Union Membership, Coverage, Density and Employment by State, 2015 (details in table note)
State
Code State Sector Obs Employment Members Covered %Mem %Cov
63 Alabama Total 2,780 1,863,152 189,834 203,998 10.2 10.9
63 Alabama Private 2,292 1,551,204 84,439 89,790 5.4 5.8
63 Alabama Public 488 311,947 105,394 114,208 33.8 36.6
63 Alabama Priv. Construction 140 97,730 6,630 7,363 6.8 7.5
63 Alabama Priv. Manufacturing 482 318,833 24,512 26,396 7.7 8.3
94 Alaska Total 2,032 304,538 59,653 65,793 19.6 21.6
94 Alaska Private 1,470 221,166 24,815 26,750 11.2 12.1
94 Alaska Public 562 83,372 34,838 39,043 41.8 46.8
94 Alaska Priv. Construction 117 18,874 5,013 5,202 26.6 27.6
94 Alaska Priv. Manufacturing 63 10,124 372 563 3.7 5.6
86 Arizona Total 2,442 2,661,422 137,173 162,428 5.2 6.1
86 Arizona Private 2,110 2,302,359 75,970 86,271 3.3 3.7
86 Arizona Public 332 359,064 61,203 76,158 17.0 21.2
86 Arizona Priv. Construction 127 145,217 9,930 9,930 6.8 6.8
86 Arizona Priv. Manufacturing 203 219,885 8,740 9,914 4.0 4.5
71 Arkansas Total 2,559 1,156,533 58,542 74,214 5.1 6.4
71 Arkansas Private 2,096 955,568 27,100 35,124 2.8 3.7
71 Arkansas Public 463 200,965 31,442 39,090 15.6 19.5
71 Arkansas Priv. Construction 118 57,628 1,332 2,202 2.3 3.8
71 Arkansas Priv. Manufacturing 358 159,718 7,832 11,660 4.9 7.3
93 California Total 13,721 15,662,847 2,486,173 2,688,403 15.9 17.2
93 California Private 11,572 13,237,959 1,153,071 1,267,923 8.7 9.6
93 California Public 2,149 2,424,888 1,333,102 1,420,481 55.0 58.6
93 California Priv. Construction 705 820,015 148,362 155,871 18.1 19.0
93 California Priv. Manufacturing 1,377 1,566,612 81,037 88,413 5.2 5.6
84 Colorado Total 2,432 2,314,303 194,659 215,447 8.4 9.3
84 Colorado Private 1,992 1,897,487 123,631 132,652 6.5 7.0
84 Colorado Public 440 416,815 71,028 82,795 17.0 19.9
84 Colorado Priv. Construction 168 165,983 14,239 16,111 8.6 9.7
84 Colorado Priv. Manufacturing 170 160,425 11,608 12,762 7.2 8.0
16 Connecticut Total 2,284 1,586,095 268,728 276,580 16.9 17.4
16 Connecticut Private 1,908 1,327,744 99,327 106,151 7.5 8.0
16 Connecticut Public 376 258,351 169,401 170,428 65.6 66.0
16 Connecticut Priv. Construction 83 58,401 6,184 6,571 10.6 11.3
16 Connecticut Priv. Manufacturing 274 190,969 14,994 15,354 7.9 8.0
51 Delaware Total 2,136 411,439 37,914 42,933 9.2 10.4
51 Delaware Private 1,803 348,216 15,827 19,160 4.5 5.5
51 Delaware Public 333 63,223 22,088 23,773 34.9 37.6
51 Delaware Priv. Construction 115 22,047 1,755 1,755 8.0 8.0
51 Delaware Priv. Manufacturing 174 32,906 2,734 3,259 8.3 9.9
53 D.C. Total 3,101 333,905 34,596 40,337 10.4 12.1
53 D.C. Private 2,252 243,829 15,766 18,271 6.5 7.5
53 D.C. Public 849 90,076 18,830 22,066 20.9 24.5
