Union Membership, Coverage, Density and Employment by State, 2007 (details in table note)
State
Code State Sector Obs Employment Members Covered %Mem %Cov
63 Alabama Total 1,789 1,894,629 180,397 201,426 9.5 10.6
63 Alabama Private 1,460 1,555,871 75,862 85,290 4.9 5.5
63 Alabama Public 329 338,758 104,535 116,136 30.9 34.3
63 Alabama Priv. Construction 127 142,595 7,611 7,611 5.3 5.3
63 Alabama Priv. Manufacturing 295 309,522 26,284 32,417 8.5 10.5
94 Alaska Total 2,355 283,812 67,511 69,997 23.8 24.7
94 Alaska Private 1,696 205,957 26,783 28,042 13.0 13.6
94 Alaska Public 659 77,855 40,728 41,955 52.3 53.9
94 Alaska Priv. Construction 156 19,286 5,866 5,866 30.4 30.4
94 Alaska Priv. Manufacturing 36 4,576 648 784 14.2 17.1
86 Arizona Total 2,297 2,619,198 229,570 254,858 8.8 9.7
86 Arizona Private 1,928 2,206,668 143,353 154,787 6.5 7.0
86 Arizona Public 369 412,530 86,217 100,070 20.9 24.3
86 Arizona Priv. Construction 228 268,316 22,502 23,652 8.4 8.8
86 Arizona Priv. Manufacturing 203 229,128 16,177 17,289 7.1 7.5
71 Arkansas Total 1,781 1,154,073 61,882 75,179 5.4 6.5
71 Arkansas Private 1,411 918,745 31,334 35,805 3.4 3.9
71 Arkansas Public 370 235,328 30,548 39,375 13.0 16.7
71 Arkansas Priv. Construction 102 69,702 1,173 1,173 1.7 1.7
71 Arkansas Priv. Manufacturing 294 184,525 13,984 16,468 7.6 8.9
93 California Total 13,782 14,856,080 2,473,918 2,650,380 16.7 17.8
93 California Private 11,516 12,461,462 1,201,836 1,305,834 9.6 10.5
93 California Public 2,266 2,394,618 1,272,081 1,344,546 53.1 56.1
93 California Priv. Construction 971 1,082,631 178,624 184,031 16.5 17.0
93 California Priv. Manufacturing 1,480 1,601,404 140,519 150,482 8.8 9.4
84 Colorado Total 3,928 2,203,979 190,759 202,289 8.7 9.2
84 Colorado Private 3,282 1,848,721 104,082 109,701 5.6 5.9
84 Colorado Public 646 355,258 86,678 92,588 24.4 26.1
84 Colorado Priv. Construction 300 170,223 14,379 14,900 8.4 8.8
84 Colorado Priv. Manufacturing 366 206,697 31,281 32,478 15.1 15.7
16 Connecticut Total 4,027 1,617,358 253,053 268,756 15.6 16.6
16 Connecticut Private 3,435 1,378,855 104,615 112,764 7.6 8.2
16 Connecticut Public 592 238,502 148,438 155,993 62.2 65.4
16 Connecticut Priv. Construction 173 70,766 12,651 12,651 17.9 17.9
16 Connecticut Priv. Manufacturing 541 214,005 21,849 22,544 10.2 10.5
51 Delaware Total 2,904 395,669 47,429 50,460 12.0 12.8
51 Delaware Private 2,418 330,273 23,638 24,527 7.2 7.4
51 Delaware Public 486 65,396 23,791 25,933 36.4 39.7
51 Delaware Priv. Construction 215 29,807 3,402 3,550 11.4 11.9
51 Delaware Priv. Manufacturing 301 41,061 4,774 4,893 11.6 11.9
53 D.C. Total 2,474 277,935 28,740 37,745 10.3 13.6
53 D.C. Private 1,803 203,719 15,084 19,999 7.4 9.8
