Union Membership, Coverage, Density and Employment by State, 2008 (details in table note)
State
Code State Sector Obs Employment Members Covered %Mem %Cov
63 Alabama Total 1,737 1,858,383 181,421 199,359 9.8 10.7
63 Alabama Private 1,397 1,504,433 76,012 80,590 5.1 5.4
63 Alabama Public 340 353,950 105,410 118,769 29.8 33.6
63 Alabama Priv. Construction 103 116,754 8,467 8,467 7.3 7.3
63 Alabama Priv. Manufacturing 259 269,329 26,997 28,056 10.0 10.4
94 Alaska Total 2,322 289,064 67,830 71,335 23.5 24.7
94 Alaska Private 1,657 209,163 23,392 24,911 11.2 11.9
94 Alaska Public 665 79,900 44,439 46,424 55.6 58.1
94 Alaska Priv. Construction 157 20,808 7,212 7,360 34.7 35.4
94 Alaska Priv. Manufacturing 51 6,634 795 795 12.0 12.0
86 Arizona Total 2,024 2,579,091 227,419 253,948 8.8 9.8
86 Arizona Private 1,726 2,198,306 154,344 164,406 7.0 7.5
86 Arizona Public 298 380,784 73,075 89,541 19.2 23.5
86 Arizona Priv. Construction 166 210,447 24,272 24,272 11.5 11.5
86 Arizona Priv. Manufacturing 204 258,568 11,094 12,403 4.3 4.8
71 Arkansas Total 1,760 1,158,113 67,938 85,089 5.9 7.3
71 Arkansas Private 1,436 949,557 34,583 39,956 3.6 4.2
71 Arkansas Public 324 208,556 33,356 45,134 16.0 21.6
71 Arkansas Priv. Construction 97 65,532 1,256 1,256 1.9 1.9
71 Arkansas Priv. Manufacturing 294 190,171 16,514 17,604 8.7 9.3
93 California Total 13,917 14,888,985 2,739,901 2,909,494 18.4 19.5
93 California Private 11,587 12,434,276 1,334,376 1,417,541 10.7 11.4
93 California Public 2,330 2,454,709 1,405,524 1,491,953 57.3 60.8
93 California Priv. Construction 830 923,815 186,994 196,386 20.2 21.3
93 California Priv. Manufacturing 1,638 1,750,529 164,321 174,792 9.4 10.0
84 Colorado Total 3,818 2,253,763 181,119 208,133 8.0 9.2
84 Colorado Private 3,214 1,905,056 104,237 116,037 5.5 6.1
84 Colorado Public 604 348,707 76,882 92,096 22.0 26.4
84 Colorado Priv. Construction 271 166,231 15,995 15,995 9.6 9.6
84 Colorado Priv. Manufacturing 328 189,986 20,268 23,610 10.7 12.4
16 Connecticut Total 4,101 1,624,709 275,221 290,941 16.9 17.9
16 Connecticut Private 3,447 1,368,506 113,778 125,278 8.3 9.2
16 Connecticut Public 654 256,204 161,443 165,663 63.0 64.7
16 Connecticut Priv. Construction 197 78,993 16,873 16,873 21.4 21.4
16 Connecticut Priv. Manufacturing 543 215,529 17,255 19,655 8.0 9.1
51 Delaware Total 2,763 390,973 52,297 57,380 13.4 14.7
51 Delaware Private 2,292 324,691 26,648 28,783 8.2 8.9
51 Delaware Public 471 66,282 25,649 28,597 38.7 43.1
51 Delaware Priv. Construction 168 24,085 2,864 2,966 11.9 12.3
51 Delaware Priv. Manufacturing 285 39,967 6,286 6,286 15.7 15.7
53 D.C. Total 2,600 288,310 35,207 41,136 12.2 14.3
53 D.C. Private 1,866 208,499 18,397 21,339 8.8 10.2
