Union Membership, Coverage, Density and Employment by State, 2010 (details in table note)
State
Code State Sector Obs Employment Members Covered %Mem %Cov
63 Alabama Total 1,722 1,808,807 183,338 202,789 10.1 11.2
63 Alabama Private 1,388 1,463,322 83,562 91,171 5.7 6.2
63 Alabama Public 334 345,485 99,776 111,617 28.9 32.3
63 Alabama Priv. Construction 92 100,593 4,785 4,785 4.8 4.8
63 Alabama Priv. Manufacturing 236 245,221 31,989 35,585 13.0 14.5
94 Alaska Total 2,247 295,063 67,624 73,043 22.9 24.8
94 Alaska Private 1,633 216,858 24,313 27,049 11.2 12.5
94 Alaska Public 614 78,205 43,311 45,994 55.4 58.8
94 Alaska Priv. Construction 125 17,440 3,731 3,872 21.4 22.2
94 Alaska Priv. Manufacturing 55 7,349 207 207 2.8 2.8
86 Arizona Total 1,860 2,506,723 160,989 202,952 6.4 8.1
86 Arizona Private 1,527 2,065,530 73,929 86,349 3.6 4.2
86 Arizona Public 333 441,192 87,060 116,603 19.7 26.4
86 Arizona Priv. Construction 116 163,760 8,713 10,298 5.3 6.3
86 Arizona Priv. Manufacturing 152 210,208 4,119 4,119 2.0 2.0
71 Arkansas Total 1,609 1,081,711 43,635 58,569 4.0 5.4
71 Arkansas Private 1,330 896,547 24,083 32,763 2.7 3.7
71 Arkansas Public 279 185,164 19,552 25,806 10.6 13.9
71 Arkansas Priv. Construction 73 47,617 2,936 2,936 6.2 6.2
71 Arkansas Priv. Manufacturing 232 157,392 9,369 11,442 6.0 7.3
93 California Total 13,254 13,891,632 2,431,276 2,577,781 17.5 18.6
93 California Private 10,922 11,485,816 1,068,723 1,144,949 9.3 10.0
93 California Public 2,332 2,405,816 1,362,553 1,432,833 56.6 59.6
93 California Priv. Construction 643 707,158 110,716 116,498 15.7 16.5
93 California Priv. Manufacturing 1,390 1,449,582 122,164 132,282 8.4 9.1
84 Colorado Total 3,684 2,130,393 140,378 170,935 6.6 8.0
84 Colorado Private 3,111 1,804,693 69,393 87,117 3.8 4.8
84 Colorado Public 573 325,700 70,985 83,818 21.8 25.7
84 Colorado Priv. Construction 200 119,190 6,388 7,661 5.4 6.4
84 Colorado Priv. Manufacturing 299 174,007 8,904 10,598 5.1 6.1
16 Connecticut Total 4,075 1,548,906 258,266 269,737 16.7 17.4
16 Connecticut Private 3,456 1,318,304 109,851 116,608 8.3 8.8
16 Connecticut Public 619 230,602 148,415 153,129 64.4 66.4
16 Connecticut Priv. Construction 151 57,409 9,952 9,952 17.3 17.3
16 Connecticut Priv. Manufacturing 488 184,915 20,877 21,277 11.3 11.5
51 Delaware Total 2,562 352,227 40,229 43,916 11.4 12.5
51 Delaware Private 2,122 292,509 17,008 18,692 5.8 6.4
51 Delaware Public 440 59,718 23,221 25,224 38.9 42.2
51 Delaware Priv. Construction 141 19,448 2,015 2,015 10.4 10.4
51 Delaware Priv. Manufacturing 253 34,512 2,914 3,176 8.4 9.2
53 D.C. Total 2,525 287,362 25,858 30,036 9.0 10.5
53 D.C. Private 1,800 205,865 12,249 13,791 5.9 6.7