53 D.C. Public 671 74,217 13,657 17,746 18.4 23.9
53 D.C. Priv. Construction 66 7,638 1,025 1,100 13.4 14.4
53 D.C. Priv. Manufacturing 31 3,543 0 235 0.0 6.6
59 Florida Total 7,120 7,740,964 454,772 562,367 5.9 7.3
59 Florida Private 6,102 6,644,515 165,858 200,789 2.5 3.0
59 Florida Public 1,018 1,096,450 288,914 361,578 26.3 33.0
59 Florida Priv. Construction 571 632,114 20,693 24,185 3.3 3.8
59 Florida Priv. Manufacturing 420 455,867 12,935 14,805 2.8 3.2
58 Georgia Total 3,846 4,181,194 185,590 225,769 4.4 5.4
58 Georgia Private 3,186 3,474,541 96,624 120,226 2.8 3.5
58 Georgia Public 660 706,653 88,965 105,543 12.6 14.9
58 Georgia Priv. Construction 259 285,855 19,349 19,349 6.8 6.8
58 Georgia Priv. Manufacturing 468 502,806 21,397 26,321 4.3 5.2
95 Hawaii Total 2,664 556,409 130,300 134,789 23.4 24.2
95 Hawaii Private 2,131 447,329 68,183 71,205 15.2 15.9
95 Hawaii Public 533 109,080 62,117 63,584 56.9 58.3
95 Hawaii Priv. Construction 195 43,224 15,142 15,578 35.0 36.0
95 Hawaii Priv. Manufacturing 75 15,633 2,074 2,316 13.3 14.8
82 Idaho Total 1,998 634,691 33,392 40,829 5.3 6.4
82 Idaho Private 1,627 519,339 17,499 20,081 3.4 3.9
82 Idaho Public 371 115,352 15,893 20,748 13.8 18.0
82 Idaho Priv. Construction 160 51,212 3,330 4,100 6.5 8.0
82 Idaho Priv. Manufacturing 234 74,785 3,067 3,707 4.1 5.0
33 Illinois Total 5,571 5,802,384 842,189 884,147 14.5 15.2
33 Illinois Private 4,773 4,991,212 483,812 509,413 9.7 10.2
33 Illinois Public 798 811,172 358,376 374,735 44.2 46.2
33 Illinois Priv. Construction 282 299,009 112,280 114,133 37.6 38.2
33 Illinois Priv. Manufacturing 754 786,837 106,129 107,410 13.5 13.7
32 Indiana Total 2,724 2,778,629 333,231 359,065 12.0 12.9
32 Indiana Private 2,330 2,387,273 233,376 242,925 9.8 10.2
32 Indiana Public 394 391,356 99,855 116,139 25.5 29.7
32 Indiana Priv. Construction 143 149,346 44,997 44,997 30.1 30.1
32 Indiana Priv. Manufacturing 558 568,594 105,489 107,670 18.6 18.9
42 Iowa Total 3,670 1,417,249 148,689 185,025 10.5 13.1
42 Iowa Private 3,077 1,189,784 73,952 85,591 6.2 7.2
42 Iowa Public 593 227,465 74,738 99,435 32.9 43.7
42 Iowa Priv. Construction 175 70,232 7,595 7,983 10.8 11.4
42 Iowa Priv. Manufacturing 614 239,032 41,476 46,795 17.4 19.6
47 Kansas Total 2,708 1,274,386 89,237 110,239 7.0 8.7
47 Kansas Private 2,219 1,050,350 50,405 60,960 4.8 5.8
47 Kansas Public 489 224,036 38,832 49,280 17.3 22.0
47 Kansas Priv. Construction 128 61,751 8,328 8,813 13.5 14.3
47 Kansas Priv. Manufacturing 348 163,570 19,676 26,318 12.0 16.1
61 Kentucky Total 2,446 1,733,725 157,357 191,670 9.1 11.1
61 Kentucky Private 2,009 1,430,382 106,956 116,660 7.5 8.2
61 Kentucky Public 437 303,343 50,401 75,010 16.6 24.7
61 Kentucky Priv. Construction 126 91,926 9,552 9,552 10.4 10.4
