Union Membership, Coverage, Density and Employment by State, 2009 (details in table note)
State
Code State Sector Obs Employment Members Covered %Mem %Cov
63 Alabama Total 1,721 1,763,128 191,324 211,584 10.9 12.0
63 Alabama Private 1,409 1,444,231 86,325 99,748 6.0 6.9
63 Alabama Public 312 318,897 104,999 111,836 32.9 35.1
63 Alabama Priv. Construction 111 112,008 7,173 10,146 6.4 9.1
63 Alabama Priv. Manufacturing 257 255,084 34,937 34,937 13.7 13.7
94 Alaska Total 2,366 292,917 65,198 69,165 22.3 23.6
94 Alaska Private 1,689 211,445 21,725 23,025 10.3 10.9
94 Alaska Public 677 81,472 43,473 46,140 53.4 56.6
94 Alaska Priv. Construction 129 17,355 2,896 2,896 16.7 16.7
94 Alaska Priv. Manufacturing 60 7,336 508 508 6.9 6.9
86 Arizona Total 1,828 2,470,634 161,722 194,254 6.5 7.9
86 Arizona Private 1,543 2,098,795 76,157 88,503 3.6 4.2
86 Arizona Public 285 371,840 85,565 105,752 23.0 28.4
86 Arizona Priv. Construction 106 150,602 5,276 5,276 3.5 3.5
86 Arizona Priv. Manufacturing 169 232,958 7,876 13,471 3.4 5.8
71 Arkansas Total 1,689 1,102,710 46,510 54,629 4.2 5.0
71 Arkansas Private 1,414 924,845 26,318 29,266 2.8 3.2
71 Arkansas Public 275 177,865 20,192 25,363 11.4 14.3
71 Arkansas Priv. Construction 90 57,114 3,085 3,085 5.4 5.4
71 Arkansas Priv. Manufacturing 243 163,163 11,643 12,941 7.1 7.9
93 California Total 13,494 14,297,101 2,453,378 2,622,281 17.2 18.3
93 California Private 11,233 11,931,167 1,133,354 1,226,092 9.5 10.3
93 California Public 2,261 2,365,935 1,320,024 1,396,189 55.8 59.0
93 California Priv. Construction 666 734,894 129,251 132,541 17.6 18.0
93 California Priv. Manufacturing 1,480 1,566,550 126,241 139,025 8.1 8.9
84 Colorado Total 3,788 2,175,485 153,224 180,651 7.0 8.3
84 Colorado Private 3,197 1,843,410 83,789 96,768 4.5 5.2
84 Colorado Public 591 332,074 69,435 83,883 20.9 25.3
84 Colorado Priv. Construction 211 125,145 7,457 8,032 6.0 6.4
84 Colorado Priv. Manufacturing 314 179,135 13,186 14,832 7.4 8.3
16 Connecticut Total 4,068 1,538,095 265,453 282,362 17.3 18.4
16 Connecticut Private 3,421 1,297,024 110,721 122,561 8.5 9.4
16 Connecticut Public 647 241,072 154,733 159,801 64.2 66.3
16 Connecticut Priv. Construction 185 70,953 12,088 12,473 17.0 17.6
16 Connecticut Priv. Manufacturing 473 177,270 18,066 19,476 10.2 11.0
51 Delaware Total 2,612 367,382 43,727 47,061 11.9 12.8
51 Delaware Private 2,203 310,563 18,093 20,156 5.8 6.5
51 Delaware Public 409 56,820 25,634 26,905 45.1 47.4
51 Delaware Priv. Construction 141 19,756 1,937 2,211 9.8 11.2
51 Delaware Priv. Manufacturing 251 34,834 3,694 4,101 10.6 11.8
53 D.C. Total 2,469 276,062 28,592 34,582 10.4 12.5
53 D.C. Private 1,762 197,868 12,820 15,446 6.5 7.8