53 D.C. Public 725 81,497 13,609 16,245 16.7 19.9
53 D.C. Priv. Construction 45 5,202 0 0 0.0 0.0
53 D.C. Priv. Manufacturing 27 3,038 0 0 0.0 0.0
59 Florida Total 6,051 7,033,457 391,750 488,041 5.6 6.9
59 Florida Private 5,108 5,952,140 139,305 187,389 2.3 3.1
59 Florida Public 943 1,081,317 252,445 300,652 23.3 27.8
59 Florida Priv. Construction 306 372,863 9,509 10,752 2.6 2.9
59 Florida Priv. Manufacturing 346 406,917 10,095 13,478 2.5 3.3
58 Georgia Total 3,471 3,792,128 153,309 191,330 4.0 5.0
58 Georgia Private 2,847 3,126,093 79,557 94,424 2.5 3.0
58 Georgia Public 624 666,034 73,752 96,906 11.1 14.5
58 Georgia Priv. Construction 182 205,359 8,617 8,617 4.2 4.2
58 Georgia Priv. Manufacturing 341 373,237 12,703 14,690 3.4 3.9
95 Hawaii Total 2,577 511,431 111,344 120,341 21.8 23.5
95 Hawaii Private 2,063 408,102 59,476 66,475 14.6 16.3
95 Hawaii Public 514 103,330 51,868 53,866 50.2 52.1
95 Hawaii Priv. Construction 147 30,660 10,549 11,383 34.4 37.1
95 Hawaii Priv. Manufacturing 57 11,724 1,563 2,192 13.3 18.7
82 Idaho Total 1,682 583,830 41,513 50,063 7.1 8.6
82 Idaho Private 1,348 471,511 17,104 20,410 3.6 4.3
82 Idaho Public 334 112,318 24,409 29,653 21.7 26.4
82 Idaho Priv. Construction 81 29,914 2,413 2,413 8.1 8.1
82 Idaho Priv. Manufacturing 171 57,661 3,581 3,928 6.2 6.8
33 Illinois Total 5,301 5,434,237 843,807 891,203 15.5 16.4
33 Illinois Private 4,506 4,631,488 441,049 469,197 9.5 10.1
33 Illinois Public 795 802,749 402,758 422,006 50.2 52.6
33 Illinois Priv. Construction 186 188,949 65,130 65,886 34.5 34.9
33 Illinois Priv. Manufacturing 660 679,883 81,821 86,859 12.0 12.8
32 Indiana Total 2,525 2,553,550 278,577 312,798 10.9 12.2
32 Indiana Private 2,148 2,180,533 178,779 193,114 8.2 8.9
32 Indiana Public 377 373,017 99,798 119,684 26.8 32.1
32 Indiana Priv. Construction 109 114,340 32,196 32,196 28.2 28.2
32 Indiana Priv. Manufacturing 476 480,026 83,988 87,648 17.5 18.3
42 Iowa Total 3,500 1,392,729 158,157 191,811 11.4 13.8
42 Iowa Private 2,873 1,144,398 80,948 90,414 7.1 7.9
42 Iowa Public 627 248,331 77,210 101,397 31.1 40.8
42 Iowa Priv. Construction 168 66,834 9,667 11,463 14.5 17.2
42 Iowa Priv. Manufacturing 555 219,536 39,482 42,804 18.0 19.5
47 Kansas Total 2,475 1,221,559 83,673 111,005 6.8 9.1
47 Kansas Private 1,964 975,392 44,219 56,890 4.5 5.8
47 Kansas Public 511 246,166 39,454 54,115 16.0 22.0
47 Kansas Priv. Construction 106 54,297 5,577 6,317 10.3 11.6
47 Kansas Priv. Manufacturing 321 157,662 19,663 25,635 12.5 16.3
61 Kentucky Total 2,274 1,641,655 146,526 166,109 8.9 10.1
61 Kentucky Private 1,895 1,376,800 98,548 109,546 7.2 8.0
61 Kentucky Public 379 264,855 47,978 56,563 18.1 21.4
61 Kentucky Priv. Construction 103 79,126 12,423 12,423 15.7 15.7
