Union Membership, Coverage, Density and Employment by State, 2011 (details in table note)
State
Code State Sector Obs Employment Members Covered %Mem %Cov
63 Alabama Total 1,678 1,781,885 178,084 192,208 10.0 10.8
63 Alabama Private 1,365 1,461,981 98,677 106,353 6.7 7.3
63 Alabama Public 313 319,904 79,407 85,855 24.8 26.8
63 Alabama Priv. Construction 73 86,771 8,128 8,128 9.4 9.4
63 Alabama Priv. Manufacturing 259 281,115 38,258 38,258 13.6 13.6
94 Alaska Total 2,167 305,485 67,572 72,650 22.1 23.8
94 Alaska Private 1,579 224,741 24,655 27,417 11.0 12.2
94 Alaska Public 588 80,744 42,916 45,233 53.2 56.0
94 Alaska Priv. Construction 122 18,231 3,883 4,285 21.3 23.5
94 Alaska Priv. Manufacturing 49 7,118 818 818 11.5 11.5
86 Arizona Total 1,891 2,499,746 149,076 183,163 6.0 7.3
86 Arizona Private 1,584 2,100,125 82,821 98,505 3.9 4.7
86 Arizona Public 307 399,622 66,255 84,658 16.6 21.2
86 Arizona Priv. Construction 103 139,825 7,282 7,282 5.2 5.2
86 Arizona Priv. Manufacturing 155 205,643 5,901 7,314 2.9 3.6
71 Arkansas Total 1,635 1,116,844 47,010 57,121 4.2 5.1
71 Arkansas Private 1,347 924,451 23,462 30,424 2.5 3.3
71 Arkansas Public 288 192,392 23,548 26,697 12.2 13.9
71 Arkansas Priv. Construction 79 54,557 3,085 3,085 5.7 5.7
71 Arkansas Priv. Manufacturing 217 147,421 9,096 11,863 6.2 8.0
93 California Total 13,100 13,927,053 2,375,553 2,528,485 17.1 18.2
93 California Private 10,856 11,583,110 1,041,961 1,120,981 9.0 9.7
93 California Public 2,244 2,343,943 1,333,592 1,407,504 56.9 60.0
93 California Priv. Construction 623 686,035 115,619 124,965 16.9 18.2
93 California Priv. Manufacturing 1,418 1,512,810 97,325 100,656 6.4 6.7
84 Colorado Total 3,696 2,185,152 179,481 202,764 8.2 9.3
84 Colorado Private 3,113 1,846,398 89,912 101,813 4.9 5.5
84 Colorado Public 583 338,754 89,569 100,951 26.4 29.8
84 Colorado Priv. Construction 196 122,383 9,141 9,771 7.5 8.0
84 Colorado Priv. Manufacturing 325 193,774 15,934 15,934 8.2 8.2
16 Connecticut Total 4,002 1,540,072 258,666 271,847 16.8 17.7
16 Connecticut Private 3,401 1,312,183 111,765 120,844 8.5 9.2
16 Connecticut Public 601 227,889 146,901 151,003 64.5 66.3
16 Connecticut Priv. Construction 164 63,794 12,925 12,925 20.3 20.3
16 Connecticut Priv. Manufacturing 464 175,902 23,603 24,656 13.4 14.0
51 Delaware Total 2,713 370,560 38,599 41,430 10.4 11.2
51 Delaware Private 2,283 312,407 17,242 18,431 5.5 5.9
51 Delaware Public 430 58,153 21,357 22,999 36.7 39.5
51 Delaware Priv. Construction 159 21,713 2,101 2,227 9.7 10.3
51 Delaware Priv. Manufacturing 258 35,380 2,602 2,602 7.4 7.4
53 D.C. Total 2,546 281,468 23,478 27,852 8.3 9.9
53 D.C. Private 1,813 201,641 9,471 12,089 4.7 6.0