53 D.C. Public 707 78,193 15,772 19,136 20.2 24.5
53 D.C. Priv. Construction 78 8,870 1,067 1,355 12.0 15.3
53 D.C. Priv. Manufacturing 20 2,232 0 0 0.0 0.0
59 Florida Total 6,113 7,097,026 410,944 489,244 5.8 6.9
59 Florida Private 5,113 5,933,726 118,498 151,655 2.0 2.6
59 Florida Public 1,000 1,163,300 292,446 337,590 25.1 29.0
59 Florida Priv. Construction 339 401,568 4,672 7,103 1.2 1.8
59 Florida Priv. Manufacturing 359 421,486 10,613 15,326 2.5 3.6
58 Georgia Total 3,417 3,869,370 176,670 226,485 4.6 5.9
58 Georgia Private 2,808 3,187,687 87,892 107,067 2.8 3.4
58 Georgia Public 609 681,683 88,778 119,418 13.0 17.5
58 Georgia Priv. Construction 197 229,582 8,326 8,326 3.6 3.6
58 Georgia Priv. Manufacturing 340 383,218 12,440 16,207 3.2 4.2
95 Hawaii Total 2,575 525,857 123,487 127,798 23.5 24.3
95 Hawaii Private 2,024 412,841 60,832 63,986 14.7 15.5
95 Hawaii Public 551 113,017 62,655 63,812 55.4 56.5
95 Hawaii Priv. Construction 172 35,944 12,055 12,055 33.5 33.5
95 Hawaii Priv. Manufacturing 61 12,459 1,944 1,944 15.6 15.6
82 Idaho Total 1,732 577,202 36,325 45,571 6.3 7.9
82 Idaho Private 1,376 459,033 14,643 18,840 3.2 4.1
82 Idaho Public 356 118,169 21,681 26,731 18.3 22.6
82 Idaho Priv. Construction 85 28,630 3,548 3,548 12.4 12.4
82 Idaho Priv. Manufacturing 177 58,885 2,894 3,247 4.9 5.5
33 Illinois Total 5,304 5,435,023 950,586 996,533 17.5 18.3
33 Illinois Private 4,475 4,602,012 503,865 538,582 10.9 11.7
33 Illinois Public 829 833,011 446,721 457,951 53.6 55.0
33 Illinois Priv. Construction 249 261,557 98,917 98,917 37.8 37.8
33 Illinois Priv. Manufacturing 620 632,707 98,485 103,922 15.6 16.4
32 Indiana Total 2,590 2,612,209 277,301 318,772 10.6 12.2
32 Indiana Private 2,200 2,230,984 169,399 194,133 7.6 8.7
32 Indiana Public 390 381,225 107,901 124,639 28.3 32.7
32 Indiana Priv. Construction 126 133,352 38,529 38,529 28.9 28.9
32 Indiana Priv. Manufacturing 454 460,924 67,003 70,349 14.5 15.3
42 Iowa Total 3,594 1,397,871 155,561 185,344 11.1 13.3
42 Iowa Private 2,966 1,156,551 79,859 89,528 6.9 7.7
42 Iowa Public 628 241,320 75,702 95,816 31.4 39.7
42 Iowa Priv. Construction 149 58,940 12,071 12,601 20.5 21.4
42 Iowa Priv. Manufacturing 625 242,785 40,568 43,301 16.7 17.8
47 Kansas Total 2,575 1,248,583 77,241 104,448 6.2 8.4
47 Kansas Private 2,046 999,933 39,848 50,967 4.0 5.1
47 Kansas Public 529 248,650 37,392 53,481 15.0 21.5
47 Kansas Priv. Construction 120 60,848 7,213 7,213 11.9 11.9
47 Kansas Priv. Manufacturing 329 159,248 20,522 23,437 12.9 14.7
61 Kentucky Total 2,344 1,657,240 142,379 173,220 8.6 10.5
61 Kentucky Private 1,926 1,365,295 92,782 104,636 6.8 7.7
61 Kentucky Public 418 291,945 49,597 68,584 17.0 23.5
61 Kentucky Priv. Construction 113 77,676 11,286 11,286 14.5 14.5
