Union Membership, Coverage, Density and Employment by State, 2013 (details in table note)
State
Code State Sector Obs Employment Members Covered %Mem %Cov
63 Alabama Total 1,676 1,891,629 203,423 222,469 10.8 11.8
63 Alabama Private 1,389 1,572,310 118,371 131,395 7.5 8.4
63 Alabama Public 287 319,319 85,052 91,074 26.6 28.5
63 Alabama Priv. Construction 82 91,112 2,821 3,710 3.1 4.1
63 Alabama Priv. Manufacturing 266 300,297 41,329 42,362 13.8 14.1
94 Alaska Total 2,012 306,322 70,692 75,006 23.1 24.5
94 Alaska Private 1,446 221,888 23,611 25,635 10.6 11.6
94 Alaska Public 566 84,434 47,081 49,370 55.8 58.5
94 Alaska Priv. Construction 111 17,040 3,800 3,991 22.3 23.4
94 Alaska Priv. Manufacturing 43 7,161 1,112 1,112 15.5 15.5
86 Arizona Total 1,832 2,455,146 121,864 146,816 5.0 6.0
86 Arizona Private 1,545 2,077,424 60,762 66,973 2.9 3.2
86 Arizona Public 287 377,722 61,103 79,844 16.2 21.1
86 Arizona Priv. Construction 97 127,729 5,211 5,211 4.1 4.1
86 Arizona Priv. Manufacturing 133 183,789 5,874 5,874 3.2 3.2
71 Arkansas Total 1,621 1,072,119 37,735 43,682 3.5 4.1
71 Arkansas Private 1,346 896,780 18,569 20,333 2.1 2.3
71 Arkansas Public 275 175,339 19,166 23,349 10.9 13.3
71 Arkansas Priv. Construction 70 43,561 1,112 1,112 2.6 2.6
71 Arkansas Priv. Manufacturing 229 153,720 7,879 7,879 5.1 5.1
93 California Total 13,663 14,840,395 2,429,109 2,578,947 16.4 17.4
93 California Private 11,426 12,445,970 1,111,727 1,196,304 8.9 9.6
93 California Public 2,237 2,394,425 1,317,382 1,382,643 55.0 57.7
93 California Priv. Construction 691 761,854 125,655 133,586 16.5 17.5
93 California Priv. Manufacturing 1,440 1,569,375 129,573 144,974 8.3 9.2
84 Colorado Total 3,885 2,241,941 169,677 206,288 7.6 9.2
84 Colorado Private 3,278 1,897,493 95,488 109,668 5.0 5.8
84 Colorado Public 607 344,448 74,189 96,620 21.5 28.1
84 Colorado Priv. Construction 209 124,098 10,053 11,213 8.1 9.0
84 Colorado Priv. Manufacturing 331 187,774 11,554 14,921 6.2 7.9
16 Connecticut Total 3,737 1,534,370 206,553 219,144 13.5 14.3
16 Connecticut Private 3,228 1,328,884 90,616 98,040 6.8 7.4
16 Connecticut Public 509 205,486 115,936 121,103 56.4 58.9
16 Connecticut Priv. Construction 165 68,490 10,654 11,231 15.6 16.4
16 Connecticut Priv. Manufacturing 475 188,666 18,759 20,861 9.9 11.1
51 Delaware Total 2,545 370,468 38,014 40,769 10.3 11.0
51 Delaware Private 2,106 308,189 16,148 18,232 5.2 5.9
51 Delaware Public 439 62,278 21,866 22,537 35.1 36.2
51 Delaware Priv. Construction 135 19,951 1,603 2,062 8.0 10.3
51 Delaware Priv. Manufacturing 203 28,547 2,656 2,876 9.3 10.1
53 D.C. Total 2,659 308,460 28,614 33,771 9.3 10.9
53 D.C. Private 1,936 225,596 11,016 12,706 4.9 5.6