53 D.C. Public 733 79,827 14,007 15,763 17.5 19.7
53 D.C. Priv. Construction 50 5,701 379 379 6.7 6.7
53 D.C. Priv. Manufacturing 30 3,223 107 107 3.3 3.3
59 Florida Total 6,026 7,282,147 460,666 557,106 6.3 7.7
59 Florida Private 5,107 6,187,863 171,255 209,049 2.8 3.4
59 Florida Public 919 1,094,284 289,411 348,057 26.4 31.8
59 Florida Priv. Construction 300 369,665 16,999 18,202 4.6 4.9
59 Florida Priv. Manufacturing 310 376,120 14,275 16,553 3.8 4.4
58 Georgia Total 3,367 3,878,157 153,619 186,436 4.0 4.8
58 Georgia Private 2,764 3,191,495 85,703 101,333 2.7 3.2
58 Georgia Public 603 686,662 67,917 85,104 9.9 12.4
58 Georgia Priv. Construction 173 201,150 9,300 13,034 4.6 6.5
58 Georgia Priv. Manufacturing 359 412,792 11,440 12,527 2.8 3.0
95 Hawaii Total 2,610 525,057 112,756 118,396 21.5 22.5
95 Hawaii Private 2,076 419,359 59,177 61,946 14.1 14.8
95 Hawaii Public 534 105,697 53,579 56,450 50.7 53.4
95 Hawaii Priv. Construction 166 34,377 11,350 11,782 33.0 34.3
95 Hawaii Priv. Manufacturing 62 12,572 1,115 1,276 8.9 10.1
82 Idaho Total 1,746 594,380 30,560 36,340 5.1 6.1
82 Idaho Private 1,442 493,623 15,549 19,062 3.2 3.9
82 Idaho Public 304 100,758 15,010 17,278 14.9 17.1
82 Idaho Priv. Construction 78 27,494 1,880 2,233 6.8 8.1
82 Idaho Priv. Manufacturing 215 73,024 4,597 4,876 6.3 6.7
33 Illinois Total 5,078 5,410,480 875,890 929,157 16.2 17.2
33 Illinois Private 4,378 4,680,550 496,536 534,254 10.6 11.4
33 Illinois Public 700 729,930 379,355 394,903 52.0 54.1
33 Illinois Priv. Construction 196 213,354 71,971 71,971 33.7 33.7
33 Illinois Priv. Manufacturing 669 717,965 104,102 110,690 14.5 15.4
32 Indiana Total 2,534 2,683,136 300,740 331,447 11.2 12.4
32 Indiana Private 2,222 2,362,395 209,840 230,825 8.9 9.8
32 Indiana Public 312 320,741 90,900 100,622 28.3 31.4
32 Indiana Priv. Construction 125 138,083 40,348 41,311 29.2 29.9
32 Indiana Priv. Manufacturing 493 517,464 98,381 102,965 19.0 19.9
42 Iowa Total 3,447 1,388,052 155,614 187,786 11.2 13.5
42 Iowa Private 2,881 1,164,059 75,190 84,800 6.5 7.3
42 Iowa Public 566 223,993 80,424 102,985 35.9 46.0
42 Iowa Priv. Construction 162 67,923 11,948 11,948 17.6 17.6
42 Iowa Priv. Manufacturing 525 209,794 34,292 36,830 16.3 17.6
47 Kansas Total 2,566 1,267,321 96,574 128,019 7.6 10.1
47 Kansas Private 2,040 1,015,328 46,847 57,862 4.6 5.7
47 Kansas Public 526 251,993 49,727 70,157 19.7 27.8
47 Kansas Priv. Construction 123 64,794 7,114 8,540 11.0 13.2
47 Kansas Priv. Manufacturing 321 161,057 20,533 24,853 12.7 15.4
61 Kentucky Total 2,310 1,676,227 149,571 172,740 8.9 10.3
61 Kentucky Private 1,906 1,390,308 92,648 102,378 6.7 7.4
61 Kentucky Public 404 285,919 56,923 70,362 19.9 24.6
61 Kentucky Priv. Construction 97 71,326 8,456 8,456 11.9 11.9