61 Kentucky Priv. Manufacturing 329 225,275 28,081 31,008 12.5 13.8
72 Louisiana Total 1,515 1,703,615 98,794 110,480 5.8 6.5
72 Louisiana Private 1,233 1,391,126 50,891 56,846 3.7 4.1
72 Louisiana Public 282 312,489 47,903 53,634 15.3 17.2
72 Louisiana Priv. Construction 94 106,680 4,068 6,299 3.8 5.9
72 Louisiana Priv. Manufacturing 134 150,792 19,344 19,344 12.8 12.8
11 Maine Total 3,177 542,696 63,381 74,213 11.7 13.7
11 Maine Private 2,635 452,193 23,003 26,090 5.1 5.8
11 Maine Public 542 90,503 40,378 48,123 44.6 53.2
11 Maine Priv. Construction 140 24,023 1,023 1,691 4.3 7.0
11 Maine Priv. Manufacturing 316 53,597 9,518 9,859 17.8 18.4
52 Maryland Total 4,448 2,554,524 322,842 366,492 12.6 14.3
52 Maryland Private 3,344 1,914,387 140,099 153,518 7.3 8.0
52 Maryland Public 1,104 640,137 182,743 212,974 28.5 33.3
52 Maryland Priv. Construction 272 154,548 19,535 20,831 12.6 13.5
52 Maryland Priv. Manufacturing 218 119,060 15,255 15,771 12.8 13.2
14 Massachusetts Total 2,678 2,864,198 476,025 515,583 16.6 18.0
14 Massachusetts Private 2,267 2,435,486 215,068 240,992 8.8 9.9
14 Massachusetts Public 411 428,712 260,956 274,591 60.9 64.1
14 Massachusetts Priv. Construction 95 103,352 21,295 21,295 20.6 20.6
14 Massachusetts Priv. Manufacturing 254 270,164 24,162 28,076 8.9 10.4
34 Michigan Total 3,741 3,785,261 710,024 751,654 18.8 19.9
34 Michigan Private 3,193 3,234,905 395,496 419,926 12.2 13.0
34 Michigan Public 548 550,356 314,528 331,728 57.1 60.3
34 Michigan Priv. Construction 144 145,824 35,061 36,006 24.0 24.7
34 Michigan Priv. Manufacturing 595 594,490 106,667 112,184 17.9 18.9
41 Minnesota Total 4,496 2,400,459 361,907 376,928 15.1 15.7
41 Minnesota Private 3,816 2,042,907 173,262 181,876 8.5 8.9
41 Minnesota Public 680 357,552 188,644 195,052 52.8 54.6
41 Minnesota Priv. Construction 180 96,155 29,118 29,784 30.3 31.0
41 Minnesota Priv. Manufacturing 639 336,941 28,402 29,445 8.4 8.7
64 Mississippi Total 1,400 1,029,177 49,084 66,274 4.8 6.4
64 Mississippi Private 1,087 804,426 35,140 42,041 4.4 5.2
64 Mississippi Public 313 224,751 13,944 24,233 6.2 10.8
64 Mississippi Priv. Construction 75 57,702 1,354 2,091 2.3 3.6
64 Mississippi Priv. Manufacturing 211 154,081 17,598 18,382 11.4 11.9
43 Missouri Total 2,910 2,480,995 233,570 263,769 9.4 10.6
43 Missouri Private 2,482 2,119,318 169,399 185,099 8.0 8.7
43 Missouri Public 428 361,677 64,171 78,670 17.7 21.8
43 Missouri Priv. Construction 145 125,254 34,205 34,205 27.3 27.3
43 Missouri Priv. Manufacturing 381 318,397 50,293 53,378 15.8 16.8
81 Montana Total 1,444 373,844 52,078 67,646 13.9 18.1
81 Montana Private 1,143 295,923 19,116 27,918 6.5 9.4
81 Montana Public 301 77,922 32,962 39,728 42.3 51.0