53 D.C. Public 723 82,864 17,598 21,064 21.2 25.4
53 D.C. Priv. Construction 55 6,793 1,011 1,011 14.9 14.9
53 D.C. Priv. Manufacturing 30 3,636 0 0 0.0 0.0
59 Florida Total 6,198 7,661,636 413,381 528,660 5.4 6.9
59 Florida Private 5,326 6,595,366 153,414 211,587 2.3 3.2
59 Florida Public 872 1,066,270 259,967 317,073 24.4 29.7
59 Florida Priv. Construction 286 356,604 15,206 18,648 4.3 5.2
59 Florida Priv. Manufacturing 306 379,726 8,496 14,897 2.2 3.9
58 Georgia Total 3,466 3,956,288 208,412 247,575 5.3 6.3
58 Georgia Private 2,824 3,233,172 124,060 139,803 3.8 4.3
58 Georgia Public 642 723,116 84,352 107,772 11.7 14.9
58 Georgia Priv. Construction 173 201,297 16,186 17,076 8.0 8.5
58 Georgia Priv. Manufacturing 373 429,026 14,738 16,714 3.4 3.9
95 Hawaii Total 2,563 549,219 121,357 129,463 22.1 23.6
95 Hawaii Private 2,015 431,680 58,583 64,251 13.6 14.9
95 Hawaii Public 548 117,539 62,774 65,212 53.4 55.5
95 Hawaii Priv. Construction 154 33,444 10,925 11,538 32.7 34.5
95 Hawaii Priv. Manufacturing 60 13,516 2,472 2,472 18.3 18.3
82 Idaho Total 1,714 617,100 29,021 35,718 4.7 5.8
82 Idaho Private 1,372 497,571 11,618 13,680 2.3 2.7
82 Idaho Public 342 119,529 17,404 22,038 14.6 18.4
82 Idaho Priv. Construction 89 32,658 1,186 1,626 3.6 5.0
82 Idaho Priv. Manufacturing 188 67,473 3,510 3,809 5.2 5.6
33 Illinois Total 5,159 5,402,987 850,557 882,118 15.7 16.3
33 Illinois Private 4,445 4,668,569 466,131 486,071 10.0 10.4
33 Illinois Public 714 734,418 384,426 396,047 52.3 53.9
33 Illinois Priv. Construction 217 229,517 83,804 84,741 36.5 36.9
33 Illinois Priv. Manufacturing 646 671,322 85,791 90,040 12.8 13.4
32 Indiana Total 2,499 2,683,062 248,604 274,492 9.3 10.2
32 Indiana Private 2,188 2,354,221 176,735 190,216 7.5 8.1
32 Indiana Public 311 328,841 71,869 84,276 21.9 25.6
32 Indiana Priv. Construction 126 136,663 45,485 45,485 33.3 33.3
32 Indiana Priv. Manufacturing 464 487,651 64,685 66,662 13.3 13.7
42 Iowa Total 3,501 1,423,027 143,400 170,718 10.1 12.0
42 Iowa Private 2,932 1,193,998 76,457 86,549 6.4 7.2
42 Iowa Public 569 229,029 66,942 84,169 29.2 36.8
42 Iowa Priv. Construction 134 55,193 14,246 14,246 25.8 25.8
42 Iowa Priv. Manufacturing 590 237,260 37,226 40,051 15.7 16.9
47 Kansas Total 2,504 1,253,159 94,214 105,568 7.5 8.4
47 Kansas Private 2,035 1,021,915 50,895 56,212 5.0 5.5
47 Kansas Public 469 231,244 43,319 49,357 18.7 21.3
47 Kansas Priv. Construction 116 61,020 8,525 8,525 14.0 14.0
47 Kansas Priv. Manufacturing 334 166,452 19,710 22,638 11.8 13.6
61 Kentucky Total 2,328 1,734,972 193,984 225,607 11.2 13.0
61 Kentucky Private 1,940 1,449,306 132,821 152,469 9.2 10.5
61 Kentucky Public 388 285,666 61,163 73,138 21.4 25.6
61 Kentucky Priv. Construction 92 64,481 14,903 15,546 23.1 24.1