61 Kentucky Priv. Manufacturing 330 234,907 28,720 30,772 12.2 13.1
72 Louisiana Total 1,481 1,713,697 76,191 90,200 4.4 5.3
72 Louisiana Private 1,222 1,427,837 48,151 50,591 3.4 3.5
72 Louisiana Public 259 285,860 28,040 39,609 9.8 13.9
72 Louisiana Priv. Construction 86 100,692 6,787 6,787 6.7 6.7
72 Louisiana Priv. Manufacturing 100 117,300 13,790 15,263 11.8 13.0
11 Maine Total 3,014 554,486 62,711 74,554 11.3 13.4
11 Maine Private 2,519 464,213 21,357 24,447 4.6 5.3
11 Maine Public 495 90,273 41,354 50,106 45.8 55.5
11 Maine Priv. Construction 140 25,646 1,552 1,736 6.1 6.8
11 Maine Priv. Manufacturing 295 54,578 8,743 9,120 16.0 16.7
52 Maryland Total 4,406 2,550,277 315,883 348,203 12.4 13.7
52 Maryland Private 3,366 1,947,983 129,014 138,329 6.6 7.1
52 Maryland Public 1,040 602,293 186,868 209,873 31.0 34.8
52 Maryland Priv. Construction 256 146,215 16,705 21,016 11.4 14.4
52 Maryland Priv. Manufacturing 213 121,902 9,446 9,986 7.7 8.2
14 Massachusetts Total 2,666 2,882,766 422,093 445,526 14.6 15.5
14 Massachusetts Private 2,294 2,491,400 175,836 194,148 7.1 7.8
14 Massachusetts Public 372 391,366 246,257 251,378 62.9 64.2
14 Massachusetts Priv. Construction 115 127,500 18,579 19,658 14.6 15.4
14 Massachusetts Priv. Manufacturing 267 287,946 14,125 18,105 4.9 6.3
34 Michigan Total 3,677 3,843,814 670,935 702,621 17.5 18.3
34 Michigan Private 3,160 3,313,229 394,814 410,769 11.9 12.4
34 Michigan Public 517 530,586 276,121 291,852 52.0 55.0
34 Michigan Priv. Construction 146 153,527 30,447 30,447 19.8 19.8
34 Michigan Priv. Manufacturing 634 656,367 131,913 133,748 20.1 20.4
41 Minnesota Total 4,479 2,460,685 370,522 389,245 15.1 15.8
41 Minnesota Private 3,836 2,118,777 165,274 177,826 7.8 8.4
41 Minnesota Public 643 341,907 205,248 211,419 60.0 61.8
41 Minnesota Priv. Construction 179 103,420 31,528 32,150 30.5 31.1
41 Minnesota Priv. Manufacturing 644 354,624 22,339 22,339 6.3 6.3
64 Mississippi Total 1,410 1,081,731 53,724 73,387 5.0 6.8
64 Mississippi Private 1,087 842,756 28,969 36,823 3.4 4.4
64 Mississippi Public 323 238,975 24,754 36,565 10.4 15.3
64 Mississippi Priv. Construction 68 55,073 2,052 2,052 3.7 3.7
64 Mississippi Priv. Manufacturing 200 153,568 11,476 12,611 7.5 8.2
43 Missouri Total 2,808 2,534,534 275,007 315,745 10.9 12.5
43 Missouri Private 2,427 2,188,330 200,963 218,414 9.2 10.0
43 Missouri Public 381 346,204 74,044 97,331 21.4 28.1
43 Missouri Priv. Construction 146 129,924 39,315 39,315 30.3 30.3
43 Missouri Priv. Manufacturing 325 290,113 60,408 60,408 20.8 20.8
81 Montana Total 1,414 376,728 48,842 54,723 13.0 14.5
81 Montana Private 1,089 290,629 15,772 18,632 5.4 6.4
81 Montana Public 325 86,099 33,070 36,092 38.4 41.9
