Union Membership, Coverage, Density and Employment by State, 2006 (details in table note)
State
Code State Sector Obs Employment Members Covered %Mem %Cov
63 Alabama Total 1,903 1,930,249 170,113 193,988 8.8 10.0
63 Alabama Private 1,572 1,598,093 74,085 84,733 4.6 5.3
63 Alabama Public 331 332,156 96,028 109,255 28.9 32.9
63 Alabama Priv. Construction 127 137,685 4,225 6,118 3.1 4.4
63 Alabama Priv. Manufacturing 331 333,373 29,133 30,921 8.7 9.3
94 Alaska Total 2,338 279,578 62,055 66,552 22.2 23.8
94 Alaska Private 1,700 204,482 25,076 26,502 12.3 13.0
94 Alaska Public 638 75,096 36,979 40,050 49.2 53.3
94 Alaska Priv. Construction 167 20,300 6,596 6,866 32.5 33.8
94 Alaska Priv. Manufacturing 51 6,467 345 345 5.3 5.3
86 Arizona Total 2,359 2,583,996 196,922 249,834 7.6 9.7
86 Arizona Private 1,983 2,171,559 95,383 128,385 4.4 5.9
86 Arizona Public 376 412,437 101,539 121,449 24.6 29.4
86 Arizona Priv. Construction 223 249,587 11,436 15,737 4.6 6.3
86 Arizona Priv. Manufacturing 195 214,396 8,108 10,977 3.8 5.1
71 Arkansas Total 1,741 1,130,108 58,127 67,488 5.1 6.0
71 Arkansas Private 1,414 922,486 36,735 37,926 4.0 4.1
71 Arkansas Public 327 207,621 21,392 29,561 10.3 14.2
71 Arkansas Priv. Construction 95 63,769 575 963 0.9 1.5
71 Arkansas Priv. Manufacturing 312 205,573 17,527 17,527 8.5 8.5
93 California Total 13,770 14,500,760 2,273,437 2,444,122 15.7 16.9
93 California Private 11,636 12,276,069 1,102,609 1,182,097 9.0 9.6
93 California Public 2,134 2,224,691 1,170,827 1,262,025 52.6 56.7
93 California Priv. Construction 948 1,007,227 175,828 181,604 17.5 18.0
93 California Priv. Manufacturing 1,544 1,627,990 103,109 111,730 6.3 6.9
84 Colorado Total 3,873 2,153,893 164,957 186,101 7.7 8.6
84 Colorado Private 3,294 1,836,606 92,589 103,537 5.0 5.6
84 Colorado Public 579 317,287 72,368 82,564 22.8 26.0
84 Colorado Priv. Construction 287 161,201 9,684 10,670 6.0 6.6
84 Colorado Priv. Manufacturing 359 201,353 17,684 17,684 8.8 8.8
16 Connecticut Total 4,078 1,590,721 247,492 262,781 15.6 16.5
16 Connecticut Private 3,478 1,355,656 108,696 119,181 8.0 8.8
16 Connecticut Public 600 235,065 138,797 143,600 59.0 61.1
16 Connecticut Priv. Construction 210 82,561 13,807 15,074 16.7 18.3
16 Connecticut Priv. Manufacturing 532 203,827 23,784 25,262 11.7 12.4
51 Delaware Total 2,972 395,681 42,646 45,097 10.8 11.4
51 Delaware Private 2,525 336,420 19,409 20,942 5.8 6.2
51 Delaware Public 447 59,260 23,237 24,154 39.2 40.8
51 Delaware Priv. Construction 253 32,851 3,576 3,738 10.9 11.4
51 Delaware Priv. Manufacturing 299 39,853 5,135 5,273 12.9 13.2
53 D.C. Total 2,302 246,367 25,350 30,110 10.3 12.2
53 D.C. Private 1,698 182,684 12,283 14,844 6.7 8.1
53 D.C. Public 604 63,683 13,067 15,266 20.5 24.0