61 Kentucky Priv. Manufacturing 314 225,139 38,581 42,346 17.1 18.8
72 Louisiana Total 1,613 1,728,929 74,826 94,544 4.3 5.5
72 Louisiana Private 1,352 1,458,062 40,297 55,960 2.8 3.8
72 Louisiana Public 261 270,867 34,529 38,585 12.7 14.2
72 Louisiana Priv. Construction 100 107,679 4,384 5,389 4.1 5.0
72 Louisiana Priv. Manufacturing 126 134,230 12,132 13,228 9.0 9.9
11 Maine Total 2,857 573,251 63,906 75,355 11.1 13.1
11 Maine Private 2,414 487,433 23,775 27,954 4.9 5.7
11 Maine Public 443 85,817 40,131 47,401 46.8 55.2
11 Maine Priv. Construction 109 22,569 699 1,135 3.1 5.0
11 Maine Priv. Manufacturing 301 58,781 10,131 10,739 17.2 18.3
52 Maryland Total 4,305 2,665,100 308,014 348,607 11.6 13.1
52 Maryland Private 3,264 2,028,954 105,994 123,257 5.2 6.1
52 Maryland Public 1,041 636,146 202,020 225,350 31.8 35.4
52 Maryland Priv. Construction 258 161,340 14,391 15,590 8.9 9.7
52 Maryland Priv. Manufacturing 213 130,975 12,134 13,253 9.3 10.1
14 Massachusetts Total 2,590 2,942,508 400,381 428,760 13.6 14.6
14 Massachusetts Private 2,205 2,518,894 171,645 189,240 6.8 7.5
14 Massachusetts Public 385 423,615 228,736 239,519 54.0 56.5
14 Massachusetts Priv. Construction 109 124,468 25,895 25,895 20.8 20.8
14 Massachusetts Priv. Manufacturing 235 256,620 13,069 17,377 5.1 6.8
34 Michigan Total 3,706 3,890,636 631,453 654,753 16.2 16.8
34 Michigan Private 3,255 3,423,941 375,707 389,295 11.0 11.4
34 Michigan Public 451 466,695 255,747 265,458 54.8 56.9
34 Michigan Priv. Construction 123 129,202 23,435 23,435 18.1 18.1
34 Michigan Priv. Manufacturing 737 772,932 136,840 141,663 17.7 18.3
41 Minnesota Total 4,497 2,532,447 361,909 380,905 14.3 15.0
41 Minnesota Private 3,896 2,198,388 184,498 192,857 8.4 8.8
41 Minnesota Public 601 334,059 177,411 188,048 53.1 56.3
41 Minnesota Priv. Construction 173 99,597 28,680 28,680 28.8 28.8
41 Minnesota Priv. Manufacturing 653 362,978 31,506 32,924 8.7 9.1
64 Mississippi Total 1,270 1,040,242 37,856 43,931 3.6 4.2
64 Mississippi Private 998 824,518 27,302 30,653 3.3 3.7
64 Mississippi Public 272 215,724 10,554 13,279 4.9 6.2
64 Mississippi Priv. Construction 57 51,637 2,950 2,950 5.7 5.7
64 Mississippi Priv. Manufacturing 203 164,065 12,305 12,305 7.5 7.5
43 Missouri Total 2,758 2,539,368 219,760 265,125 8.7 10.4
43 Missouri Private 2,334 2,154,078 156,981 180,864 7.3 8.4
43 Missouri Public 424 385,290 62,779 84,261 16.3 21.9
43 Missouri Priv. Construction 119 112,351 37,964 38,822 33.8 34.6
43 Missouri Priv. Manufacturing 329 296,465 36,927 39,791 12.5 13.4
81 Montana Total 1,501 402,562 52,283 59,736 13.0 14.8
81 Montana Private 1,156 314,936 20,195 25,870 6.4 8.2
81 Montana Public 345 87,626 32,087 33,866 36.6 38.6
