Union Membership, Coverage, Density and Employment by State, 2018 (details in table note)
State
Code State Sector Obs Employment Members Covered %Mem %Cov
63 Alabama Total 3,024 1,949,296 180,645 196,346 9.3 10.1
63 Alabama Private 2,497 1,616,086 97,620 104,613 6.0 6.5
63 Alabama Public 527 333,210 83,024 91,733 24.9 27.5
63 Alabama Priv. Construction 158 99,800 16,523 16,523 16.6 16.6
63 Alabama Priv. Manufacturing 490 320,620 23,221 25,462 7.2 7.9
94 Alaska Total 1,831 298,974 55,148 59,864 18.4 20.0
94 Alaska Private 1,326 218,381 19,681 22,180 9.0 10.2
94 Alaska Public 505 80,593 35,467 37,685 44.0 46.8
94 Alaska Priv. Construction 82 13,532 3,399 3,399 25.1 25.1
94 Alaska Priv. Manufacturing 43 6,966 608 608 8.7 8.7
86 Arizona Total 2,489 2,944,674 156,622 190,967 5.3 6.5
86 Arizona Private 2,086 2,474,153 60,422 74,709 2.4 3.0
86 Arizona Public 403 470,520 96,200 116,258 20.4 24.7
86 Arizona Priv. Construction 168 202,711 4,268 4,268 2.1 2.1
86 Arizona Priv. Manufacturing 186 220,970 3,467 6,672 1.6 3.0
71 Arkansas Total 2,753 1,175,705 56,247 61,811 4.8 5.3
71 Arkansas Private 2,309 990,016 40,200 43,953 4.1 4.4
71 Arkansas Public 444 185,689 16,046 17,858 8.6 9.6
71 Arkansas Priv. Construction 186 81,487 4,127 4,127 5.1 5.1
71 Arkansas Priv. Manufacturing 385 164,785 10,034 10,813 6.1 6.6
93 California Total 13,404 16,398,370 2,404,888 2,586,603 14.7 15.8
93 California Private 11,346 13,926,422 1,162,555 1,281,056 8.3 9.2
93 California Public 2,058 2,471,949 1,242,334 1,305,547 50.3 52.8
93 California Priv. Construction 730 905,201 143,734 153,439 15.9 17.0
93 California Priv. Manufacturing 1,314 1,605,628 121,869 134,149 7.6 8.4
84 Colorado Total 2,125 2,562,343 281,098 306,933 11.0 12.0
84 Colorado Private 1,756 2,126,947 173,339 192,725 8.1 9.1
84 Colorado Public 369 435,397 107,760 114,208 24.7 26.2
84 Colorado Priv. Construction 183 224,045 17,781 21,517 7.9 9.6
84 Colorado Priv. Manufacturing 149 186,532 8,002 8,002 4.3 4.3
16 Connecticut Total 1,752 1,677,130 267,222 280,083 15.9 16.7
16 Connecticut Private 1,498 1,441,400 119,581 129,738 8.3 9.0
16 Connecticut Public 254 235,730 147,640 150,345 62.6 63.8
16 Connecticut Priv. Construction 89 82,440 16,568 17,446 20.1 21.2
16 Connecticut Priv. Manufacturing 185 179,132 24,861 24,861 13.9 13.9
51 Delaware Total 1,844 433,455 44,835 46,892 10.3 10.8
51 Delaware Private 1,578 373,289 22,045 23,197 5.9 6.2
51 Delaware Public 266 60,167 22,790 23,696 37.9 39.4
51 Delaware Priv. Construction 119 28,301 4,869 4,869 17.2 17.2
51 Delaware Priv. Manufacturing 177 41,115 4,283 4,727 10.4 11.5
53 D.C. Total 2,963 354,633 35,226 41,256 9.9 11.6
53 D.C. Private 2,154 261,485 15,356 17,805 5.9 6.8