53 D.C. Priv. Construction 70 7,711 1,130 1,130 14.7 14.7
53 D.C. Priv. Manufacturing 29 2,999 147 232 4.9 7.7
59 Florida Total 7,303 7,675,747 396,958 497,350 5.2 6.5
59 Florida Private 6,276 6,601,617 154,150 195,509 2.3 3.0
59 Florida Public 1,027 1,074,130 242,807 301,841 22.6 28.1
59 Florida Priv. Construction 656 693,484 21,783 24,044 3.1 3.5
59 Florida Priv. Manufacturing 466 488,743 11,818 16,903 2.4 3.5
58 Georgia Total 3,802 3,973,751 175,802 229,688 4.4 5.8
58 Georgia Private 3,171 3,325,181 113,806 141,743 3.4 4.3
58 Georgia Public 631 648,570 61,996 87,945 9.6 13.6
58 Georgia Priv. Construction 268 286,866 11,965 11,965 4.2 4.2
58 Georgia Priv. Manufacturing 482 496,978 32,266 40,746 6.5 8.2
95 Hawaii Total 2,665 561,676 138,968 145,642 24.7 25.9
95 Hawaii Private 2,066 437,113 70,274 73,498 16.1 16.8
95 Hawaii Public 599 124,563 68,693 72,143 55.1 57.9
95 Hawaii Priv. Construction 177 38,109 14,562 14,562 38.2 38.2
95 Hawaii Priv. Manufacturing 73 15,556 3,306 3,686 21.3 23.7
82 Idaho Total 2,043 620,166 37,418 44,780 6.0 7.2
82 Idaho Private 1,647 504,261 19,997 22,320 4.0 4.4
82 Idaho Public 396 115,905 17,421 22,459 15.0 19.4
82 Idaho Priv. Construction 140 44,272 5,001 5,001 11.3 11.3
82 Idaho Priv. Manufacturing 220 66,660 4,808 5,617 7.2 8.4
33 Illinois Total 5,516 5,684,136 931,166 979,311 16.4 17.2
33 Illinois Private 4,749 4,905,326 545,930 570,735 11.1 11.6
33 Illinois Public 767 778,809 385,235 408,576 49.5 52.5
33 Illinois Priv. Construction 295 310,327 124,650 126,446 40.2 40.7
33 Illinois Priv. Manufacturing 724 738,919 110,879 113,785 15.0 15.4
32 Indiana Total 2,793 2,787,105 334,078 362,384 12.0 13.0
32 Indiana Private 2,398 2,405,874 228,135 244,734 9.5 10.2
32 Indiana Public 395 381,232 105,942 117,650 27.8 30.9
32 Indiana Priv. Construction 165 175,589 39,943 41,067 22.7 23.4
32 Indiana Priv. Manufacturing 567 568,397 115,248 118,211 20.3 20.8
42 Iowa Total 3,571 1,423,671 160,677 199,393 11.3 14.0
42 Iowa Private 2,965 1,183,664 86,563 96,660 7.3 8.2
42 Iowa Public 606 240,007 74,114 102,734 30.9 42.8
42 Iowa Priv. Construction 176 72,832 11,153 11,153 15.3 15.3
42 Iowa Priv. Manufacturing 569 227,283 45,841 49,826 20.2 21.9
47 Kansas Total 2,628 1,236,097 98,816 114,851 8.0 9.3
47 Kansas Private 2,125 1,005,633 54,204 63,054 5.4 6.3
47 Kansas Public 503 230,464 44,613 51,797 19.4 22.5
47 Kansas Priv. Construction 124 59,793 9,427 9,427 15.8 15.8
47 Kansas Priv. Manufacturing 376 175,883 20,141 25,440 11.5 14.5
61 Kentucky Total 2,479 1,752,214 172,106 196,338 9.8 11.2
61 Kentucky Private 2,042 1,446,092 122,219 133,924 8.5 9.3
61 Kentucky Public 437 306,122 49,887 62,414 16.3 20.4
61 Kentucky Priv. Construction 136 99,534 10,560 11,810 10.6 11.9