81 Montana Priv. Construction 78 22,072 3,194 4,399 14.5 19.9
81 Montana Priv. Manufacturing 72 19,586 1,721 1,721 8.8 8.8
46 Nebraska Total 2,828 870,089 62,869 78,378 7.2 9.0
46 Nebraska Private 2,373 734,398 30,576 37,328 4.2 5.1
46 Nebraska Public 455 135,690 32,293 41,050 23.8 30.3
46 Nebraska Priv. Construction 152 47,441 4,361 4,779 9.2 10.1
46 Nebraska Priv. Manufacturing 399 124,154 10,444 12,339 8.4 9.9
88 Nevada Total 2,414 1,152,609 168,323 185,467 14.6 16.1
88 Nevada Private 2,084 1,000,341 110,480 118,934 11.0 11.9
88 Nevada Public 330 152,268 57,844 66,532 38.0 43.7
88 Nevada Priv. Construction 127 60,844 14,333 14,333 23.6 23.6
88 Nevada Priv. Manufacturing 102 48,375 2,449 2,449 5.1 5.1
12 New Hampshire Total 3,803 623,671 59,516 66,765 9.5 10.7
12 New Hampshire Private 3,294 541,546 18,200 20,767 3.4 3.8
12 New Hampshire Public 509 82,125 41,316 45,998 50.3 56.0
12 New Hampshire Priv. Construction 176 28,690 3,192 3,192 11.1 11.1
12 New Hampshire Priv. Manufacturing 533 86,472 1,329 1,464 1.5 1.7
22 New Jersey Total 3,403 3,815,813 610,187 631,616 16.0 16.6
22 New Jersey Private 2,920 3,283,370 287,147 298,880 8.7 9.1
22 New Jersey Public 483 532,442 323,040 332,736 60.7 62.5
22 New Jersey Priv. Construction 162 185,303 45,000 46,451 24.3 25.1
22 New Jersey Priv. Manufacturing 332 367,184 34,490 34,490 9.4 9.4
85 New Mexico Total 1,215 751,188 46,460 55,397 6.2 7.4
85 New Mexico Private 841 525,127 12,319 15,010 2.3 2.9
85 New Mexico Public 374 226,061 34,141 40,387 15.1 17.9
85 New Mexico Priv. Construction 57 38,168 1,014 1,014 2.7 2.7
85 New Mexico Priv. Manufacturing 52 32,124 1,375 1,375 4.3 4.3
21 New York Total 6,914 8,144,204 1,982,771 2,100,240 24.3 25.8
21 New York Private 5,703 6,763,708 1,018,204 1,097,925 15.1 16.2
21 New York Public 1,211 1,380,496 964,566 1,002,316 69.9 72.6
21 New York Priv. Construction 301 362,617 91,345 93,938 25.2 25.9
21 New York Priv. Manufacturing 498 571,941 92,495 99,539 16.2 17.4
56 North Carolina Total 3,198 3,881,111 116,178 183,970 3.0 4.7
56 North Carolina Private 2,635 3,202,633 50,371 88,894 1.6 2.8
56 North Carolina Public 563 678,478 65,808 95,076 9.7 14.0
56 North Carolina Priv. Construction 179 217,078 0 2,315 0.0 1.1
56 North Carolina Priv. Manufacturing 424 507,648 11,541 26,533 2.3 5.2
44 North Dakota Total 2,463 341,797 21,908 28,905 6.4 8.5
44 North Dakota Private 1,982 274,487 9,811 12,776 3.6 4.7
44 North Dakota Public 481 67,310 12,098 16,129 18.0 24.0
44 North Dakota Priv. Construction 130 18,127 1,680 1,967 9.3 10.8
44 North Dakota Priv. Manufacturing 186 26,342 2,286 3,121 8.7 11.8
31 Ohio Total 4,497 4,783,952 605,868 674,353 12.7 14.1
31 Ohio Private 3,894 4,150,010 317,032 357,914 7.6 8.6