53 D.C. Public 734 79,811 16,811 19,797 21.1 24.8
53 D.C. Priv. Construction 86 9,489 746 746 7.9 7.9
53 D.C. Priv. Manufacturing 36 3,851 0 0 0.0 0.0
59 Florida Total 6,652 7,572,946 482,329 600,511 6.4 7.9
59 Florida Private 5,590 6,370,895 146,346 192,747 2.3 3.0
59 Florida Public 1,062 1,202,051 335,983 407,764 28.0 33.9
59 Florida Priv. Construction 443 520,347 19,124 21,517 3.7 4.1
59 Florida Priv. Manufacturing 390 451,066 11,655 15,734 2.6 3.5
58 Georgia Total 3,602 4,083,578 150,695 189,288 3.7 4.6
58 Georgia Private 2,964 3,371,683 88,705 107,481 2.6 3.2
58 Georgia Public 638 711,895 61,990 81,807 8.7 11.5
58 Georgia Priv. Construction 226 259,950 14,683 14,683 5.6 5.6
58 Georgia Priv. Manufacturing 409 463,215 17,576 20,805 3.8 4.5
95 Hawaii Total 2,677 561,526 136,274 142,988 24.3 25.5
95 Hawaii Private 2,128 444,742 72,819 76,130 16.4 17.1
95 Hawaii Public 549 116,784 63,455 66,858 54.3 57.2
95 Hawaii Priv. Construction 181 39,312 15,187 15,790 38.6 40.2
95 Hawaii Priv. Manufacturing 64 13,360 3,338 3,536 25.0 26.5
82 Idaho Total 1,842 601,523 42,471 48,144 7.1 8.0
82 Idaho Private 1,484 487,736 23,476 25,930 4.8 5.3
82 Idaho Public 358 113,786 18,995 22,214 16.7 19.5
82 Idaho Priv. Construction 110 37,226 2,876 3,162 7.7 8.5
82 Idaho Priv. Manufacturing 218 71,598 5,189 5,747 7.2 8.0
33 Illinois Total 5,441 5,662,163 939,212 993,293 16.6 17.5
33 Illinois Private 4,652 4,855,955 533,348 567,568 11.0 11.7
33 Illinois Public 789 806,208 405,864 425,725 50.3 52.8
33 Illinois Priv. Construction 281 305,250 131,254 132,384 43.0 43.4
33 Illinois Priv. Manufacturing 709 737,661 115,634 120,592 15.7 16.3
32 Indiana Total 2,794 2,811,233 349,316 385,591 12.4 13.7
32 Indiana Private 2,417 2,438,516 247,186 263,924 10.1 10.8
32 Indiana Public 377 372,717 102,130 121,666 27.4 32.6
32 Indiana Priv. Construction 143 149,069 45,167 46,402 30.3 31.1
32 Indiana Priv. Manufacturing 565 570,197 106,498 109,292 18.7 19.2
42 Iowa Total 3,683 1,437,484 152,589 186,726 10.6 13.0
42 Iowa Private 3,076 1,201,535 78,816 92,254 6.6 7.7
42 Iowa Public 607 235,949 73,773 94,472 31.3 40.0
42 Iowa Priv. Construction 157 60,897 9,449 9,766 15.5 16.0
42 Iowa Priv. Manufacturing 672 263,083 43,041 48,270 16.4 18.3
47 Kansas Total 2,667 1,273,452 89,258 110,788 7.0 8.7
47 Kansas Private 2,167 1,040,026 50,613 57,241 4.9 5.5
47 Kansas Public 500 233,426 38,645 53,547 16.6 22.9
47 Kansas Priv. Construction 110 54,172 10,148 10,148 18.7 18.7
47 Kansas Priv. Manufacturing 371 176,174 26,823 29,311 15.2 16.6
61 Kentucky Total 2,411 1,703,439 145,917 162,988 8.6 9.6
61 Kentucky Private 1,971 1,396,220 95,829 102,158 6.9 7.3
61 Kentucky Public 440 307,220 50,088 60,830 16.3 19.8
61 Kentucky Priv. Construction 122 86,899 10,343 10,343 11.9 11.9