61 Kentucky Priv. Manufacturing 368 262,427 40,188 42,683 15.3 16.3
72 Louisiana Total 1,541 1,676,436 107,008 121,163 6.4 7.2
72 Louisiana Private 1,283 1,409,658 65,575 74,068 4.7 5.3
72 Louisiana Public 258 266,778 41,432 47,095 15.5 17.7
72 Louisiana Priv. Construction 123 140,306 10,388 11,364 7.4 8.1
72 Louisiana Priv. Manufacturing 148 167,572 31,003 33,472 18.5 20.0
11 Maine Total 3,381 583,869 69,293 78,931 11.9 13.5
11 Maine Private 2,827 490,441 26,056 28,910 5.3 5.9
11 Maine Public 554 93,428 43,237 50,021 46.3 53.5
11 Maine Priv. Construction 172 29,992 1,942 2,116 6.5 7.1
11 Maine Priv. Manufacturing 377 64,815 11,049 11,049 17.0 17.0
52 Maryland Total 4,478 2,613,728 342,389 386,452 13.1 14.8
52 Maryland Private 3,434 2,000,692 149,148 169,893 7.5 8.5
52 Maryland Public 1,044 613,036 193,241 216,559 31.5 35.3
52 Maryland Priv. Construction 352 201,004 22,969 27,968 11.4 13.9
52 Maryland Priv. Manufacturing 239 138,919 19,619 19,619 14.1 14.1
14 Massachusetts Total 2,729 2,858,969 413,778 438,415 14.5 15.3
14 Massachusetts Private 2,385 2,507,348 206,030 225,470 8.2 9.0
14 Massachusetts Public 344 351,622 207,748 212,944 59.1 60.6
14 Massachusetts Priv. Construction 140 147,334 29,399 29,399 20.0 20.0
14 Massachusetts Priv. Manufacturing 264 267,892 32,096 35,339 12.0 13.2
34 Michigan Total 4,270 4,299,280 841,831 878,572 19.6 20.4
34 Michigan Private 3,663 3,702,774 509,093 532,329 13.7 14.4
34 Michigan Public 607 596,505 332,737 346,242 55.8 58.0
34 Michigan Priv. Construction 190 198,111 43,749 43,749 22.1 22.1
34 Michigan Priv. Manufacturing 911 914,701 223,969 231,185 24.5 25.3
41 Minnesota Total 4,643 2,478,590 395,480 416,412 16.0 16.8
41 Minnesota Private 3,944 2,113,575 205,447 216,713 9.7 10.3
41 Minnesota Public 699 365,015 190,032 199,699 52.1 54.7
41 Minnesota Priv. Construction 230 125,426 30,142 31,312 24.0 25.0
41 Minnesota Priv. Manufacturing 734 388,499 44,692 47,026 11.5 12.1
64 Mississippi Total 1,428 1,064,772 60,044 77,593 5.6 7.3
64 Mississippi Private 1,144 857,930 34,890 42,852 4.1 5.0
64 Mississippi Public 284 206,841 25,155 34,741 12.2 16.8
64 Mississippi Priv. Construction 77 59,431 1,875 1,875 3.2 3.2
64 Mississippi Priv. Manufacturing 268 202,730 17,014 22,788 8.4 11.2
43 Missouri Total 3,126 2,609,569 284,197 310,302 10.9 11.9
43 Missouri Private 2,693 2,249,025 211,108 219,353 9.4 9.8
43 Missouri Public 433 360,544 73,089 90,949 20.3 25.2
43 Missouri Priv. Construction 174 146,678 44,811 47,168 30.6 32.2
43 Missouri Priv. Manufacturing 447 374,702 62,221 63,185 16.6 16.9
81 Montana Total 1,649 396,969 48,322 52,162 12.2 13.1
81 Montana Private 1,259 306,413 16,767 18,845 5.5 6.2