81 Montana Priv. Construction 89 23,336 3,144 3,144 13.5 13.5
81 Montana Priv. Manufacturing 75 19,054 3,024 3,729 15.9 19.6
46 Nebraska Total 2,912 823,354 75,762 93,991 9.2 11.4
46 Nebraska Private 2,372 674,744 28,401 36,620 4.2 5.4
46 Nebraska Public 540 148,610 47,361 57,370 31.9 38.6
46 Nebraska Priv. Construction 106 30,607 3,801 4,494 12.4 14.7
46 Nebraska Priv. Manufacturing 369 104,567 9,782 12,107 9.4 11.6
88 Nevada Total 2,626 1,096,841 172,599 188,383 15.7 17.2
88 Nevada Private 2,241 940,074 119,210 128,489 12.7 13.7
88 Nevada Public 385 156,767 53,390 59,894 34.1 38.2
88 Nevada Priv. Construction 186 82,524 28,045 28,860 34.0 35.0
88 Nevada Priv. Manufacturing 91 37,870 4,046 4,046 10.7 10.7
12 New Hampshire Total 4,108 615,829 66,737 75,573 10.8 12.3
12 New Hampshire Private 3,505 526,443 23,700 26,626 4.5 5.1
12 New Hampshire Public 603 89,386 43,037 48,946 48.1 54.8
12 New Hampshire Priv. Construction 175 26,781 2,191 2,477 8.2 9.2
12 New Hampshire Priv. Manufacturing 546 80,806 3,807 4,084 4.7 5.1
22 New Jersey Total 3,728 3,734,223 721,012 741,515 19.3 19.9
22 New Jersey Private 3,128 3,128,051 329,376 337,604 10.5 10.8
22 New Jersey Public 600 606,171 391,636 403,911 64.6 66.6
22 New Jersey Priv. Construction 158 159,100 41,155 41,155 25.9 25.9
22 New Jersey Priv. Manufacturing 397 392,312 30,198 31,243 7.7 8.0
85 New Mexico Total 1,386 759,464 51,069 77,358 6.7 10.2
85 New Mexico Private 980 543,341 16,572 22,140 3.1 4.1
85 New Mexico Public 406 216,123 34,497 55,217 16.0 25.5
85 New Mexico Priv. Construction 88 47,963 6,062 6,845 12.6 14.3
85 New Mexico Priv. Manufacturing 68 38,609 1,017 1,374 2.6 3.6
21 New York Total 7,184 8,021,090 2,018,783 2,181,785 25.2 27.2
21 New York Private 5,786 6,487,214 908,051 1,033,792 14.0 15.9
21 New York Public 1,398 1,533,876 1,110,732 1,147,993 72.4 74.8
21 New York Priv. Construction 360 416,238 110,067 114,424 26.4 27.5
21 New York Priv. Manufacturing 514 552,126 91,073 101,027 16.5 18.3
56 North Carolina Total 3,271 3,707,264 115,104 161,568 3.1 4.4
56 North Carolina Private 2,677 3,049,915 46,904 63,105 1.5 2.1
56 North Carolina Public 594 657,349 68,200 98,462 10.4 15.0
56 North Carolina Priv. Construction 202 236,105 3,903 3,903 1.7 1.7
56 North Carolina Priv. Manufacturing 423 472,663 13,947 18,014 3.0 3.8
44 North Dakota Total 2,326 301,351 20,630 29,514 6.8 9.8
44 North Dakota Private 1,841 238,892 10,195 13,563 4.3 5.7
44 North Dakota Public 485 62,460 10,435 15,951 16.7 25.5
44 North Dakota Priv. Construction 125 16,249 2,270 2,270 14.0 14.0
44 North Dakota Priv. Manufacturing 190 24,993 1,714 2,038 6.9 8.2
31 Ohio Total 4,819 4,827,212 684,918 742,314 14.2 15.4