81 Montana Priv. Construction 65 16,771 2,671 2,671 15.9 15.9
81 Montana Priv. Manufacturing 74 18,367 2,359 2,644 12.8 14.4
46 Nebraska Total 2,882 828,434 65,365 82,738 7.9 10.0
46 Nebraska Private 2,316 670,202 25,158 31,094 3.8 4.6
46 Nebraska Public 566 158,232 40,207 51,644 25.4 32.6
46 Nebraska Priv. Construction 144 43,041 3,754 4,146 8.7 9.6
46 Nebraska Priv. Manufacturing 388 112,982 10,255 12,246 9.1 10.8
88 Nevada Total 2,473 1,049,608 153,611 174,517 14.6 16.6
88 Nevada Private 2,152 916,851 99,273 111,923 10.8 12.2
88 Nevada Public 321 132,757 54,339 62,594 40.9 47.1
88 Nevada Priv. Construction 97 41,758 12,191 13,087 29.2 31.3
88 Nevada Priv. Manufacturing 124 51,199 1,666 2,069 3.3 4.0
12 New Hampshire Total 3,931 617,661 68,427 76,996 11.1 12.5
12 New Hampshire Private 3,336 524,974 23,229 26,374 4.4 5.0
12 New Hampshire Public 595 92,688 45,197 50,623 48.8 54.6
12 New Hampshire Priv. Construction 152 24,357 3,516 3,516 14.4 14.4
12 New Hampshire Priv. Manufacturing 515 80,887 2,664 2,958 3.3 3.7
22 New Jersey Total 3,557 3,817,058 615,709 641,798 16.1 16.8
22 New Jersey Private 3,032 3,253,239 283,663 301,301 8.7 9.3
22 New Jersey Public 525 563,819 332,045 340,497 58.9 60.4
22 New Jersey Priv. Construction 165 181,762 41,913 43,249 23.1 23.8
22 New Jersey Priv. Manufacturing 321 337,294 29,490 31,576 8.7 9.4
85 New Mexico Total 1,234 724,855 49,261 65,099 6.8 9.0
85 New Mexico Private 888 528,558 15,135 18,472 2.9 3.5
85 New Mexico Public 346 196,298 34,126 46,628 17.4 23.8
85 New Mexico Priv. Construction 74 46,703 1,636 1,636 3.5 3.5
85 New Mexico Priv. Manufacturing 49 27,689 0 394 0.0 1.4
21 New York Total 7,056 7,915,811 1,904,425 2,067,959 24.1 26.1
21 New York Private 5,761 6,494,100 877,308 997,000 13.5 15.4
21 New York Public 1,295 1,421,712 1,027,116 1,070,959 72.2 75.3
21 New York Priv. Construction 299 343,503 81,518 88,802 23.7 25.9
21 New York Priv. Manufacturing 482 527,176 76,545 84,580 14.5 16.0
56 North Carolina Total 3,016 3,595,383 104,471 148,405 2.9 4.1
56 North Carolina Private 2,487 2,980,566 48,553 66,515 1.6 2.2
56 North Carolina Public 529 614,817 55,918 81,890 9.1 13.3
56 North Carolina Priv. Construction 160 209,171 2,426 3,600 1.2 1.7
56 North Carolina Priv. Manufacturing 386 453,756 9,828 13,420 2.2 3.0
44 North Dakota Total 2,369 318,620 20,125 27,254 6.3 8.6
44 North Dakota Private 1,898 256,465 9,852 14,059 3.8 5.5
44 North Dakota Public 471 62,155 10,273 13,196 16.5 21.2
44 North Dakota Priv. Construction 124 17,118 1,388 1,656 8.1 9.7
44 North Dakota Priv. Manufacturing 150 20,343 2,808 3,460 13.8 17.0
31 Ohio Total 4,566 4,813,013 646,356 705,662 13.4 14.7
31 Ohio Private 3,912 4,131,515 356,092 395,192 8.6 9.6