81 Montana Public 390 90,556 31,555 33,317 34.8 36.8
81 Montana Priv. Construction 113 29,120 2,536 3,113 8.7 10.7
81 Montana Priv. Manufacturing 81 19,036 1,708 1,708 9.0 9.0
46 Nebraska Total 2,850 830,549 65,913 78,761 7.9 9.5
46 Nebraska Private 2,366 691,882 30,541 34,800 4.4 5.0
46 Nebraska Public 484 138,667 35,371 43,960 25.5 31.7
46 Nebraska Priv. Construction 153 45,572 4,142 4,142 9.1 9.1
46 Nebraska Priv. Manufacturing 403 115,109 10,494 11,698 9.1 10.2
88 Nevada Total 2,921 1,124,231 166,518 191,470 14.8 17.0
88 Nevada Private 2,573 995,580 124,190 139,433 12.5 14.0
88 Nevada Public 348 128,651 42,329 52,037 32.9 40.4
88 Nevada Priv. Construction 335 134,833 26,346 28,209 19.5 20.9
88 Nevada Priv. Manufacturing 104 39,453 1,217 2,440 3.1 6.2
12 New Hampshire Total 4,065 620,340 62,915 70,137 10.1 11.3
12 New Hampshire Private 3,474 532,468 23,439 24,656 4.4 4.6
12 New Hampshire Public 591 87,872 39,476 45,481 44.9 51.8
12 New Hampshire Priv. Construction 206 32,315 3,109 3,109 9.6 9.6
12 New Hampshire Priv. Manufacturing 630 96,195 4,153 4,780 4.3 5.0
22 New Jersey Total 3,796 3,826,562 770,268 825,347 20.1 21.6
22 New Jersey Private 3,151 3,183,757 356,338 386,747 11.2 12.1
22 New Jersey Public 645 642,805 413,930 438,600 64.4 68.2
22 New Jersey Priv. Construction 180 182,534 52,684 53,577 28.9 29.4
22 New Jersey Priv. Manufacturing 398 402,133 49,783 51,881 12.4 12.9
85 New Mexico Total 1,647 796,411 62,209 91,588 7.8 11.5
85 New Mexico Private 1,239 604,814 29,709 39,229 4.9 6.5
85 New Mexico Public 408 191,597 32,501 52,359 17.0 27.3
85 New Mexico Priv. Construction 122 63,183 7,423 8,326 11.7 13.2
85 New Mexico Priv. Manufacturing 71 34,308 1,455 2,300 4.2 6.7
21 New York Total 7,499 8,115,161 1,981,323 2,060,194 24.4 25.4
21 New York Private 6,119 6,657,150 977,510 1,027,210 14.7 15.4
21 New York Public 1,380 1,458,011 1,003,813 1,032,984 68.8 70.8
21 New York Priv. Construction 384 420,042 101,724 104,843 24.2 25.0
21 New York Priv. Manufacturing 637 671,687 97,645 102,772 14.5 15.3
56 North Carolina Total 3,530 3,809,761 125,627 155,114 3.3 4.1
56 North Carolina Private 2,938 3,180,923 57,781 71,513 1.8 2.2
56 North Carolina Public 592 628,837 67,846 83,601 10.8 13.3
56 North Carolina Priv. Construction 281 310,313 2,855 2,855 0.9 0.9
56 North Carolina Priv. Manufacturing 539 574,428 17,761 22,936 3.1 4.0
44 North Dakota Total 2,406 300,236 20,290 23,982 6.8 8.0
44 North Dakota Private 1,855 232,043 8,518 9,212 3.7 4.0
44 North Dakota Public 551 68,192 11,773 14,769 17.3 21.7
44 North Dakota Priv. Construction 114 14,464 774 916 5.4 6.3
44 North Dakota Priv. Manufacturing 182 22,854 1,970 1,970 8.6 8.6
31 Ohio Total 5,209 5,170,187 733,703 801,264 14.2 15.5