61 Kentucky Priv. Manufacturing 299 216,576 27,997 28,862 12.9 13.3
72 Louisiana Total 1,495 1,742,418 75,612 96,009 4.3 5.5
72 Louisiana Private 1,207 1,419,772 45,497 58,235 3.2 4.1
72 Louisiana Public 288 322,647 30,115 37,773 9.3 11.7
72 Louisiana Priv. Construction 91 104,574 2,114 2,958 2.0 2.8
72 Louisiana Priv. Manufacturing 118 134,488 22,280 27,186 16.6 20.2
11 Maine Total 3,208 543,451 62,883 70,673 11.6 13.0
11 Maine Private 2,732 463,623 23,816 26,153 5.1 5.6
11 Maine Public 476 79,828 39,067 44,520 48.9 55.8
11 Maine Priv. Construction 130 21,653 1,268 1,268 5.9 5.9
11 Maine Priv. Manufacturing 310 52,329 8,941 9,266 17.1 17.7
52 Maryland Total 4,317 2,557,824 296,083 328,810 11.6 12.9
52 Maryland Private 3,285 1,945,630 117,752 130,188 6.1 6.7
52 Maryland Public 1,032 612,194 178,331 198,622 29.1 32.4
52 Maryland Priv. Construction 251 148,564 9,917 11,161 6.7 7.5
52 Maryland Priv. Manufacturing 217 125,689 12,829 14,342 10.2 11.4
14 Massachusetts Total 2,676 2,865,795 414,768 446,406 14.5 15.6
14 Massachusetts Private 2,302 2,475,897 172,567 195,340 7.0 7.9
14 Massachusetts Public 374 389,899 242,201 251,065 62.1 64.4
14 Massachusetts Priv. Construction 112 120,442 18,809 18,809 15.6 15.6
14 Massachusetts Priv. Manufacturing 272 290,191 21,182 27,378 7.3 9.4
34 Michigan Total 3,718 3,805,863 627,272 658,717 16.5 17.3
34 Michigan Private 3,179 3,264,305 362,588 378,473 11.1 11.6
34 Michigan Public 539 541,558 264,684 280,245 48.9 51.7
34 Michigan Priv. Construction 107 109,973 23,855 23,855 21.7 21.7
34 Michigan Priv. Manufacturing 619 625,055 108,998 112,953 17.4 18.1
41 Minnesota Total 4,498 2,467,752 384,570 397,257 15.6 16.1
41 Minnesota Private 3,808 2,102,710 176,409 181,276 8.4 8.6
41 Minnesota Public 690 365,042 208,161 215,981 57.0 59.2
41 Minnesota Priv. Construction 161 90,370 22,608 22,608 25.0 25.0
41 Minnesota Priv. Manufacturing 617 340,475 28,607 29,197 8.4 8.6
64 Mississippi Total 1,377 1,037,372 46,250 58,259 4.5 5.6
64 Mississippi Private 1,081 823,013 30,431 34,219 3.7 4.2
64 Mississippi Public 296 214,359 15,819 24,040 7.4 11.2
64 Mississippi Priv. Construction 63 49,737 3,635 3,635 7.3 7.3
64 Mississippi Priv. Manufacturing 215 162,762 10,388 11,051 6.4 6.8
43 Missouri Total 2,887 2,468,757 244,315 274,391 9.9 11.1
43 Missouri Private 2,477 2,122,086 181,118 191,877 8.5 9.0
43 Missouri Public 410 346,671 63,198 82,513 18.2 23.8
43 Missouri Priv. Construction 128 112,037 36,022 37,656 32.2 33.6
43 Missouri Priv. Manufacturing 366 309,594 51,152 52,789 16.5 17.1
81 Montana Total 1,377 363,884 46,084 52,242 12.7 14.4
81 Montana Private 1,104 292,181 16,421 18,914 5.6 6.5
81 Montana Public 273 71,703 29,663 33,328 41.4 46.5