61 Kentucky Priv. Manufacturing 348 247,085 23,600 25,667 9.6 10.4
72 Louisiana Total 1,464 1,669,613 93,777 108,363 5.6 6.5
72 Louisiana Private 1,204 1,385,066 55,569 59,311 4.0 4.3
72 Louisiana Public 260 284,546 38,208 49,052 13.4 17.2
72 Louisiana Priv. Construction 105 122,948 15,551 17,458 12.6 14.2
72 Louisiana Priv. Manufacturing 128 148,049 23,314 23,314 15.7 15.7
11 Maine Total 3,299 573,915 67,201 79,441 11.7 13.8
11 Maine Private 2,723 476,010 24,132 27,531 5.1 5.8
11 Maine Public 576 97,905 43,068 51,910 44.0 53.0
11 Maine Priv. Construction 169 31,188 1,316 1,316 4.2 4.2
11 Maine Priv. Manufacturing 386 67,264 11,034 11,214 16.4 16.7
52 Maryland Total 4,374 2,598,101 335,300 375,709 12.9 14.5
52 Maryland Private 3,267 1,943,891 139,469 156,701 7.2 8.1
52 Maryland Public 1,107 654,210 195,832 219,008 29.9 33.5
52 Maryland Priv. Construction 316 187,016 22,641 23,654 12.1 12.6
52 Maryland Priv. Manufacturing 221 126,882 17,472 17,991 13.8 14.2
14 Massachusetts Total 2,693 2,882,221 379,479 402,211 13.2 14.0
14 Massachusetts Private 2,368 2,542,177 193,359 205,195 7.6 8.1
14 Massachusetts Public 325 340,044 186,120 197,016 54.7 57.9
14 Massachusetts Priv. Construction 125 138,358 22,226 24,205 16.1 17.5
14 Massachusetts Priv. Manufacturing 254 270,420 20,464 20,464 7.6 7.6
34 Michigan Total 4,041 4,192,998 818,586 865,156 19.5 20.6
34 Michigan Private 3,475 3,614,967 503,032 530,342 13.9 14.7
34 Michigan Public 566 578,031 315,554 334,814 54.6 57.9
34 Michigan Priv. Construction 179 193,618 38,743 40,108 20.0 20.7
34 Michigan Priv. Manufacturing 827 854,711 203,261 210,065 23.8 24.6
41 Minnesota Total 4,586 2,460,165 400,369 419,353 16.3 17.0
41 Minnesota Private 3,893 2,095,829 200,407 208,812 9.6 10.0
41 Minnesota Public 693 364,336 199,962 210,541 54.9 57.8
41 Minnesota Priv. Construction 237 130,120 40,754 41,274 31.3 31.7
41 Minnesota Priv. Manufacturing 662 352,318 36,011 36,508 10.2 10.4
64 Mississippi Total 1,433 1,067,924 71,757 95,208 6.7 8.9
64 Mississippi Private 1,131 847,089 45,497 54,406 5.4 6.4
64 Mississippi Public 302 220,835 26,260 40,802 11.9 18.5
64 Mississippi Priv. Construction 87 67,629 2,250 2,250 3.3 3.3
64 Mississippi Priv. Manufacturing 263 195,264 21,609 27,148 11.1 13.9
43 Missouri Total 2,930 2,585,313 275,414 307,536 10.7 11.9
43 Missouri Private 2,515 2,226,526 193,776 204,776 8.7 9.2
43 Missouri Public 415 358,787 81,637 102,759 22.8 28.6
43 Missouri Priv. Construction 165 148,639 45,668 46,488 30.7 31.3
43 Missouri Priv. Manufacturing 443 389,756 49,738 52,411 12.8 13.4
81 Montana Total 1,664 398,561 53,984 62,366 13.5 15.6
81 Montana Private 1,298 312,117 18,869 23,708 6.0 7.6