31 Ohio Public 603 633,942 288,836 316,439 45.6 49.9
31 Ohio Priv. Construction 207 221,031 43,110 46,118 19.5 20.9
31 Ohio Priv. Manufacturing 783 810,041 117,858 128,276 14.5 15.8
73 Oklahoma Total 1,832 1,520,451 114,412 144,315 7.5 9.5
73 Oklahoma Private 1,436 1,200,869 48,481 61,482 4.0 5.1
73 Oklahoma Public 396 319,582 65,931 82,832 20.6 25.9
73 Oklahoma Priv. Construction 90 81,374 5,909 7,000 7.3 8.6
73 Oklahoma Priv. Manufacturing 162 134,612 9,324 9,324 6.9 6.9
92 Oregon Total 2,189 1,503,533 208,532 223,350 13.9 14.9
92 Oregon Private 1,841 1,268,303 88,864 97,115 7.0 7.7
92 Oregon Public 348 235,230 119,668 126,235 50.9 53.7
92 Oregon Priv. Construction 112 78,904 7,493 8,987 9.5 11.4
92 Oregon Priv. Manufacturing 318 215,328 16,073 16,685 7.5 7.7
23 Pennsylvania Total 5,185 5,497,707 699,973 752,648 12.7 13.7
23 Pennsylvania Private 4,573 4,857,046 376,745 404,429 7.8 8.3
23 Pennsylvania Public 612 640,661 323,228 348,220 50.5 54.4
23 Pennsylvania Priv. Construction 239 252,385 60,342 61,390 23.9 24.3
23 Pennsylvania Priv. Manufacturing 719 754,754 74,273 79,373 9.8 10.5
15 Rhode Island Total 2,727 458,494 77,367 81,669 16.9 17.8
15 Rhode Island Private 2,331 394,874 35,245 38,379 8.9 9.7
15 Rhode Island Public 396 63,620 42,122 43,290 66.2 68.0
15 Rhode Island Priv. Construction 112 18,796 3,494 3,494 18.6 18.6
15 Rhode Island Priv. Manufacturing 332 54,584 5,389 5,542 9.9 10.2
57 South Carolina Total 2,034 1,854,629 68,484 86,025 3.7 4.6
57 South Carolina Private 1,680 1,544,040 37,861 50,335 2.5 3.3
57 South Carolina Public 354 310,589 30,623 35,690 9.9 11.5
57 South Carolina Priv. Construction 81 76,640 991 2,069 1.3 2.7
57 South Carolina Priv. Manufacturing 323 291,005 11,410 16,440 3.9 5.6
45 South Dakota Total 2,612 362,526 17,206 20,949 4.7 5.8
45 South Dakota Private 2,152 302,241 8,207 9,071 2.7 3.0
45 South Dakota Public 460 60,284 8,999 11,878 14.9 19.7
45 South Dakota Priv. Construction 128 18,653 356 494 1.9 2.6
45 South Dakota Priv. Manufacturing 323 44,178 3,328 3,446 7.5 7.8
62 Tennessee Total 2,096 2,542,156 155,924 188,644 6.1 7.4
62 Tennessee Private 1,780 2,160,147 73,246 90,182 3.4 4.2
62 Tennessee Public 316 382,009 82,678 98,463 21.6 25.8
62 Tennessee Priv. Construction 92 111,178 4,763 7,913 4.3 7.1
62 Tennessee Priv. Manufacturing 296 347,790 22,183 26,046 6.4 7.5
74 Texas Total 8,990 10,880,079 517,825 647,372 4.8 6.0
74 Texas Private 7,621 9,265,213 242,686 318,812 2.6 3.4
74 Texas Public 1,369 1,614,866 275,140 328,560 17.0 20.3
74 Texas Priv. Construction 607 750,695 21,250 23,514 2.8 3.1
74 Texas Priv. Manufacturing 826 1,001,656 57,145 64,312 5.7 6.4
87 Utah Total 2,259 1,252,176 49,253 67,405 3.9 5.4