53 D.C. Public 809 93,148 19,870 23,452 21.3 25.2
53 D.C. Priv. Construction 67 8,203 644 1,042 7.9 12.7
53 D.C. Priv. Manufacturing 30 3,492 348 348 10.0 10.0
59 Florida Total 6,662 8,712,509 484,162 587,641 5.6 6.7
59 Florida Private 5,788 7,578,388 180,172 241,101 2.4 3.2
59 Florida Public 874 1,134,120 303,989 346,540 26.8 30.6
59 Florida Priv. Construction 432 575,599 10,868 15,452 1.9 2.7
59 Florida Priv. Manufacturing 341 440,157 14,386 15,475 3.3 3.5
58 Georgia Total 3,626 4,466,531 200,070 247,747 4.5 5.5
58 Georgia Private 3,046 3,775,636 101,851 125,679 2.7 3.3
58 Georgia Public 580 690,895 98,219 122,069 14.2 17.7
58 Georgia Priv. Construction 202 259,281 11,992 13,058 4.6 5.0
58 Georgia Priv. Manufacturing 387 472,775 17,093 19,730 3.6 4.2
95 Hawaii Total 2,339 601,008 138,854 145,837 23.1 24.3
95 Hawaii Private 1,825 472,170 71,099 75,448 15.1 16.0
95 Hawaii Public 514 128,839 67,755 70,389 52.6 54.6
95 Hawaii Priv. Construction 162 41,588 17,303 17,455 41.6 42.0
95 Hawaii Priv. Manufacturing 53 13,369 1,435 1,880 10.7 14.1
82 Idaho Total 2,579 733,078 34,244 41,404 4.7 5.6
82 Idaho Private 2,175 619,559 16,000 18,527 2.6 3.0
82 Idaho Public 404 113,518 18,244 22,877 16.1 20.2
82 Idaho Priv. Construction 177 52,880 4,300 4,300 8.1 8.1
82 Idaho Priv. Manufacturing 284 81,571 5,051 5,771 6.2 7.1
33 Illinois Total 4,646 5,693,575 785,966 839,168 13.8 14.7
33 Illinois Private 3,993 4,917,601 425,888 455,602 8.7 9.3
33 Illinois Public 653 775,975 360,077 383,566 46.4 49.4
33 Illinois Priv. Construction 199 240,893 85,823 88,970 35.6 36.9
33 Illinois Priv. Manufacturing 570 692,918 96,049 99,331 13.9 14.3
32 Indiana Total 2,846 3,051,383 269,025 283,152 8.8 9.3
32 Indiana Private 2,485 2,676,433 186,896 189,860 7.0 7.1
32 Indiana Public 361 374,950 82,129 93,292 21.9 24.9
32 Indiana Priv. Construction 127 131,783 35,936 35,936 27.3 27.3
32 Indiana Priv. Manufacturing 531 568,355 72,261 72,261 12.7 12.7
42 Iowa Total 1,972 1,461,069 112,771 129,144 7.7 8.8
42 Iowa Private 1,662 1,231,741 63,652 71,008 5.2 5.8
42 Iowa Public 310 229,328 49,119 58,136 21.4 25.4
42 Iowa Priv. Construction 90 68,059 16,559 16,559 24.3 24.3
42 Iowa Priv. Manufacturing 291 217,685 24,087 26,419 11.1 12.1
47 Kansas Total 2,079 1,284,599 90,558 129,283 7.0 10.1
47 Kansas Private 1,719 1,069,522 52,584 69,677 4.9 6.5
47 Kansas Public 360 215,078 37,975 59,606 17.7 27.7
47 Kansas Priv. Construction 118 76,273 9,371 10,579 12.3 13.9
47 Kansas Priv. Manufacturing 307 190,524 23,946 29,885 12.6 15.7
61 Kentucky Total 1,876 1,810,366 160,209 206,137 8.8 11.4
61 Kentucky Private 1,599 1,555,790 106,283 142,704 6.8 9.2