31 Ohio Private 4,454 4,427,766 410,902 440,321 9.3 9.9
31 Ohio Public 755 742,421 322,800 360,943 43.5 48.6
31 Ohio Priv. Construction 261 261,792 52,614 52,614 20.1 20.1
31 Ohio Priv. Manufacturing 968 950,846 160,717 168,701 16.9 17.7
73 Oklahoma Total 2,030 1,452,808 92,752 112,428 6.4 7.7
73 Oklahoma Private 1,630 1,177,490 41,209 48,911 3.5 4.2
73 Oklahoma Public 400 275,318 51,543 63,516 18.7 23.1
73 Oklahoma Priv. Construction 105 78,763 3,203 3,726 4.1 4.7
73 Oklahoma Priv. Manufacturing 219 157,604 14,272 15,973 9.1 10.1
92 Oregon Total 2,286 1,526,954 210,662 224,580 13.8 14.7
92 Oregon Private 1,923 1,294,161 97,702 100,238 7.5 7.7
92 Oregon Public 363 232,793 112,960 124,342 48.5 53.4
92 Oregon Priv. Construction 139 98,223 11,775 11,775 12.0 12.0
92 Oregon Priv. Manufacturing 306 206,099 24,216 24,782 11.7 12.0
23 Pennsylvania Total 5,507 5,456,541 744,537 802,277 13.6 14.7
23 Pennsylvania Private 4,771 4,743,526 380,567 412,313 8.0 8.7
23 Pennsylvania Public 736 713,015 363,969 389,964 51.0 54.7
23 Pennsylvania Priv. Construction 279 285,088 47,059 47,059 16.5 16.5
23 Pennsylvania Priv. Manufacturing 781 764,321 104,963 106,075 13.7 13.9
15 Rhode Island Total 3,172 497,562 76,297 79,458 15.3 16.0
15 Rhode Island Private 2,748 432,231 33,499 35,155 7.8 8.1
15 Rhode Island Public 424 65,330 42,797 44,303 65.5 67.8
15 Rhode Island Priv. Construction 175 27,669 4,570 4,570 16.5 16.5
15 Rhode Island Priv. Manufacturing 436 67,840 4,793 4,793 7.1 7.1
57 South Carolina Total 2,232 1,775,394 58,655 74,288 3.3 4.2
57 South Carolina Private 1,816 1,449,420 31,842 33,216 2.2 2.3
57 South Carolina Public 416 325,975 26,813 41,072 8.2 12.6
57 South Carolina Priv. Construction 159 134,372 3,662 3,662 2.7 2.7
57 South Carolina Priv. Manufacturing 384 303,059 8,540 9,226 2.8 3.0
45 South Dakota Total 2,830 350,593 20,781 25,125 5.9 7.2
45 South Dakota Private 2,319 290,600 8,100 8,561 2.8 2.9
45 South Dakota Public 511 59,993 12,681 16,564 21.1 27.6
45 South Dakota Priv. Construction 187 23,270 392 392 1.7 1.7
45 South Dakota Priv. Manufacturing 370 44,333 3,890 4,130 8.8 9.3
62 Tennessee Total 2,392 2,549,584 152,962 174,002 6.0 6.8
62 Tennessee Private 2,024 2,156,099 67,418 76,198 3.1 3.5
62 Tennessee Public 368 393,485 85,545 97,804 21.7 24.9
62 Tennessee Priv. Construction 180 189,906 2,942 2,942 1.5 1.5
62 Tennessee Priv. Manufacturing 379 396,452 32,618 35,271 8.2 8.9
74 Texas Total 8,785 9,750,865 476,209 575,809 4.9 5.9
74 Texas Private 7,320 8,166,978 230,574 264,971 2.8 3.2
74 Texas Public 1,465 1,583,887 245,634 310,838 15.5 19.6
74 Texas Priv. Construction 683 778,026 14,710 15,756 1.9 2.0
74 Texas Priv. Manufacturing 915 1,031,799 61,010 66,946 5.9 6.5
87 Utah Total 2,474 1,120,622 60,730 68,511 5.4 6.1