81 Montana Priv. Construction 74 19,547 2,293 2,293 11.7 11.7
81 Montana Priv. Manufacturing 79 20,370 2,221 2,221 10.9 10.9
46 Nebraska Total 2,822 813,071 75,330 95,612 9.3 11.8
46 Nebraska Private 2,275 659,164 31,801 39,730 4.8 6.0
46 Nebraska Public 547 153,906 43,529 55,883 28.3 36.3
46 Nebraska Priv. Construction 115 34,001 4,467 4,467 13.1 13.1
46 Nebraska Priv. Manufacturing 379 110,216 12,814 16,956 11.6 15.4
88 Nevada Total 2,433 1,011,731 151,274 169,879 15.0 16.8
88 Nevada Private 2,078 866,154 93,206 103,392 10.8 11.9
88 Nevada Public 355 145,577 58,068 66,487 39.9 45.7
88 Nevada Priv. Construction 125 54,860 16,678 17,481 30.4 31.9
88 Nevada Priv. Manufacturing 100 40,953 2,797 2,797 6.8 6.8
12 New Hampshire Total 3,992 622,471 63,227 72,601 10.2 11.7
12 New Hampshire Private 3,388 529,623 23,314 25,882 4.4 4.9
12 New Hampshire Public 604 92,848 39,913 46,719 43.0 50.3
12 New Hampshire Priv. Construction 138 21,080 1,851 1,851 8.8 8.8
12 New Hampshire Priv. Manufacturing 549 85,514 3,334 3,474 3.9 4.1
22 New Jersey Total 3,664 3,733,761 636,940 659,975 17.1 17.7
22 New Jersey Private 3,072 3,129,413 280,291 293,530 9.0 9.4
22 New Jersey Public 592 604,347 356,649 366,445 59.0 60.6
22 New Jersey Priv. Construction 167 171,421 34,473 36,552 20.1 21.3
22 New Jersey Priv. Manufacturing 317 320,949 24,878 26,537 7.8 8.3
85 New Mexico Total 1,300 749,525 54,786 72,408 7.3 9.7
85 New Mexico Private 906 530,343 13,579 18,689 2.6 3.5
85 New Mexico Public 394 219,182 41,207 53,719 18.8 24.5
85 New Mexico Priv. Construction 62 36,410 2,286 2,971 6.3 8.2
85 New Mexico Priv. Manufacturing 65 39,832 1,918 1,918 4.8 4.8
21 New York Total 7,205 8,077,936 1,958,725 2,098,566 24.2 26.0
21 New York Private 5,848 6,574,578 899,082 1,002,391 13.7 15.2
21 New York Public 1,357 1,503,358 1,059,643 1,096,175 70.5 72.9
21 New York Priv. Construction 300 348,520 95,900 99,722 27.5 28.6
21 New York Priv. Manufacturing 480 530,204 81,005 86,580 15.3 16.3
56 North Carolina Total 3,207 3,685,868 116,692 179,603 3.2 4.9
56 North Carolina Private 2,618 3,022,355 53,772 75,428 1.8 2.5
56 North Carolina Public 589 663,513 62,920 104,175 9.5 15.7
56 North Carolina Priv. Construction 180 216,150 5,107 5,107 2.4 2.4
56 North Carolina Priv. Manufacturing 424 474,041 18,394 21,650 3.9 4.6
44 North Dakota Total 2,425 312,875 23,018 28,442 7.4 9.1
44 North Dakota Private 1,898 245,841 11,331 12,965 4.6 5.3
44 North Dakota Public 527 67,034 11,687 15,477 17.4 23.1
44 North Dakota Priv. Construction 137 17,940 1,861 1,992 10.4 11.1
44 North Dakota Priv. Manufacturing 182 23,339 2,174 2,174 9.3 9.3
31 Ohio Total 4,665 4,786,868 654,925 701,860 13.7 14.7
31 Ohio Private 3,946 4,061,810 342,366 366,809 8.4 9.0