61 Kentucky Public 277 254,576 53,926 63,433 21.2 24.9
61 Kentucky Priv. Construction 99 99,133 12,082 16,250 12.2 16.4
61 Kentucky Priv. Manufacturing 245 233,745 23,730 26,346 10.2 11.3
72 Louisiana Total 3,299 1,787,076 89,016 103,899 5.0 5.8
72 Louisiana Private 2,699 1,466,312 45,355 54,333 3.1 3.7
72 Louisiana Public 600 320,764 43,661 49,567 13.6 15.5
72 Louisiana Priv. Construction 196 110,798 8,376 9,200 7.6 8.3
72 Louisiana Priv. Manufacturing 277 154,281 14,968 17,085 9.7 11.1
11 Maine Total 1,302 572,761 73,905 84,692 12.9 14.8
11 Maine Private 1,086 481,838 27,949 31,790 5.8 6.6
11 Maine Public 216 90,924 45,956 52,901 50.5 58.2
11 Maine Priv. Construction 49 22,338 1,764 1,764 7.9 7.9
11 Maine Priv. Manufacturing 126 55,396 8,944 8,944 16.1 16.1
52 Maryland Total 2,263 2,781,321 306,318 334,615 11.0 12.0
52 Maryland Private 1,740 2,145,201 123,702 135,864 5.8 6.3
52 Maryland Public 523 636,121 182,616 198,751 28.7 31.2
52 Maryland Priv. Construction 139 175,064 18,647 21,607 10.7 12.3
52 Maryland Priv. Manufacturing 90 109,823 12,873 13,880 11.7 12.6
14 Massachusetts Total 3,744 3,392,452 462,739 490,970 13.6 14.5
14 Massachusetts Private 3,260 2,959,564 214,035 231,710 7.2 7.8
14 Massachusetts Public 484 432,889 248,704 259,260 57.5 59.9
14 Massachusetts Priv. Construction 194 177,343 26,786 27,668 15.1 15.6
14 Massachusetts Priv. Manufacturing 338 307,158 14,709 15,518 4.8 5.1
34 Michigan Total 3,689 4,318,618 624,598 662,456 14.5 15.3
34 Michigan Private 3,264 3,828,300 419,295 446,025 11.0 11.7
34 Michigan Public 425 490,317 205,303 216,431 41.9 44.1
34 Michigan Priv. Construction 153 176,064 33,839 34,976 19.2 19.9
34 Michigan Priv. Manufacturing 776 899,266 149,567 154,994 16.6 17.2
41 Minnesota Total 2,304 2,637,050 395,407 421,226 15.0 16.0
41 Minnesota Private 2,015 2,317,052 205,516 220,901 8.9 9.5
41 Minnesota Public 289 319,997 189,892 200,325 59.3 62.6
41 Minnesota Priv. Construction 111 124,957 36,419 36,419 29.1 29.1
41 Minnesota Priv. Manufacturing 310 353,842 35,341 37,155 10.0 10.5
64 Mississippi Total 2,635 1,122,640 57,656 79,853 5.1 7.1
64 Mississippi Private 2,141 914,114 32,929 47,575 3.6 5.2
64 Mississippi Public 494 208,525 24,727 32,278 11.9 15.5
64 Mississippi Priv. Construction 135 57,198 2,239 3,355 3.9 5.9
64 Mississippi Priv. Manufacturing 373 158,160 15,732 22,644 9.9 14.3
43 Missouri Total 2,282 2,681,076 251,770 283,111 9.4 10.6
43 Missouri Private 1,945 2,298,794 147,494 163,586 6.4 7.1
43 Missouri Public 337 382,282 104,275 119,526 27.3 31.3
43 Missouri Priv. Construction 137 161,072 39,850 41,392 24.7 25.7
43 Missouri Priv. Manufacturing 280 329,446 38,616 39,729 11.7 12.1
81 Montana Total 2,805 427,301 50,441 59,926 11.8 14.0