61 Kentucky Priv. Manufacturing 343 241,675 21,072 21,072 8.7 8.7
72 Louisiana Total 1,538 1,723,864 80,040 96,664 4.6 5.6
72 Louisiana Private 1,274 1,441,959 42,634 49,759 3.0 3.5
72 Louisiana Public 264 281,905 37,407 46,904 13.3 16.6
72 Louisiana Priv. Construction 84 96,298 4,165 5,868 4.3 6.1
72 Louisiana Priv. Manufacturing 134 150,086 16,609 16,609 11.1 11.1
11 Maine Total 3,212 573,616 70,713 84,086 12.3 14.7
11 Maine Private 2,651 474,788 26,031 30,478 5.5 6.4
11 Maine Public 561 98,828 44,681 53,608 45.2 54.2
11 Maine Priv. Construction 143 25,942 698 1,210 2.7 4.7
11 Maine Priv. Manufacturing 344 61,276 11,883 12,224 19.4 19.9
52 Maryland Total 4,470 2,609,797 329,398 379,655 12.6 14.5
52 Maryland Private 3,370 1,965,442 130,334 148,253 6.6 7.5
52 Maryland Public 1,100 644,355 199,064 231,402 30.9 35.9
52 Maryland Priv. Construction 307 176,393 25,081 26,053 14.2 14.8
52 Maryland Priv. Manufacturing 240 139,185 18,239 19,890 13.1 14.3
14 Massachusetts Total 2,767 2,909,331 457,602 491,400 15.7 16.9
14 Massachusetts Private 2,339 2,475,824 193,070 212,650 7.8 8.6
14 Massachusetts Public 428 433,507 264,532 278,750 61.0 64.3
14 Massachusetts Priv. Construction 115 124,487 24,854 24,854 20.0 20.0
14 Massachusetts Priv. Manufacturing 252 266,743 18,705 21,991 7.0 8.2
34 Michigan Total 3,924 4,088,547 770,540 801,119 18.8 19.6
34 Michigan Private 3,400 3,558,576 466,852 488,618 13.1 13.7
34 Michigan Public 524 529,971 303,688 312,501 57.3 59.0
34 Michigan Priv. Construction 152 159,247 38,243 39,315 24.0 24.7
34 Michigan Priv. Manufacturing 761 797,447 182,592 188,106 22.9 23.6
41 Minnesota Total 4,589 2,429,671 391,663 412,247 16.1 17.0
41 Minnesota Private 3,905 2,072,773 195,528 205,770 9.4 9.9
41 Minnesota Public 684 356,899 196,135 206,477 55.0 57.9
41 Minnesota Priv. Construction 223 117,101 31,983 33,052 27.3 28.2
41 Minnesota Priv. Manufacturing 682 357,547 39,176 40,281 11.0 11.3
64 Mississippi Total 1,436 1,088,762 57,289 79,010 5.3 7.3
64 Mississippi Private 1,111 849,535 34,811 47,188 4.1 5.6
64 Mississippi Public 325 239,227 22,477 31,822 9.4 13.3
64 Mississippi Priv. Construction 74 57,253 1,237 1,237 2.2 2.2
64 Mississippi Priv. Manufacturing 232 178,469 15,808 20,696 8.9 11.6
43 Missouri Total 2,917 2,543,490 284,612 326,533 11.2 12.8
43 Missouri Private 2,525 2,204,821 205,804 231,742 9.3 10.5
43 Missouri Public 392 338,670 78,808 94,791 23.3 28.0
43 Missouri Priv. Construction 170 151,432 47,872 50,232 31.6 33.2
43 Missouri Priv. Manufacturing 424 371,729 57,612 63,937 15.5 17.2
81 Montana Total 1,594 389,155 47,349 61,075 12.2 15.7
81 Montana Private 1,282 314,003 18,439 26,836 5.9 8.5
81 Montana Public 312 75,153 28,910 34,239 38.5 45.6