53 D.C. Priv. Construction 69 8,197 730 730 8.9 8.9
53 D.C. Priv. Manufacturing 28 2,835 0 0 0.0 0.0
59 Florida Total 6,661 7,997,953 545,752 669,965 6.8 8.4
59 Florida Private 5,685 6,839,409 227,520 306,596 3.3 4.5
59 Florida Public 976 1,158,544 318,232 363,369 27.5 31.4
59 Florida Priv. Construction 399 492,625 10,848 16,830 2.2 3.4
59 Florida Priv. Manufacturing 345 411,122 22,549 25,061 5.5 6.1
58 Georgia Total 3,501 4,018,507 161,720 205,275 4.0 5.1
58 Georgia Private 2,945 3,411,545 91,693 114,659 2.7 3.4
58 Georgia Public 556 606,963 70,028 90,616 11.5 14.9
58 Georgia Priv. Construction 202 242,195 5,660 8,452 2.3 3.5
58 Georgia Priv. Manufacturing 408 462,986 12,415 15,367 2.7 3.3
95 Hawaii Total 2,540 583,012 118,572 125,640 20.3 21.6
95 Hawaii Private 1,971 455,056 54,582 58,041 12.0 12.8
95 Hawaii Public 569 127,956 63,990 67,599 50.0 52.8
95 Hawaii Priv. Construction 151 36,449 13,710 13,710 37.6 37.6
95 Hawaii Priv. Manufacturing 59 13,510 906 1,082 6.7 8.0
82 Idaho Total 2,335 678,962 46,134 49,545 6.8 7.3
82 Idaho Private 1,934 563,217 24,823 26,767 4.4 4.8
82 Idaho Public 401 115,745 21,311 22,779 18.4 19.7
82 Idaho Priv. Construction 136 40,176 3,480 3,480 8.7 8.7
82 Idaho Priv. Manufacturing 254 73,284 9,181 9,483 12.5 12.9
33 Illinois Total 5,034 5,565,668 846,984 891,924 15.2 16.0
33 Illinois Private 4,377 4,845,921 463,734 489,198 9.6 10.1
33 Illinois Public 657 719,747 383,251 402,726 53.2 56.0
33 Illinois Priv. Construction 212 228,343 82,252 83,273 36.0 36.5
33 Illinois Priv. Manufacturing 618 678,164 72,056 75,509 10.6 11.1
32 Indiana Total 2,724 2,826,928 282,047 317,523 10.0 11.2
32 Indiana Private 2,378 2,479,205 186,816 203,654 7.5 8.2
32 Indiana Public 346 347,723 95,231 113,868 27.4 32.7
32 Indiana Priv. Construction 126 134,074 27,752 28,781 20.7 21.5
32 Indiana Priv. Manufacturing 482 493,814 77,432 82,670 15.7 16.7
42 Iowa Total 2,259 1,434,629 137,125 173,821 9.6 12.1
42 Iowa Private 1,859 1,179,554 66,688 78,398 5.7 6.6
42 Iowa Public 400 255,075 70,438 95,423 27.6 37.4
42 Iowa Priv. Construction 106 72,017 12,315 13,501 17.1 18.7
42 Iowa Priv. Manufacturing 329 205,525 28,271 32,473 13.8 15.8
47 Kansas Total 2,150 1,257,111 109,548 135,512 8.7 10.8
47 Kansas Private 1,778 1,049,503 62,092 73,909 5.9 7.0
47 Kansas Public 372 207,608 47,457 61,604 22.9 29.7
47 Kansas Priv. Construction 103 60,470 11,217 12,274 18.5 20.3
47 Kansas Priv. Manufacturing 271 160,356 17,927 23,261 11.2 14.5
61 Kentucky Total 2,007 1,704,091 187,122 206,604 11.0 12.1
61 Kentucky Private 1,652 1,409,251 117,279 127,413 8.3 9.0
61 Kentucky Public 355 294,840 69,843 79,191 23.7 26.9
61 Kentucky Priv. Construction 88 75,789 15,091 15,091 19.9 19.9