87 Utah Private 1,864 1,037,853 24,205 31,252 2.3 3.0
87 Utah Public 395 214,323 25,048 36,152 11.7 16.9
87 Utah Priv. Construction 126 70,882 2,851 4,080 4.0 5.8
87 Utah Priv. Manufacturing 230 129,164 4,209 4,209 3.3 3.3
13 Vermont Total 2,501 285,179 31,024 37,567 10.9 13.2
13 Vermont Private 2,026 232,857 9,717 11,869 4.2 5.1
13 Vermont Public 475 52,322 21,307 25,698 40.7 49.1
13 Vermont Priv. Construction 111 13,229 334 334 2.5 2.5
13 Vermont Priv. Manufacturing 261 30,227 1,282 1,394 4.2 4.6
54 Virginia Total 3,847 3,599,820 179,113 228,821 5.0 6.4
54 Virginia Private 2,976 2,804,171 85,781 107,174 3.1 3.8
54 Virginia Public 871 795,649 93,332 121,647 11.7 15.3
54 Virginia Priv. Construction 254 238,826 10,093 13,923 4.2 5.8
54 Virginia Priv. Manufacturing 270 249,107 26,901 29,973 10.8 12.0
91 Washington Total 2,961 2,880,935 544,986 567,321 18.9 19.7
91 Washington Private 2,474 2,422,227 283,641 299,315 11.7 12.4
91 Washington Public 487 458,708 261,345 268,006 57.0 58.4
91 Washington Priv. Construction 164 164,648 41,029 45,118 24.9 27.4
91 Washington Priv. Manufacturing 331 323,037 78,039 78,892 24.2 24.4
55 West Virginia Total 1,550 685,582 87,309 93,218 12.7 13.6
55 West Virginia Private 1,224 545,084 53,364 56,714 9.8 10.4
55 West Virginia Public 326 140,498 33,946 36,504 24.2 26.0
55 West Virginia Priv. Construction 81 37,204 7,470 7,470 20.1 20.1
55 West Virginia Priv. Manufacturing 123 55,577 11,141 11,141 20.0 20.0
35 Wisconsin Total 3,495 2,572,622 316,596 336,723 12.3 13.1
35 Wisconsin Private 2,965 2,187,097 178,471 191,761 8.2 8.8
35 Wisconsin Public 530 385,525 138,124 144,962 35.8 37.6
35 Wisconsin Priv. Construction 146 106,352 28,386 29,036 26.7 27.3
35 Wisconsin Priv. Manufacturing 657 474,685 72,666 74,704 15.3 15.7
83 Wyoming Total 2,206 258,942 14,667 16,526 5.7 6.4
83 Wyoming Private 1,668 197,162 8,659 9,679 4.4 4.9
83 Wyoming Public 538 61,780 6,008 6,847 9.7 11.1
83 Wyoming Priv. Construction 127 15,314 1,124 1,124 7.3 7.3
83 Wyoming Priv. Manufacturing 94 11,103 609 609 5.5 5.5
                   
Data Sources: Current Population Survey (CPS) Outgoing Rotation Group (ORG) Earnings Files, 2013. Sample includes
employed wage and salary workers, ages 16 and over. Variable definitions are: State Code=Census state code used
in CPS, Obs=CPS sample size, Employment=wage and salary employment, Members=employed workers who are union
members, Covered=workers covered by a collective bargaining agreement, %Mem=percent of employed workers who
are union members, and %Cov=percent of employed workers who are covered by a collective bargaining agreement.
2014 by Barry T. Hirsch and David A. Macpherson. The use of data requires citation.