87 Utah Private 2,022 923,466 25,336 28,231 2.7 3.1
87 Utah Public 452 197,156 35,394 40,280 18.0 20.4
87 Utah Priv. Construction 202 93,479 3,953 3,953 4.2 4.2
87 Utah Priv. Manufacturing 275 123,886 5,550 7,259 4.5 5.9
13 Vermont Total 2,761 304,838 33,658 39,251 11.0 12.9
13 Vermont Private 2,280 253,013 12,566 14,062 5.0 5.6
13 Vermont Public 481 51,825 21,092 25,189 40.7 48.6
13 Vermont Priv. Construction 169 19,725 738 738 3.7 3.7
13 Vermont Priv. Manufacturing 329 35,835 1,220 1,578 3.4 4.4
54 Virginia Total 4,010 3,445,961 139,498 179,326 4.0 5.2
54 Virginia Private 3,253 2,807,697 85,990 104,226 3.1 3.7
54 Virginia Public 757 638,265 53,508 75,100 8.4 11.8
54 Virginia Priv. Construction 336 287,725 5,152 12,806 1.8 4.5
54 Virginia Priv. Manufacturing 319 272,775 21,270 26,797 7.8 9.8
91 Washington Total 3,084 2,771,727 548,509 582,644 19.8 21.0
91 Washington Private 2,560 2,310,657 288,926 304,913 12.5 13.2
91 Washington Public 524 461,070 259,583 277,731 56.3 60.2
91 Washington Priv. Construction 178 165,368 42,219 42,219 25.5 25.5
91 Washington Priv. Manufacturing 383 341,028 69,361 71,063 20.3 20.8
55 West Virginia Total 1,883 710,429 100,686 110,118 14.2 15.5
55 West Virginia Private 1,502 570,029 58,537 64,439 10.3 11.3
55 West Virginia Public 381 140,400 42,149 45,679 30.0 32.5
55 West Virginia Priv. Construction 119 45,976 7,271 7,577 15.8 16.5
55 West Virginia Priv. Manufacturing 179 68,314 14,538 16,176 21.3 23.7
35 Wisconsin Total 3,547 2,586,656 385,525 415,198 14.9 16.1
35 Wisconsin Private 3,065 2,245,470 202,717 217,832 9.0 9.7
35 Wisconsin Public 482 341,186 182,809 197,366 53.6 57.8
35 Wisconsin Priv. Construction 144 112,021 32,342 32,991 28.9 29.5
35 Wisconsin Priv. Manufacturing 680 497,938 82,027 86,235 16.5 17.3
83 Wyoming Total 2,364 235,114 19,447 23,501 8.3 10.0
83 Wyoming Private 1,829 181,658 11,121 12,596 6.1 6.9
83 Wyoming Public 535 53,455 8,326 10,904 15.6 20.4
83 Wyoming Priv. Construction 183 18,202 1,921 2,032 10.6 11.2
83 Wyoming Priv. Manufacturing 90 8,799 692 796 7.9 9.1
                   
Data Sources: Current Population Survey (CPS) Outgoing Rotation Group (ORG) Earnings Files, 2006. Sample includes
employed wage and salary workers, ages 16 and over. Variable definitions are: State Code=Census state code used
in CPS, Obs=CPS sample size, Employment=wage and salary employment, Members=employed workers who are union
members, Covered=workers covered by a collective bargaining agreement, %Mem=percent of employed workers who
are union members, and %Cov=percent of employed workers who are covered by a collective bargaining agreement.
2007 by Barry T. Hirsch and David A. Macpherson. The use of data requires citation.