61 Kentucky Priv. Manufacturing 292 241,590 32,807 33,450 13.6 13.8
72 Louisiana Total 3,334 1,844,385 107,422 126,128 5.8 6.8
72 Louisiana Private 2,751 1,537,715 55,704 63,604 3.6 4.1
72 Louisiana Public 583 306,670 51,718 62,525 16.9 20.4
72 Louisiana Priv. Construction 221 131,995 8,744 8,744 6.6 6.6
72 Louisiana Priv. Manufacturing 280 150,961 15,837 16,956 10.5 11.2
11 Maine Total 1,597 548,918 63,433 74,427 11.6 13.6
11 Maine Private 1,345 465,776 21,212 24,544 4.6 5.3
11 Maine Public 252 83,142 42,222 49,883 50.8 60.0
11 Maine Priv. Construction 56 18,801 1,069 1,069 5.7 5.7
11 Maine Priv. Manufacturing 143 50,670 5,950 5,950 11.7 11.7
52 Maryland Total 2,726 2,752,400 287,686 337,066 10.5 12.2
52 Maryland Private 2,064 2,091,395 97,041 114,268 4.6 5.5
52 Maryland Public 662 661,005 190,645 222,798 28.8 33.7
52 Maryland Priv. Construction 154 156,790 21,076 21,854 13.4 13.9
52 Maryland Priv. Manufacturing 115 114,652 12,277 12,277 10.7 10.7
14 Massachusetts Total 3,268 3,104,348 402,108 441,575 13.0 14.2
14 Massachusetts Private 2,855 2,714,810 171,545 193,945 6.3 7.1
14 Massachusetts Public 413 389,538 230,563 247,630 59.2 63.6
14 Massachusetts Priv. Construction 153 148,395 25,042 26,039 16.9 17.5
14 Massachusetts Priv. Manufacturing 312 289,596 13,822 14,674 4.8 5.1
34 Michigan Total 3,561 4,086,105 621,952 673,191 15.2 16.5
34 Michigan Private 3,150 3,630,990 401,882 434,757 11.1 12.0
34 Michigan Public 411 455,115 220,070 238,435 48.4 52.4
34 Michigan Priv. Construction 146 165,351 38,546 39,510 23.3 23.9
34 Michigan Priv. Manufacturing 705 815,800 146,814 153,433 18.0 18.8
41 Minnesota Total 2,822 2,562,291 361,831 384,061 14.1 15.0
41 Minnesota Private 2,382 2,167,059 174,433 191,617 8.0 8.8
41 Minnesota Public 440 395,233 187,398 192,443 47.4 48.7
41 Minnesota Priv. Construction 121 115,910 33,674 36,586 29.1 31.6
41 Minnesota Priv. Manufacturing 455 427,049 35,686 39,787 8.4 9.3
64 Mississippi Total 2,591 1,104,389 59,870 74,440 5.4 6.7
64 Mississippi Private 2,044 875,893 38,447 48,239 4.4 5.5
64 Mississippi Public 547 228,496 21,424 26,201 9.4 11.5
64 Mississippi Priv. Construction 122 49,313 3,370 3,370 6.8 6.8
64 Mississippi Priv. Manufacturing 381 158,867 17,636 20,918 11.1 13.2
43 Missouri Total 2,449 2,616,990 230,511 256,877 8.8 9.8
43 Missouri Private 2,096 2,240,064 147,172 158,699 6.6 7.1
43 Missouri Public 353 376,926 83,339 98,179 22.1 26.0
43 Missouri Priv. Construction 133 137,029 34,804 35,573 25.4 26.0
43 Missouri Priv. Manufacturing 253 270,845 42,249 42,249 15.6 15.6
81 Montana Total 2,895 427,087 51,857 59,151 12.1 13.8
81 Montana Private 2,309 342,016 21,391 24,543 6.3 7.2
81 Montana Public 586 85,071 30,466 34,608 35.8 40.7