81 Montana Public 366 86,443 35,116 38,658 40.6 44.7
81 Montana Priv. Construction 120 29,499 4,190 5,303 14.2 18.0
81 Montana Priv. Manufacturing 86 20,624 2,054 2,807 10.0 13.6
46 Nebraska Total 2,860 835,876 64,794 81,017 7.8 9.7
46 Nebraska Private 2,321 681,229 26,577 31,346 3.9 4.6
46 Nebraska Public 539 154,646 38,216 49,670 24.7 32.1
46 Nebraska Priv. Construction 114 33,445 3,027 3,027 9.1 9.1
46 Nebraska Priv. Manufacturing 382 110,360 7,749 9,413 7.0 8.5
88 Nevada Total 2,979 1,177,255 181,580 208,057 15.4 17.7
88 Nevada Private 2,586 1,028,174 131,552 145,651 12.8 14.2
88 Nevada Public 393 149,080 50,027 62,406 33.6 41.9
88 Nevada Priv. Construction 314 126,774 28,729 30,501 22.7 24.1
88 Nevada Priv. Manufacturing 92 36,632 3,232 4,292 8.8 11.7
12 New Hampshire Total 4,034 630,575 60,989 70,418 9.7 11.2
12 New Hampshire Private 3,457 542,048 20,435 23,060 3.8 4.3
12 New Hampshire Public 577 88,527 40,554 47,358 45.8 53.5
12 New Hampshire Priv. Construction 198 32,469 3,077 3,077 9.5 9.5
12 New Hampshire Priv. Manufacturing 603 92,847 3,096 3,345 3.3 3.6
22 New Jersey Total 3,710 3,897,473 747,523 802,370 19.2 20.6
22 New Jersey Private 3,069 3,231,439 326,579 356,378 10.1 11.0
22 New Jersey Public 641 666,034 420,944 445,993 63.2 67.0
22 New Jersey Priv. Construction 195 199,291 47,360 47,360 23.8 23.8
22 New Jersey Priv. Manufacturing 374 386,686 28,522 32,287 7.4 8.3
85 New Mexico Total 1,605 800,265 61,719 91,281 7.7 11.4
85 New Mexico Private 1,170 594,166 22,302 27,784 3.8 4.7
85 New Mexico Public 435 206,099 39,417 63,497 19.1 30.8
85 New Mexico Priv. Construction 103 53,013 2,053 2,053 3.9 3.9
85 New Mexico Priv. Manufacturing 70 35,885 451 894 1.3 2.5
21 New York Total 7,247 8,149,836 2,054,905 2,146,196 25.2 26.3
21 New York Private 5,945 6,729,573 1,060,794 1,129,522 15.8 16.8
21 New York Public 1,302 1,420,264 994,111 1,016,674 70.0 71.6
21 New York Priv. Construction 397 465,695 127,387 128,411 27.4 27.6
21 New York Priv. Manufacturing 561 611,844 100,228 104,485 16.4 17.1
56 North Carolina Total 3,420 3,770,884 113,620 146,856 3.0 3.9
56 North Carolina Private 2,851 3,149,800 63,583 75,614 2.0 2.4
56 North Carolina Public 569 621,083 50,036 71,242 8.1 11.5
56 North Carolina Priv. Construction 254 283,986 4,380 5,717 1.5 2.0
56 North Carolina Priv. Manufacturing 471 512,798 16,874 19,327 3.3 3.8
44 North Dakota Total 2,414 303,291 19,381 23,185 6.4 7.6
44 North Dakota Private 1,897 239,403 9,530 11,263 4.0 4.7
44 North Dakota Public 517 63,888 9,851 11,922 15.4 18.7
44 North Dakota Priv. Construction 138 18,253 1,675 1,932 9.2 10.6
44 North Dakota Priv. Manufacturing 187 24,126 1,562 1,562 6.5 6.5
31 Ohio Total 5,075 5,186,562 730,336 796,635 14.1 15.4