31 Ohio Public 719 725,058 312,559 335,052 43.1 46.2
31 Ohio Priv. Construction 199 201,614 42,507 43,437 21.1 21.5
31 Ohio Priv. Manufacturing 726 734,266 129,887 133,807 17.7 18.2
73 Oklahoma Total 1,966 1,417,791 77,415 98,508 5.5 6.9
73 Oklahoma Private 1,568 1,136,864 40,212 52,948 3.5 4.7
73 Oklahoma Public 398 280,928 37,203 45,560 13.2 16.2
73 Oklahoma Priv. Construction 96 71,454 1,364 1,364 1.9 1.9
73 Oklahoma Priv. Manufacturing 175 125,232 8,787 11,797 7.0 9.4
92 Oregon Total 2,272 1,515,070 245,101 267,894 16.2 17.7
92 Oregon Private 1,884 1,263,235 114,853 124,651 9.1 9.9
92 Oregon Public 388 251,834 130,248 143,243 51.7 56.9
92 Oregon Priv. Construction 107 72,744 9,725 10,517 13.4 14.5
92 Oregon Priv. Manufacturing 269 178,841 21,124 21,124 11.8 11.8
23 Pennsylvania Total 5,101 5,223,632 770,188 831,385 14.7 15.9
23 Pennsylvania Private 4,413 4,526,696 422,696 459,409 9.3 10.1
23 Pennsylvania Public 688 696,936 347,492 371,976 49.9 53.4
23 Pennsylvania Priv. Construction 218 224,400 59,427 62,495 26.5 27.8
23 Pennsylvania Priv. Manufacturing 643 652,371 76,412 79,609 11.7 12.2
15 Rhode Island Total 2,967 455,608 74,854 79,424 16.4 17.4
15 Rhode Island Private 2,526 389,437 32,701 35,375 8.4 9.1
15 Rhode Island Public 441 66,171 42,153 44,049 63.7 66.6
15 Rhode Island Priv. Construction 103 16,232 3,194 3,194 19.7 19.7
15 Rhode Island Priv. Manufacturing 343 52,703 3,953 4,394 7.5 8.3
57 South Carolina Total 2,028 1,713,003 79,583 106,807 4.6 6.2
57 South Carolina Private 1,650 1,396,863 38,213 55,248 2.7 4.0
57 South Carolina Public 378 316,140 41,369 51,559 13.1 16.3
57 South Carolina Priv. Construction 79 69,112 1,614 2,409 2.3 3.5
57 South Carolina Priv. Manufacturing 293 246,406 12,227 19,440 5.0 7.9
45 South Dakota Total 2,854 356,769 20,017 23,536 5.6 6.6
45 South Dakota Private 2,331 293,568 8,724 10,304 3.0 3.5
45 South Dakota Public 523 63,201 11,293 13,232 17.9 20.9
45 South Dakota Priv. Construction 141 17,357 757 857 4.4 4.9
45 South Dakota Priv. Manufacturing 341 41,742 3,170 3,305 7.6 7.9
62 Tennessee Total 2,174 2,477,414 115,456 142,482 4.7 5.8
62 Tennessee Private 1,828 2,084,239 46,294 62,975 2.2 3.0
62 Tennessee Public 346 393,175 69,162 79,507 17.6 20.2
62 Tennessee Priv. Construction 95 107,348 6,548 6,548 6.1 6.1
62 Tennessee Priv. Manufacturing 269 297,958 19,276 24,391 6.5 8.2
74 Texas Total 8,791 10,025,473 545,357 676,658 5.4 6.7
74 Texas Private 7,323 8,385,025 268,878 331,754 3.2 4.0
74 Texas Public 1,468 1,640,448 276,479 344,904 16.9 21.0
74 Texas Priv. Construction 580 696,991 14,141 18,985 2.0 2.7
74 Texas Priv. Manufacturing 855 983,865 74,872 82,656 7.6 8.4
87 Utah Total 1,999 1,143,844 74,614 95,594 6.5 8.4