81 Montana Priv. Construction 125 31,704 3,783 4,486 11.9 14.1
81 Montana Priv. Manufacturing 63 14,991 1,923 2,104 12.8 14.0
46 Nebraska Total 2,932 839,932 70,028 90,287 8.3 10.7
46 Nebraska Private 2,399 690,036 29,080 35,788 4.2 5.2
46 Nebraska Public 533 149,896 40,948 54,499 27.3 36.4
46 Nebraska Priv. Construction 143 41,933 4,683 4,683 11.2 11.2
46 Nebraska Priv. Manufacturing 379 108,927 7,910 9,795 7.3 9.0
88 Nevada Total 2,778 1,192,323 198,976 216,743 16.7 18.2
88 Nevada Private 2,418 1,043,744 144,817 153,243 13.9 14.7
88 Nevada Public 360 148,579 54,160 63,500 36.5 42.7
88 Nevada Priv. Construction 262 118,918 40,415 40,415 34.0 34.0
88 Nevada Priv. Manufacturing 105 43,495 3,090 3,910 7.1 9.0
12 New Hampshire Total 4,209 634,893 67,038 78,794 10.6 12.4
12 New Hampshire Private 3,570 539,944 21,621 27,047 4.0 5.0
12 New Hampshire Public 639 94,949 45,417 51,746 47.8 54.5
12 New Hampshire Priv. Construction 196 30,435 2,654 3,304 8.7 10.9
12 New Hampshire Priv. Manufacturing 615 92,342 2,703 3,727 2.9 4.0
22 New Jersey Total 3,754 3,842,868 703,057 731,136 18.3 19.0
22 New Jersey Private 3,172 3,251,692 335,994 359,298 10.3 11.0
22 New Jersey Public 582 591,175 367,063 371,838 62.1 62.9
22 New Jersey Priv. Construction 209 216,600 49,316 50,149 22.8 23.2
22 New Jersey Priv. Manufacturing 394 394,849 33,000 34,046 8.4 8.6
85 New Mexico Total 1,503 806,906 58,367 93,964 7.2 11.6
85 New Mexico Private 1,092 595,834 24,499 32,940 4.1 5.5
85 New Mexico Public 411 211,072 33,869 61,024 16.0 28.9
85 New Mexico Priv. Construction 108 60,378 5,243 7,062 8.7 11.7
85 New Mexico Priv. Manufacturing 83 43,722 543 543 1.2 1.2
21 New York Total 7,237 8,164,770 2,029,290 2,170,420 24.9 26.6
21 New York Private 5,862 6,639,759 954,509 1,059,006 14.4 15.9
21 New York Public 1,375 1,525,010 1,074,781 1,111,413 70.5 72.9
21 New York Priv. Construction 360 414,487 110,153 117,814 26.6 28.4
21 New York Priv. Manufacturing 557 611,753 97,048 104,113 15.9 17.0
56 North Carolina Total 3,397 3,798,819 132,498 189,069 3.5 5.0
56 North Carolina Private 2,839 3,180,288 64,396 82,395 2.0 2.6
56 North Carolina Public 558 618,531 68,102 106,675 11.0 17.2
56 North Carolina Priv. Construction 244 277,231 2,386 2,386 0.9 0.9
56 North Carolina Priv. Manufacturing 431 472,769 20,810 28,540 4.4 6.0
44 North Dakota Total 2,388 308,316 18,861 25,162 6.1 8.2
44 North Dakota Private 1,842 237,721 7,375 9,374 3.1 3.9
44 North Dakota Public 546 70,594 11,486 15,788 16.3 22.4
44 North Dakota Priv. Construction 110 14,606 1,119 1,425 7.7 9.8
44 North Dakota Priv. Manufacturing 183 23,795 1,361 1,612 5.7 6.8
31 Ohio Total 4,923 5,046,365 715,823 782,676 14.2 15.5