31 Ohio Public 654 681,498 290,264 310,469 42.6 45.6
31 Ohio Priv. Construction 192 200,998 50,551 54,349 25.1 27.0
31 Ohio Priv. Manufacturing 757 785,147 131,906 145,630 16.8 18.5
73 Oklahoma Total 1,904 1,458,351 93,513 112,243 6.4 7.7
73 Oklahoma Private 1,510 1,163,015 44,395 49,914 3.8 4.3
73 Oklahoma Public 394 295,336 49,117 62,329 16.6 21.1
73 Oklahoma Priv. Construction 98 80,030 3,488 3,488 4.4 4.4
73 Oklahoma Priv. Manufacturing 183 138,042 6,615 8,129 4.8 5.9
92 Oregon Total 2,329 1,575,163 269,202 285,261 17.1 18.1
92 Oregon Private 1,939 1,318,287 116,656 123,570 8.8 9.4
92 Oregon Public 390 256,876 152,546 161,691 59.4 62.9
92 Oregon Priv. Construction 98 68,599 12,950 12,950 18.9 18.9
92 Oregon Priv. Manufacturing 258 172,921 23,219 23,219 13.4 13.4
23 Pennsylvania Total 5,082 5,351,919 778,577 845,040 14.5 15.8
23 Pennsylvania Private 4,435 4,686,481 434,101 468,188 9.3 10.0
23 Pennsylvania Public 647 665,438 344,476 376,852 51.8 56.6
23 Pennsylvania Priv. Construction 240 254,782 64,812 66,982 25.4 26.3
23 Pennsylvania Priv. Manufacturing 648 667,665 86,691 88,740 13.0 13.3
15 Rhode Island Total 2,853 453,504 78,744 80,947 17.4 17.8
15 Rhode Island Private 2,405 383,925 35,181 36,610 9.2 9.5
15 Rhode Island Public 448 69,579 43,563 44,337 62.6 63.7
15 Rhode Island Priv. Construction 107 17,013 3,503 3,503 20.6 20.6
15 Rhode Island Priv. Manufacturing 320 50,856 3,562 3,562 7.0 7.0
57 South Carolina Total 1,946 1,724,622 59,484 86,265 3.4 5.0
57 South Carolina Private 1,606 1,433,206 25,152 41,479 1.8 2.9
57 South Carolina Public 340 291,416 34,332 44,786 11.8 15.4
57 South Carolina Priv. Construction 80 75,296 2,153 2,888 2.9 3.8
57 South Carolina Priv. Manufacturing 290 257,057 4,152 8,636 1.6 3.4
45 South Dakota Total 2,802 359,216 18,302 23,098 5.1 6.4
45 South Dakota Private 2,295 295,250 7,872 9,107 2.7 3.1
45 South Dakota Public 507 63,966 10,430 13,990 16.3 21.9
45 South Dakota Priv. Construction 156 20,188 1,293 1,293 6.4 6.4
45 South Dakota Priv. Manufacturing 335 42,117 2,247 2,924 5.3 6.9
62 Tennessee Total 2,112 2,504,352 115,461 139,478 4.6 5.6
62 Tennessee Private 1,754 2,085,537 51,328 55,742 2.5 2.7
62 Tennessee Public 358 418,815 64,133 83,736 15.3 20.0
62 Tennessee Priv. Construction 97 113,236 3,919 3,919 3.5 3.5
62 Tennessee Priv. Manufacturing 272 312,914 13,875 16,067 4.4 5.1
74 Texas Total 8,836 10,213,615 532,986 642,302 5.2 6.3
74 Texas Private 7,416 8,615,090 260,218 305,349 3.0 3.5
74 Texas Public 1,420 1,598,525 272,768 336,953 17.1 21.1
74 Texas Priv. Construction 596 717,490 17,754 22,360 2.5 3.1
74 Texas Priv. Manufacturing 886 1,032,206 72,927 76,227 7.1 7.4
87 Utah Total 2,002 1,148,488 66,495 81,627 5.8 7.1