81 Montana Priv. Construction 174 26,080 1,481 1,601 5.7 6.1
81 Montana Priv. Manufacturing 167 23,760 2,786 2,903 11.7 12.2
46 Nebraska Total 2,376 881,645 68,211 79,565 7.7 9.0
46 Nebraska Private 2,005 749,357 33,930 38,868 4.5 5.2
46 Nebraska Public 371 132,288 34,281 40,697 25.9 30.8
46 Nebraska Priv. Construction 143 53,994 5,428 5,428 10.1 10.1
46 Nebraska Priv. Manufacturing 300 112,809 9,154 10,286 8.1 9.1
88 Nevada Total 2,115 1,231,192 176,107 202,062 14.3 16.4
88 Nevada Private 1,802 1,050,995 117,795 126,381 11.2 12.0
88 Nevada Public 313 180,197 58,312 75,681 32.4 42.0
88 Nevada Priv. Construction 139 82,050 15,842 16,513 19.3 20.1
88 Nevada Priv. Manufacturing 90 53,603 6,033 8,021 11.3 15.0
12 New Hampshire Total 2,751 641,280 62,325 72,957 9.7 11.4
12 New Hampshire Private 2,352 552,635 20,946 24,886 3.8 4.5
12 New Hampshire Public 399 88,644 41,380 48,071 46.7 54.2
12 New Hampshire Priv. Construction 138 31,985 2,467 2,467 7.7 7.7
12 New Hampshire Priv. Manufacturing 380 88,904 2,024 3,613 2.3 4.1
22 New Jersey Total 3,560 3,877,477 595,058 643,006 15.3 16.6
22 New Jersey Private 3,003 3,272,569 256,154 284,265 7.8 8.7
22 New Jersey Public 557 604,908 338,904 358,741 56.0 59.3
22 New Jersey Priv. Construction 170 182,411 33,152 33,152 18.2 18.2
22 New Jersey Priv. Manufacturing 299 324,320 18,107 18,963 5.6 5.8
85 New Mexico Total 2,477 781,344 48,674 61,214 6.2 7.8
85 New Mexico Private 1,894 593,368 22,757 26,720 3.8 4.5
85 New Mexico Public 583 187,976 25,917 34,494 13.8 18.4
85 New Mexico Priv. Construction 124 39,858 3,146 3,146 7.9 7.9
85 New Mexico Priv. Manufacturing 119 36,779 831 831 2.3 2.3
21 New York Total 6,716 8,248,740 2,036,802 2,139,543 24.7 25.9
21 New York Private 5,572 6,878,284 1,096,075 1,168,599 15.9 17.0
21 New York Public 1,144 1,370,456 940,727 970,944 68.6 70.8
21 New York Priv. Construction 310 393,582 116,693 122,033 29.6 31.0
21 New York Priv. Manufacturing 458 536,678 57,208 60,705 10.7 11.3
56 North Carolina Total 3,606 4,094,176 123,126 167,345 3.0 4.1
56 North Carolina Private 3,087 3,517,472 65,051 86,457 1.8 2.5
56 North Carolina Public 519 576,704 58,075 80,888 10.1 14.0
56 North Carolina Priv. Construction 209 245,797 2,146 2,146 0.9 0.9
56 North Carolina Priv. Manufacturing 490 554,181 8,308 10,833 1.5 2.0
44 North Dakota Total 2,725 351,461 19,051 23,755 5.4 6.8
44 North Dakota Private 2,259 291,798 10,218 13,132 3.5 4.5
44 North Dakota Public 466 59,662 8,834 10,624 14.8 17.8
44 North Dakota Priv. Construction 162 22,054 1,731 1,992 7.9 9.0
44 North Dakota Priv. Manufacturing 209 27,087 2,527 2,769 9.3 10.2
31 Ohio Total 4,396 4,919,534 606,222 670,496 12.3 13.6
31 Ohio Private 3,809 4,266,609 355,306 394,218 8.3 9.2