31 Ohio Private 4,155 4,261,304 397,144 425,582 9.3 10.0
31 Ohio Public 768 785,061 318,679 357,094 40.6 45.5
31 Ohio Priv. Construction 203 208,139 60,941 63,725 29.3 30.6
31 Ohio Priv. Manufacturing 817 831,983 124,150 131,158 14.9 15.8
73 Oklahoma Total 2,048 1,529,025 101,577 126,782 6.6 8.3
73 Oklahoma Private 1,634 1,222,556 46,523 57,337 3.8 4.7
73 Oklahoma Public 414 306,469 55,054 69,445 18.0 22.7
73 Oklahoma Priv. Construction 91 70,284 3,496 3,496 5.0 5.0
73 Oklahoma Priv. Manufacturing 180 134,393 8,100 11,628 6.0 8.7
92 Oregon Total 2,298 1,565,846 259,169 271,800 16.6 17.4
92 Oregon Private 1,946 1,332,691 119,404 126,664 9.0 9.5
92 Oregon Public 352 233,155 139,765 145,136 59.9 62.2
92 Oregon Priv. Construction 132 89,852 11,714 11,714 13.0 13.0
92 Oregon Priv. Manufacturing 318 220,607 27,293 29,761 12.4 13.5
23 Pennsylvania Total 5,580 5,503,958 847,102 898,866 15.4 16.3
23 Pennsylvania Private 4,902 4,842,398 497,151 524,405 10.3 10.8
23 Pennsylvania Public 678 661,560 349,951 374,460 52.9 56.6
23 Pennsylvania Priv. Construction 262 256,222 51,636 52,593 20.2 20.5
23 Pennsylvania Priv. Manufacturing 795 776,470 102,932 106,783 13.3 13.8
15 Rhode Island Total 2,973 470,507 77,687 81,765 16.5 17.4
15 Rhode Island Private 2,530 401,361 34,859 37,076 8.7 9.2
15 Rhode Island Public 443 69,146 42,828 44,689 61.9 64.6
15 Rhode Island Priv. Construction 128 20,642 4,399 4,546 21.3 22.0
15 Rhode Island Priv. Manufacturing 395 62,355 3,320 3,645 5.3 5.8
57 South Carolina Total 2,155 1,792,277 69,941 104,707 3.9 5.8
57 South Carolina Private 1,767 1,477,251 35,484 51,952 2.4 3.5
57 South Carolina Public 388 315,026 34,457 52,755 10.9 16.7
57 South Carolina Priv. Construction 147 124,075 872 1,711 0.7 1.4
57 South Carolina Priv. Manufacturing 328 270,429 17,563 22,244 6.5 8.2
45 South Dakota Total 2,814 369,462 18,423 23,663 5.0 6.4
45 South Dakota Private 2,308 305,297 7,776 8,816 2.5 2.9
45 South Dakota Public 506 64,166 10,647 14,847 16.6 23.1
45 South Dakota Priv. Construction 149 19,709 888 888 4.5 4.5
45 South Dakota Priv. Manufacturing 363 46,325 2,722 2,903 5.9 6.3
62 Tennessee Total 2,200 2,534,326 138,657 166,231 5.5 6.6
62 Tennessee Private 1,845 2,128,965 73,787 84,657 3.5 4.0
62 Tennessee Public 355 405,361 64,871 81,574 16.0 20.1
62 Tennessee Priv. Construction 143 162,306 7,330 8,527 4.5 5.3
62 Tennessee Priv. Manufacturing 304 340,482 26,545 28,742 7.8 8.4
74 Texas Total 8,618 9,990,700 448,624 559,208 4.5 5.6
74 Texas Private 7,209 8,394,364 209,301 265,484 2.5 3.2
74 Texas Public 1,409 1,596,337 239,323 293,724 15.0 18.4
74 Texas Priv. Construction 618 746,311 21,537 23,484 2.9 3.1
74 Texas Priv. Manufacturing 875 1,034,746 50,043 65,110 4.8 6.3
87 Utah Total 2,248 1,178,171 67,882 83,762 5.8 7.1