31 Ohio Private 4,285 4,384,816 393,631 422,559 9.0 9.6
31 Ohio Public 790 801,746 336,705 374,077 42.0 46.7
31 Ohio Priv. Construction 259 266,971 70,175 72,289 26.3 27.1
31 Ohio Priv. Manufacturing 921 931,197 126,918 130,905 13.6 14.1
73 Oklahoma Total 2,071 1,456,056 103,310 124,352 7.1 8.5
73 Oklahoma Private 1,648 1,162,516 40,596 48,573 3.5 4.2
73 Oklahoma Public 423 293,540 62,714 75,780 21.4 25.8
73 Oklahoma Priv. Construction 115 83,436 4,116 4,116 4.9 4.9
73 Oklahoma Priv. Manufacturing 198 139,843 11,784 13,339 8.4 9.5
92 Oregon Total 2,310 1,581,897 226,590 243,409 14.3 15.4
92 Oregon Private 1,955 1,345,530 103,148 111,890 7.7 8.3
92 Oregon Public 355 236,367 123,442 131,519 52.2 55.6
92 Oregon Priv. Construction 160 114,927 16,144 16,830 14.0 14.6
92 Oregon Priv. Manufacturing 309 212,559 24,551 25,139 11.6 11.8
23 Pennsylvania Total 5,441 5,496,015 829,812 909,597 15.1 16.6
23 Pennsylvania Private 4,732 4,789,812 463,573 508,586 9.7 10.6
23 Pennsylvania Public 709 706,203 366,239 401,011 51.9 56.8
23 Pennsylvania Priv. Construction 281 287,482 49,557 50,572 17.2 17.6
23 Pennsylvania Priv. Manufacturing 727 722,035 124,223 127,408 17.2 17.6
15 Rhode Island Total 3,131 497,107 74,523 78,383 15.0 15.8
15 Rhode Island Private 2,708 430,878 32,312 34,555 7.5 8.0
15 Rhode Island Public 423 66,229 42,211 43,828 63.7 66.2
15 Rhode Island Priv. Construction 149 24,227 4,847 4,985 20.0 20.6
15 Rhode Island Priv. Manufacturing 421 66,868 3,637 3,921 5.4 5.9
57 South Carolina Total 2,270 1,873,013 77,527 111,015 4.1 5.9
57 South Carolina Private 1,867 1,543,196 41,544 56,700 2.7 3.7
57 South Carolina Public 403 329,816 35,983 54,315 10.9 16.5
57 South Carolina Priv. Construction 174 143,987 4,601 5,187 3.2 3.6
57 South Carolina Priv. Manufacturing 355 288,082 12,972 15,695 4.5 5.4
45 South Dakota Total 2,759 353,580 22,841 27,250 6.5 7.7
45 South Dakota Private 2,280 294,115 9,966 10,816 3.4 3.7
45 South Dakota Public 479 59,465 12,875 16,434 21.7 27.6
45 South Dakota Priv. Construction 147 19,654 868 868 4.4 4.4
45 South Dakota Priv. Manufacturing 363 45,615 4,267 4,461 9.4 9.8
62 Tennessee Total 2,371 2,596,051 137,760 166,349 5.3 6.4
62 Tennessee Private 1,999 2,191,136 67,131 81,901 3.1 3.7
62 Tennessee Public 372 404,915 70,629 84,449 17.4 20.9
62 Tennessee Priv. Construction 176 190,563 8,461 8,461 4.4 4.4
62 Tennessee Priv. Manufacturing 374 401,295 20,103 24,047 5.0 6.0
74 Texas Total 8,683 9,899,067 462,698 566,387 4.7 5.7
74 Texas Private 7,242 8,323,051 223,150 274,905 2.7 3.3
74 Texas Public 1,441 1,576,015 239,548 291,482 15.2 18.5
74 Texas Priv. Construction 704 850,557 23,654 28,258 2.8 3.3
74 Texas Priv. Manufacturing 898 1,040,437 54,025 59,117 5.2 5.7
87 Utah Total 2,310 1,152,823 67,430 78,316 5.8 6.8
