 8,008,033 2,089,728 2,201,200 26.1 27.5
21 New York Private 6,180 6,495,959 1,047,617 1,111,913 16.1 17.1
21 New York Public 1,473 1,512,074 1,042,111 1,089,287 68.9 72.0
21 New York Priv. Construction 363 386,083 88,879 95,529 23.0 24.7
21 New York Priv. Manufacturing 622 633,541 103,764 109,493 16.4 17.3
56 North Carolina Total 3,571 3,630,896 106,964 142,597 2.9 3.9
56 North Carolina Private 2,960 3,031,276 55,007 74,413 1.8 2.5
56 North Carolina Public 611 599,620 51,957 68,184 8.7 11.4
56 North Carolina Priv. Construction 287 293,375 1,203 3,443 0.4 1.2
56 North Carolina Priv. Manufacturing 557 554,071 19,361 22,523 3.5 4.1
44 North Dakota Total 2,346 288,899 21,005 26,438 7.3 9.2
44 North Dakota Private 1,832 226,977 8,202 9,746 3.6 4.3
44 North Dakota Public 514 61,923 12,804 16,692 20.7 27.0
44 North Dakota Priv. Construction 94 11,875 1,068 1,068 9.0 9.0
44 North Dakota Priv. Manufacturing 173 21,741 1,679 1,892 7.7 8.7
31 Ohio Total 5,366 5,038,508 804,273 866,265 16.0 17.2
31 Ohio Private 4,581 4,304,368 466,478 497,120 10.8 11.5
31 Ohio Public 785 734,140 337,795 369,145 46.0 50.3
31 Ohio Priv. Construction 252 234,079 50,242 51,924 21.5 22.2
31 Ohio Priv. Manufacturing 978 917,494 194,114 196,669 21.2 21.4
73 Oklahoma Total 1,978 1,431,816 76,728 90,980 5.4 6.4
73 Oklahoma Private 1,585 1,150,461 33,130 38,409 2.9 3.3
73 Oklahoma Public 393 281,355 43,598 52,570 15.5 18.7
73 Oklahoma Priv. Construction 115 84,211 1,206 1,951 1.4 2.3
73 Oklahoma Priv. Manufacturing 216 156,685 8,419 8,419 5.4 5.4
92 Oregon Total 2,307 1,470,228 212,844 231,393 14.5 15.7
92 Oregon Private 1,915 1,228,829 94,817 104,893 7.7 8.5
92 Oregon Public 392 241,399 118,027 126,500 48.9 52.4
92 Oregon Priv. Construction 134 89,424 9,380 9,380 10.5 10.5
92 Oregon Priv. Manufacturing 312 204,290 21,905 25,584 10.7 12.5
23 Pennsylvania Total 5,968 5,455,581 752,537 817,549 13.8 15.0
23 Pennsylvania Private 5,166 4,734,237 402,400 429,993 8.5 9.1
23 Pennsylvania Public 802 721,344 350,137 387,556 48.5 53.7
23 Pennsylvania Priv. Construction 308 289,586 58,065 61,589 20.1 21.3
23 Pennsylvania Priv. Manufacturing 870 790,168 126,767 132,086 16.0 16.7
15 Rhode Island Total 3,242 493,960 78,780 83,098 15.9 16.8
15 Rhode Island Private 2,784 426,378 35,797 38,261 8.4 9.0
15 Rhode Island Public 458 67,582 42,983 44,837 63.6 66.3
15 Rhode Island Priv. Construction 145 22,544 4,124 4,124 18.3 18.3
15 Rhode Island Priv. Manufacturing 482 72,978 6,820 7,456 9.3 10.2
57 South Carolina Total 2,205 1,739,427 40,031 57,859 2.3 3.3
57 South Carolina Private 1,790 1,417,796 16,223 23,432 1.1 1.7
57 South Carolina Public 415 321,632 23,808 34,427 7.4 10.7
57 South Carolina Priv. Construction 146 121,756 701 701 0.6 0.6
57 South Carolina Priv. Manufacturing 398 311,222 9,686 11,403 3.1 3.7
45 South Dakota Total 2,910 350,178 20,540 28,722 5.9 8.2
45 South Dakota Private 2,359 286,458 7,852 9,914 2.7 3.5
45 South Dakota Public 551 63,720 12,688 18,808 19.9 29.5
45 South Dakota Priv. Construction 161 20,178 1,305 1,412 6.5 7.0
45 South Dakota Priv. Manufacturing 339 40,481 2,200 2,951 5.4 7.3
62 Tennessee Total 2,349 2,367,733 128,093 155,506 5.4 6.6
62 Tennessee Private 1,977 1,999,627 65,049 77,507 3.3 3.9