87 Utah Private 1,808 952,475 32,816 41,096 3.4 4.3
87 Utah Public 440 225,696 35,067 42,665 15.5 18.9
87 Utah Priv. Construction 156 85,589 6,029 7,023 7.0 8.2
87 Utah Priv. Manufacturing 226 118,445 2,097 3,389 1.8 2.9
13 Vermont Total 2,642 283,832 29,385 36,380 10.4 12.8
13 Vermont Private 2,209 238,467 11,127 14,214 4.7 6.0
13 Vermont Public 433 45,365 18,258 22,166 40.2 48.9
13 Vermont Priv. Construction 138 14,657 743 743 5.1 5.1
13 Vermont Priv. Manufacturing 310 33,457 1,701 2,415 5.1 7.2
54 Virginia Total 3,922 3,596,668 145,805 178,047 4.1 5.0
54 Virginia Private 3,077 2,832,697 75,060 88,553 2.6 3.1
54 Virginia Public 845 763,972 70,745 89,494 9.3 11.7
54 Virginia Priv. Construction 252 234,510 10,797 10,797 4.6 4.6
54 Virginia Priv. Manufacturing 299 266,282 15,370 18,040 5.8 6.8
91 Washington Total 3,113 2,912,434 577,880 626,350 19.8 21.5
91 Washington Private 2,548 2,390,864 311,655 334,746 13.0 14.0
91 Washington Public 565 521,570 266,225 291,604 51.0 55.9
91 Washington Priv. Construction 221 210,857 57,398 59,034 27.2 28.0
91 Washington Priv. Manufacturing 400 373,455 90,539 92,727 24.2 24.8
55 West Virginia Total 1,909 736,331 101,311 112,488 13.8 15.3
55 West Virginia Private 1,502 583,479 62,568 68,868 10.7 11.8
55 West Virginia Public 407 152,852 38,743 43,620 25.3 28.5
55 West Virginia Priv. Construction 112 42,880 13,133 13,133 30.6 30.6
55 West Virginia Priv. Manufacturing 150 58,341 10,440 12,609 17.9 21.6
35 Wisconsin Total 3,607 2,642,196 395,893 421,985 15.0 16.0
35 Wisconsin Private 3,094 2,273,625 220,234 237,503 9.7 10.4
35 Wisconsin Public 513 368,570 175,660 184,481 47.7 50.1
35 Wisconsin Priv. Construction 142 106,209 26,328 26,328 24.8 24.8
35 Wisconsin Priv. Manufacturing 700 512,920 96,575 100,835 18.8 19.7
83 Wyoming Total 2,391 241,288 18,631 21,381 7.7 8.9
83 Wyoming Private 1,850 188,261 11,622 12,777 6.2 6.8
83 Wyoming Public 541 53,027 7,009 8,604 13.2 16.2
83 Wyoming Priv. Construction 147 15,640 840 840 5.4 5.4
83 Wyoming Priv. Manufacturing 90 9,031 703 781 7.8 8.6
                   
Data Sources: Current Population Survey (CPS) Outgoing Rotation Group (ORG) Earnings Files, 2008. Sample includes
employed wage and salary workers, ages 16 and over. Variable definitions are: State Code=Census state code used
in CPS, Obs=CPS sample size, Employment=wage and salary employment, Members=employed workers who are union
members, Covered=workers covered by a collective bargaining agreement, %Mem=percent of employed workers who
are union members, and %Cov=percent of employed workers who are covered by a collective bargaining agreement.
2009 by Barry T. Hirsch and David A. Macpherson. The use of data requires citation.