31 Ohio Private 4,083 4,095,532 363,163 390,935 8.9 9.5
31 Ohio Public 736 731,680 321,756 351,378 44.0 48.0
31 Ohio Priv. Construction 213 211,430 50,434 52,207 23.9 24.7
31 Ohio Priv. Manufacturing 735 723,240 116,063 120,706 16.0 16.7
73 Oklahoma Total 1,982 1,455,603 83,085 106,648 5.7 7.3
73 Oklahoma Private 1,576 1,160,736 31,619 39,043 2.7 3.4
73 Oklahoma Public 406 294,867 51,465 67,605 17.5 22.9
73 Oklahoma Priv. Construction 97 74,634 2,722 2,722 3.6 3.6
73 Oklahoma Priv. Manufacturing 192 140,327 8,081 9,353 5.8 6.7
92 Oregon Total 2,289 1,470,716 250,272 272,232 17.0 18.5
92 Oregon Private 1,907 1,225,084 108,524 120,244 8.9 9.8
92 Oregon Public 382 245,631 141,748 151,988 57.7 61.9
92 Oregon Priv. Construction 104 67,555 7,798 7,798 11.5 11.5
92 Oregon Priv. Manufacturing 284 177,974 21,650 22,955 12.2 12.9
23 Pennsylvania Total 5,229 5,220,376 781,678 844,028 15.0 16.2
23 Pennsylvania Private 4,566 4,562,101 429,892 461,033 9.4 10.1
23 Pennsylvania Public 663 658,275 351,786 382,995 53.4 58.2
23 Pennsylvania Priv. Construction 264 262,977 53,319 53,319 20.3 20.3
23 Pennsylvania Priv. Manufacturing 651 645,966 98,712 103,024 15.3 15.9
15 Rhode Island Total 2,869 444,299 79,586 83,166 17.9 18.7
15 Rhode Island Private 2,417 375,612 33,125 35,715 8.8 9.5
15 Rhode Island Public 452 68,687 46,461 47,451 67.6 69.1
15 Rhode Island Priv. Construction 99 15,642 4,464 4,464 28.5 28.5
15 Rhode Island Priv. Manufacturing 350 53,383 3,276 3,647 6.1 6.8
57 South Carolina Total 2,057 1,671,631 75,112 91,071 4.5 5.4
57 South Carolina Private 1,664 1,355,214 37,568 45,941 2.8 3.4
57 South Carolina Public 393 316,417 37,544 45,130 11.9 14.3
57 South Carolina Priv. Construction 124 97,366 6,420 6,420 6.6 6.6
57 South Carolina Priv. Manufacturing 293 237,268 5,725 7,344 2.4 3.1
45 South Dakota Total 2,769 356,952 19,802 23,690 5.5 6.6
45 South Dakota Private 2,255 293,846 8,679 10,130 3.0 3.4
45 South Dakota Public 514 63,106 11,124 13,560 17.6 21.5
45 South Dakota Priv. Construction 124 16,536 1,293 1,293 7.8 7.8
45 South Dakota Priv. Manufacturing 297 37,719 2,092 2,242 5.5 5.9
62 Tennessee Total 2,105 2,387,166 121,333 156,470 5.1 6.6
62 Tennessee Private 1,759 2,000,511 56,139 76,531 2.8 3.8
62 Tennessee Public 346 386,656 65,194 79,940 16.9 20.7
62 Tennessee Priv. Construction 116 131,154 3,016 4,023 2.3 3.1
62 Tennessee Priv. Manufacturing 291 318,702 19,937 29,999 6.3 9.4
74 Texas Total 8,737 9,920,149 508,101 615,393 5.1 6.2
74 Texas Private 7,324 8,361,570 263,378 311,134 3.1 3.7
74 Texas Public 1,413 1,558,578 244,723 304,259 15.7 19.5
74 Texas Priv. Construction 607 723,606 27,170 32,177 3.8 4.4
74 Texas Priv. Manufacturing 837 965,275 67,284 77,884 7.0 8.1
87 Utah Total 2,035 1,136,403 78,864 90,414 6.9 8.0