31 Ohio Public 587 652,925 250,916 276,278 38.4 42.3
31 Ohio Priv. Construction 160 178,207 39,037 42,608 21.9 23.9
31 Ohio Priv. Manufacturing 765 841,747 123,778 128,021 14.7 15.2
73 Oklahoma Total 2,355 1,570,310 88,309 116,430 5.6 7.4
73 Oklahoma Private 1,937 1,297,978 46,334 59,152 3.6 4.6
73 Oklahoma Public 418 272,332 41,975 57,278 15.4 21.0
73 Oklahoma Priv. Construction 121 83,416 4,550 5,125 5.5 6.1
73 Oklahoma Priv. Manufacturing 261 180,616 20,264 23,201 11.2 12.8
92 Oregon Total 2,318 1,586,372 234,577 255,735 14.8 16.1
92 Oregon Private 1,957 1,345,275 111,997 122,854 8.3 9.1
92 Oregon Public 361 241,097 122,580 132,881 50.8 55.1
92 Oregon Priv. Construction 97 66,603 8,084 10,040 12.1 15.1
92 Oregon Priv. Manufacturing 299 203,577 20,334 21,763 10.0 10.7
23 Pennsylvania Total 4,824 5,604,169 747,710 805,231 13.3 14.4
23 Pennsylvania Private 4,256 4,958,290 425,350 452,050 8.6 9.1
23 Pennsylvania Public 568 645,879 322,360 353,181 49.9 54.7
23 Pennsylvania Priv. Construction 210 245,440 50,719 51,805 20.7 21.1
23 Pennsylvania Priv. Manufacturing 660 750,707 120,102 121,300 16.0 16.2
15 Rhode Island Total 1,932 482,664 68,432 71,748 14.2 14.9
15 Rhode Island Private 1,645 415,612 27,020 29,363 6.5 7.1
15 Rhode Island Public 287 67,051 41,412 42,385 61.8 63.2
15 Rhode Island Priv. Construction 66 17,552 2,272 2,272 12.9 12.9
15 Rhode Island Priv. Manufacturing 222 54,092 3,266 3,793 6.0 7.0
57 South Carolina Total 2,386 1,961,047 40,425 56,666 2.1 2.9
57 South Carolina Private 1,996 1,649,483 17,946 25,875 1.1 1.6
57 South Carolina Public 390 311,564 22,478 30,791 7.2 9.9
57 South Carolina Priv. Construction 133 112,006 1,403 3,340 1.3 3.0
57 South Carolina Priv. Manufacturing 341 281,366 3,839 5,608 1.4 2.0
45 South Dakota Total 1,989 382,252 22,528 26,378 5.9 6.9
45 South Dakota Private 1,659 319,741 8,301 9,538 2.6 3.0
45 South Dakota Public 330 62,510 14,227 16,840 22.8 26.9
45 South Dakota Priv. Construction 102 21,746 1,395 1,617 6.4 7.4
45 South Dakota Priv. Manufacturing 245 48,825 2,430 2,430 5.0 5.0
62 Tennessee Total 2,808 2,689,593 145,868 174,680 5.4 6.5
62 Tennessee Private 2,391 2,296,713 71,114 85,040 3.1 3.7
62 Tennessee Public 417 392,880 74,754 89,641 19.0 22.8
62 Tennessee Priv. Construction 148 142,374 11,385 12,898 8.0 9.1
62 Tennessee Priv. Manufacturing 343 316,002 21,845 22,913 6.9 7.3
74 Texas Total 8,925 11,173,521 502,767 626,645 4.5 5.6
74 Texas Private 7,646 9,597,016 240,757 305,864 2.5 3.2
74 Texas Public 1,279 1,576,506 262,009 320,781 16.6 20.3
74 Texas Priv. Construction 649 840,948 22,884 23,944 2.7 2.8
74 Texas Priv. Manufacturing 822 1,031,911 45,807 50,838 4.4 4.9
87 Utah Total 2,487 1,277,398 50,409 66,717 3.9 5.2