62 Tennessee Public 372 368,106 63,043 77,999 17.1 21.2
62 Tennessee Priv. Construction 143 144,518 6,695 7,708 4.6 5.3
62 Tennessee Priv. Manufacturing 391 388,602 27,027 32,298 7.0 8.3
74 Texas Total 8,450 9,485,249 506,173 590,291 5.3 6.2
74 Texas Private 7,056 7,945,424 247,037 279,894 3.1 3.5
74 Texas Public 1,394 1,539,825 259,136 310,397 16.8 20.2
74 Texas Priv. Construction 644 737,694 21,483 23,814 2.9 3.2
74 Texas Priv. Manufacturing 872 995,227 71,226 76,757 7.2 7.7
87 Utah Total 2,539 1,034,707 50,511 63,201 4.9 6.1
87 Utah Private 2,099 861,281 23,286 29,271 2.7 3.4
87 Utah Public 440 173,427 27,225 33,930 15.7 19.6
87 Utah Priv. Construction 183 77,547 5,772 7,092 7.4 9.1
87 Utah Priv. Manufacturing 275 109,378 2,003 2,382 1.8 2.2
13 Vermont Total 2,698 286,514 31,060 37,331 10.8 13.0
13 Vermont Private 2,224 237,392 12,151 13,303 5.1 5.6
13 Vermont Public 474 49,122 18,909 24,028 38.5 48.9
13 Vermont Priv. Construction 165 18,078 525 525 2.9 2.9
13 Vermont Priv. Manufacturing 339 35,586 1,899 2,103 5.3 5.9
54 Virginia Total 3,944 3,406,312 164,580 210,524 4.8 6.2
54 Virginia Private 3,142 2,711,624 92,155 111,418 3.4 4.1
54 Virginia Public 802 694,688 72,425 99,106 10.4 14.3
54 Virginia Priv. Construction 303 261,277 6,734 9,447 2.6 3.6
54 Virginia Priv. Manufacturing 349 302,905 24,702 27,837 8.2 9.2
91 Washington Total 3,189 2,746,462 523,305 558,916 19.1 20.4
91 Washington Private 2,565 2,223,578 254,336 269,610 11.4 12.1
91 Washington Public 624 522,884 268,969 289,306 51.4 55.3
91 Washington Priv. Construction 173 153,525 30,686 30,686 20.0 20.0
91 Washington Priv. Manufacturing 359 314,182 55,709 56,403 17.7 18.0
55 West Virginia Total 1,933 687,946 99,052 106,686 14.4 15.5
55 West Virginia Private 1,507 541,578 57,616 61,727 10.6 11.4
55 West Virginia Public 426 146,368 41,436 44,959 28.3 30.7
55 West Virginia Priv. Construction 114 41,898 10,086 11,116 24.1 26.5
55 West Virginia Priv. Manufacturing 172 61,149 13,051 13,051 21.3 21.3
35 Wisconsin Total 3,600 2,550,975 410,060 438,125 16.1 17.2
35 Wisconsin Private 3,131 2,218,374 245,377 259,479 11.1 11.7
35 Wisconsin Public 469 332,602 164,682 178,646 49.5 53.7
35 Wisconsin Priv. Construction 152 117,639 29,332 30,618 24.9 26.0
35 Wisconsin Priv. Manufacturing 733 507,981 95,845 98,603 18.9 19.4
83 Wyoming Total 2,316 227,943 18,019 21,618 7.9 9.5
83 Wyoming Private 1,754 174,089 9,792 11,344 5.6 6.5
83 Wyoming Public 562 53,854 8,226 10,274 15.3 19.1
83 Wyoming Priv. Construction 171 17,278 1,277 1,385 7.4 8.0
83 Wyoming Priv. Manufacturing 78 7,287 936 936 12.8 12.8
                   
Data Sources: Current Population Survey (CPS) Outgoing Rotation Group (ORG) Earnings Files, 2005. Sample includes
employed wage and salary workers, ages 16 and over. Variable definitions are: State Code=Census state code used
in CPS, Obs=CPS sample size, Employment=wage and salary employment, Members=employed workers who are union
members, Covered=workers covered by a collective bargaining agreement, %Mem=percent of employed workers who
are union members, and %Cov=percent of employed workers who are covered by a collective bargaining agreement.
2006 by Barry T. Hirsch and David A. Macpherson. The use of data requires citation.