87 Utah Private 1,604 921,622 35,711 42,231 3.9 4.6
87 Utah Public 395 222,223 38,903 53,364 17.5 24.0
87 Utah Priv. Construction 126 74,727 6,946 7,517 9.3 10.1
87 Utah Priv. Manufacturing 211 119,619 7,171 8,127 6.0 6.8
13 Vermont Total 2,756 289,484 34,240 39,509 11.8 13.6
13 Vermont Private 2,299 242,751 12,792 14,424 5.3 5.9
13 Vermont Public 457 46,734 21,447 25,085 45.9 53.7
13 Vermont Priv. Construction 130 13,966 466 577 3.3 4.1
13 Vermont Priv. Manufacturing 315 32,948 1,209 1,623 3.7 4.9
54 Virginia Total 3,807 3,473,021 160,630 196,445 4.6 5.7
54 Virginia Private 2,971 2,724,020 79,786 88,762 2.9 3.3
54 Virginia Public 836 749,001 80,844 107,683 10.8 14.4
54 Virginia Priv. Construction 189 183,080 7,083 7,083 3.9 3.9
54 Virginia Priv. Manufacturing 269 245,699 21,860 22,966 8.9 9.3
91 Washington Total 2,896 2,837,203 551,767 605,237 19.4 21.3
91 Washington Private 2,344 2,301,512 247,323 277,144 10.7 12.0
91 Washington Public 552 535,691 304,444 328,093 56.8 61.2
91 Washington Priv. Construction 146 146,753 23,259 23,259 15.8 15.8
91 Washington Priv. Manufacturing 304 299,838 66,018 70,559 22.0 23.5
55 West Virginia Total 1,640 676,538 99,862 111,367 14.8 16.5
55 West Virginia Private 1,238 516,067 57,918 65,221 11.2 12.6
55 West Virginia Public 402 160,470 41,944 46,146 26.1 28.8
55 West Virginia Priv. Construction 88 35,381 10,383 10,802 29.3 30.5
55 West Virginia Priv. Manufacturing 121 51,790 13,438 14,595 25.9 28.2
35 Wisconsin Total 3,523 2,507,887 354,882 379,812 14.2 15.1
35 Wisconsin Private 2,991 2,131,282 179,517 192,873 8.4 9.0
35 Wisconsin Public 532 376,605 175,366 186,939 46.6 49.6
35 Wisconsin Priv. Construction 138 97,946 23,623 24,348 24.1 24.9
35 Wisconsin Priv. Manufacturing 606 424,685 63,215 65,559 14.9 15.4
83 Wyoming Total 2,394 245,685 18,087 20,702 7.4 8.4
83 Wyoming Private 1,765 182,804 8,880 10,399 4.9 5.7
83 Wyoming Public 629 62,881 9,207 10,303 14.6 16.4
83 Wyoming Priv. Construction 149 16,072 1,061 1,222 6.6 7.6
83 Wyoming Priv. Manufacturing 81 8,366 526 610 6.3 7.3
                   
Data Sources: Current Population Survey (CPS) Outgoing Rotation Group (ORG) Earnings Files, 2010. Sample includes
employed wage and salary workers, ages 16 and over. Variable definitions are: State Code=Census state code used
in CPS, Obs=CPS sample size, Employment=wage and salary employment, Members=employed workers who are union
members, Covered=workers covered by a collective bargaining agreement, %Mem=percent of employed workers who
are union members, and %Cov=percent of employed workers who are covered by a collective bargaining agreement.
2011 by Barry T. Hirsch and David A. Macpherson. The use of data requires citation.