87 Utah Private 2,078 1,072,057 24,769 31,559 2.3 2.9
87 Utah Public 409 205,341 25,639 35,158 12.5 17.1
87 Utah Priv. Construction 167 86,059 2,992 2,992 3.5 3.5
87 Utah Priv. Manufacturing 308 157,704 1,738 2,274 1.1 1.4
13 Vermont Total 2,316 284,201 35,622 41,647 12.5 14.7
13 Vermont Private 1,931 238,119 12,253 15,020 5.1 6.3
13 Vermont Public 385 46,082 23,369 26,627 50.7 57.8
13 Vermont Priv. Construction 120 14,733 977 977 6.6 6.6
13 Vermont Priv. Manufacturing 267 32,560 1,714 2,185 5.3 6.7
54 Virginia Total 3,413 3,735,236 201,931 257,482 5.4 6.9
54 Virginia Private 2,660 2,927,548 91,373 110,995 3.1 3.8
54 Virginia Public 753 807,688 110,558 146,486 13.7 18.1
54 Virginia Priv. Construction 187 205,760 7,162 7,162 3.5 3.5
54 Virginia Priv. Manufacturing 227 252,235 19,811 23,488 7.9 9.3
91 Washington Total 2,855 2,981,439 499,779 535,886 16.8 18.0
91 Washington Private 2,372 2,491,406 273,830 294,487 11.0 11.8
91 Washington Public 483 490,033 225,949 241,398 46.1 49.3
91 Washington Priv. Construction 159 167,866 36,307 38,179 21.6 22.7
91 Washington Priv. Manufacturing 333 349,523 81,296 82,156 23.3 23.5
55 West Virginia Total 2,853 663,872 82,630 90,786 12.4 13.7
55 West Virginia Private 2,279 535,272 48,777 51,177 9.1 9.6
55 West Virginia Public 574 128,600 33,853 39,609 26.3 30.8
55 West Virginia Priv. Construction 127 32,114 5,975 6,171 18.6 19.2
55 West Virginia Priv. Manufacturing 338 77,068 15,507 15,798 20.1 20.5
35 Wisconsin Total 2,750 2,682,151 222,118 252,437 8.3 9.4
35 Wisconsin Private 2,340 2,291,686 120,173 127,242 5.2 5.6
35 Wisconsin Public 410 390,465 101,945 125,194 26.1 32.1
35 Wisconsin Priv. Construction 102 99,577 18,854 18,854 18.9 18.9
35 Wisconsin Priv. Manufacturing 525 507,696 61,769 62,360 12.2 12.3
83 Wyoming Total 2,408 261,398 18,656 21,541 7.1 8.2
83 Wyoming Private 1,826 199,990 10,221 11,426 5.1 5.7
83 Wyoming Public 582 61,408 8,435 10,115 13.7 16.5
83 Wyoming Priv. Construction 161 17,649 1,115 1,203 6.3 6.8
83 Wyoming Priv. Manufacturing 90 9,680 559 653 5.8 6.7
                   
Data Sources: Current Population Survey (CPS) Outgoing Rotation Group (ORG) Earnings Files, 2015. Sample includes
employed wage and salary workers, ages 16 and over. Variable definitions are: State Code=Census state code used
in CPS, Obs=CPS sample size, Employment=wage and salary employment, Members=employed workers who are union
members, Covered=workers covered by a collective bargaining agreement, %Mem=percent of employed workers who
are union members, and %Cov=percent of employed workers who are covered by a collective bargaining agreement.
2016 by Barry T. Hirsch and David A. Macpherson. The use of data requires citation.