87 Utah Private 1,659 959,093 33,178 39,648 3.5 4.1
87 Utah Public 343 189,395 33,318 41,979 17.6 22.2
87 Utah Priv. Construction 129 78,062 4,805 6,767 6.2 8.7
87 Utah Priv. Manufacturing 226 131,223 4,391 6,528 3.3 5.0
13 Vermont Total 2,597 290,551 34,915 39,239 12.0 13.5
13 Vermont Private 2,138 240,642 10,613 13,204 4.4 5.5
13 Vermont Public 459 49,910 24,302 26,035 48.7 52.2
13 Vermont Priv. Construction 123 14,104 458 458 3.2 3.2
13 Vermont Priv. Manufacturing 318 34,899 1,197 1,303 3.4 3.7
54 Virginia Total 3,850 3,548,810 163,146 197,595 4.6 5.6
54 Virginia Private 3,031 2,812,593 59,139 71,539 2.1 2.5
54 Virginia Public 819 736,217 104,007 126,055 14.1 17.1
54 Virginia Priv. Construction 192 184,721 4,892 5,878 2.6 3.2
54 Virginia Priv. Manufacturing 265 245,208 13,388 15,188 5.5 6.2
91 Washington Total 2,827 2,729,039 517,104 557,216 18.9 20.4
91 Washington Private 2,276 2,209,929 245,326 264,051 11.1 11.9
91 Washington Public 551 519,110 271,778 293,166 52.4 56.5
91 Washington Priv. Construction 125 122,249 34,035 36,225 27.8 29.6
91 Washington Priv. Manufacturing 321 309,785 66,228 68,909 21.4 22.2
55 West Virginia Total 1,582 671,842 92,886 102,430 13.8 15.2
55 West Virginia Private 1,189 510,590 49,436 53,760 9.7 10.5
55 West Virginia Public 393 161,252 43,450 48,669 26.9 30.2
55 West Virginia Priv. Construction 83 35,125 5,943 6,446 16.9 18.4
55 West Virginia Priv. Manufacturing 106 45,143 11,138 11,138 24.7 24.7
35 Wisconsin Total 3,558 2,537,794 338,656 357,734 13.3 14.1
35 Wisconsin Private 3,033 2,166,002 151,592 159,050 7.0 7.3
35 Wisconsin Public 525 371,792 187,064 198,685 50.3 53.4
35 Wisconsin Priv. Construction 129 92,452 23,437 24,793 25.4 26.8
35 Wisconsin Priv. Manufacturing 589 415,986 63,270 65,636 15.2 15.8
83 Wyoming Total 2,428 250,471 18,031 20,963 7.2 8.4
83 Wyoming Private 1,785 185,095 9,174 10,389 5.0 5.6
83 Wyoming Public 643 65,376 8,857 10,574 13.5 16.2
83 Wyoming Priv. Construction 144 15,238 888 888 5.8 5.8
83 Wyoming Priv. Manufacturing 101 10,792 214 424 2.0 3.9
                   
Data Sources: Current Population Survey (CPS) Outgoing Rotation Group (ORG) Earnings Files, 2011. Sample includes
employed wage and salary workers, ages 16 and over. Variable definitions are: State Code=Census state code used
in CPS, Obs=CPS sample size, Employment=wage and salary employment, Members=employed workers who are union
members, Covered=workers covered by a collective bargaining agreement, %Mem=percent of employed workers who
are union members, and %Cov=percent of employed workers who are covered by a collective bargaining agreement.
2012 by Barry T. Hirsch and David A. Macpherson. The use of data requires citation.