87 Utah Private 1,620 910,668 38,834 41,805 4.3 4.6
87 Utah Public 415 225,735 40,030 48,609 17.7 21.5
87 Utah Priv. Construction 129 74,745 6,453 6,453 8.6 8.6
87 Utah Priv. Manufacturing 226 125,376 7,987 8,604 6.4 6.9
13 Vermont Total 2,724 285,360 35,085 40,329 12.3 14.1
13 Vermont Private 2,231 235,178 12,519 13,841 5.3 5.9
13 Vermont Public 493 50,182 22,566 26,488 45.0 52.8
13 Vermont Priv. Construction 129 13,987 625 625 4.5 4.5
13 Vermont Priv. Manufacturing 322 33,899 2,069 2,357 6.1 7.0
54 Virginia Total 3,809 3,502,634 165,856 190,806 4.7 5.4
54 Virginia Private 2,945 2,715,743 71,404 85,246 2.6 3.1
54 Virginia Public 864 786,891 94,452 105,560 12.0 13.4
54 Virginia Priv. Construction 198 180,213 7,331 9,771 4.1 5.4
54 Virginia Priv. Manufacturing 285 257,259 23,790 23,790 9.2 9.2
91 Washington Total 3,045 2,847,111 574,069 612,137 20.2 21.5
91 Washington Private 2,470 2,313,247 292,525 303,553 12.6 13.1
91 Washington Public 575 533,864 281,544 308,584 52.7 57.8
91 Washington Priv. Construction 168 162,900 40,951 40,951 25.1 25.1
91 Washington Priv. Manufacturing 341 321,315 80,403 84,390 25.0 26.3
55 West Virginia Total 1,736 698,896 97,337 107,887 13.9 15.4
55 West Virginia Private 1,351 547,853 56,308 59,342 10.3 10.8
55 West Virginia Public 385 151,042 41,030 48,545 27.2 32.1
55 West Virginia Priv. Construction 87 34,507 9,310 9,310 27.0 27.0
55 West Virginia Priv. Manufacturing 120 48,653 10,039 10,446 20.6 21.5
35 Wisconsin Total 3,507 2,528,107 384,698 400,398 15.2 15.8
35 Wisconsin Private 2,953 2,140,145 177,036 184,345 8.3 8.6
35 Wisconsin Public 554 387,961 207,662 216,053 53.5 55.7
35 Wisconsin Priv. Construction 126 93,625 22,557 23,358 24.1 24.9
35 Wisconsin Priv. Manufacturing 587 422,495 73,505 75,408 17.4 17.8
83 Wyoming Total 2,386 239,174 18,464 19,910 7.7 8.3
83 Wyoming Private 1,757 177,492 9,286 10,069 5.2 5.7
83 Wyoming Public 629 61,682 9,178 9,840 14.9 16.0
83 Wyoming Priv. Construction 138 14,866 815 815 5.5 5.5
83 Wyoming Priv. Manufacturing 91 9,071 348 450 3.8 5.0
                   
Data Sources: Current Population Survey (CPS) Outgoing Rotation Group (ORG) Earnings Files, 2009. Sample includes
employed wage and salary workers, ages 16 and over. Variable definitions are: State Code=Census state code used
in CPS, Obs=CPS sample size, Employment=wage and salary employment, Members=employed workers who are union
members, Covered=workers covered by a collective bargaining agreement, %Mem=percent of employed workers who
are union members, and %Cov=percent of employed workers who are covered by a collective bargaining agreement.
2010 by Barry T. Hirsch and David A. Macpherson. The use of data requires citation.