87 Utah Private 1,868 944,253 30,815 36,464 3.3 3.9
87 Utah Public 442 208,569 36,615 41,851 17.6 20.1
87 Utah Priv. Construction 203 108,646 6,131 6,131 5.6 5.6
87 Utah Priv. Manufacturing 246 123,771 4,236 4,797 3.4 3.9
13 Vermont Total 2,662 287,641 29,815 34,952 10.4 12.2
13 Vermont Private 2,243 243,585 11,065 12,955 4.5 5.3
13 Vermont Public 419 44,056 18,749 21,997 42.6 49.9
13 Vermont Priv. Construction 156 17,185 953 953 5.5 5.5
13 Vermont Priv. Manufacturing 347 37,237 1,479 2,024 4.0 5.4
54 Virginia Total 4,003 3,502,034 128,748 166,865 3.7 4.8
54 Virginia Private 3,169 2,789,887 68,409 84,265 2.5 3.0
54 Virginia Public 834 712,148 60,340 82,600 8.5 11.6
54 Virginia Priv. Construction 306 273,730 9,175 9,175 3.4 3.4
54 Virginia Priv. Manufacturing 324 280,850 18,659 22,493 6.6 8.0
91 Washington Total 3,191 2,874,067 579,297 615,967 20.2 21.4
91 Washington Private 2,623 2,372,044 310,089 330,985 13.1 14.0
91 Washington Public 568 502,023 269,208 284,982 53.6 56.8
91 Washington Priv. Construction 214 196,679 50,304 51,262 25.6 26.1
91 Washington Priv. Manufacturing 403 364,205 97,101 101,894 26.7 28.0
55 West Virginia Total 1,941 724,365 96,622 106,831 13.3 14.7
55 West Virginia Private 1,518 569,257 61,764 65,446 10.8 11.5
55 West Virginia Public 423 155,108 34,858 41,385 22.5 26.7
55 West Virginia Priv. Construction 118 45,196 11,430 11,430 25.3 25.3
55 West Virginia Priv. Manufacturing 155 57,837 13,757 13,757 23.8 23.8
35 Wisconsin Total 3,584 2,630,831 375,724 404,915 14.3 15.4
35 Wisconsin Private 3,074 2,261,026 187,314 201,912 8.3 8.9
35 Wisconsin Public 510 369,805 188,410 203,003 50.9 54.9
35 Wisconsin Priv. Construction 149 113,014 31,832 32,601 28.2 28.8
35 Wisconsin Priv. Manufacturing 727 533,779 77,762 79,175 14.6 14.8
83 Wyoming Total 2,384 239,263 18,924 22,405 7.9 9.4
83 Wyoming Private 1,830 184,194 10,403 11,505 5.6 6.2
83 Wyoming Public 554 55,069 8,520 10,900 15.5 19.8
83 Wyoming Priv. Construction 167 17,384 929 1,055 5.3 6.1
83 Wyoming Priv. Manufacturing 108 10,709 702 807 6.6 7.5
                   
Data Sources: Current Population Survey (CPS) Outgoing Rotation Group (ORG) Earnings Files, 2007. Sample includes
employed wage and salary workers, ages 16 and over. Variable definitions are: State Code=Census state code used
in CPS, Obs=CPS sample size, Employment=wage and salary employment, Members=employed workers who are union
members, Covered=workers covered by a collective bargaining agreement, %Mem=percent of employed workers who
are union members, and %Cov=percent of employed workers who are covered by a collective bargaining agreement.
2008 by Barry T. Hirsch and David A. Macpherson. The use of data requires citation.