81 Montana Private 2,248 344,964 19,562 23,559 5.7 6.8
81 Montana Public 557 82,338 30,879 36,367 37.5 44.2
81 Montana Priv. Construction 177 27,873 2,775 3,213 10.0 11.5
81 Montana Priv. Manufacturing 155 23,738 1,964 1,964 8.3 8.3
46 Nebraska Total 2,133 883,808 58,447 70,850 6.6 8.0
46 Nebraska Private 1,788 744,178 27,776 31,313 3.7 4.2
46 Nebraska Public 345 139,630 30,671 39,537 22.0 28.3
46 Nebraska Priv. Construction 147 63,141 5,575 5,575 8.8 8.8
46 Nebraska Priv. Manufacturing 275 113,877 7,510 9,571 6.6 8.4
88 Nevada Total 2,145 1,377,052 190,774 215,463 13.9 15.6
88 Nevada Private 1,864 1,200,943 132,833 144,950 11.1 12.1
88 Nevada Public 281 176,108 57,941 70,513 32.9 40.0
88 Nevada Priv. Construction 144 93,653 18,292 18,818 19.5 20.1
88 Nevada Priv. Manufacturing 109 69,951 3,488 4,571 5.0 6.5
12 New Hampshire Total 2,451 664,204 67,707 77,092 10.2 11.6
12 New Hampshire Private 2,100 571,138 28,222 33,393 4.9 5.8
12 New Hampshire Public 351 93,066 39,485 43,699 42.4 47.0
12 New Hampshire Priv. Construction 146 40,163 6,617 6,893 16.5 17.2
12 New Hampshire Priv. Manufacturing 347 93,827 5,273 6,629 5.6 7.1
22 New Jersey Total 3,270 3,932,705 587,219 638,846 14.9 16.2
22 New Jersey Private 2,804 3,388,503 262,620 296,450 7.8 8.7
22 New Jersey Public 466 544,202 324,599 342,396 59.6 62.9
22 New Jersey Priv. Construction 163 195,444 43,161 45,160 22.1 23.1
22 New Jersey Priv. Manufacturing 268 319,564 9,706 10,921 3.0 3.4
85 New Mexico Total 2,455 812,502 55,336 66,316 6.8 8.2
85 New Mexico Private 1,804 603,637 25,007 28,408 4.1 4.7
85 New Mexico Public 651 208,865 30,329 37,908 14.5 18.1
85 New Mexico Priv. Construction 143 52,478 6,145 6,145 11.7 11.7
85 New Mexico Priv. Manufacturing 113 38,005 2,029 2,600 5.3 6.8
21 New York Total 6,427 8,407,049 1,873,880 2,028,341 22.3 24.1
21 New York Private 5,309 6,978,149 922,106 1,032,050 13.2 14.8
21 New York Public 1,118 1,428,900 951,774 996,291 66.6 69.7
21 New York Priv. Construction 328 440,711 90,152 92,490 20.5 21.0
21 New York Priv. Manufacturing 403 507,487 55,003 63,194 10.8 12.5
56 North Carolina Total 3,485 4,329,529 117,060 172,780 2.7 4.0
56 North Carolina Private 2,947 3,670,940 73,364 108,935 2.0 3.0
56 North Carolina Public 538 658,589 43,697 63,845 6.6 9.7
56 North Carolina Priv. Construction 259 330,018 1,137 5,692 0.3 1.7
56 North Carolina Priv. Manufacturing 440 555,515 8,481 14,493 1.5 2.6
44 North Dakota Total 2,498 342,476 17,907 22,993 5.2 6.7
44 North Dakota Private 2,110 290,661 10,069 12,943 3.5 4.5
44 North Dakota Public 388 51,815 7,839 10,050 15.1 19.4
44 North Dakota Priv. Construction 143 20,300 1,860 1,970 9.2 9.7
44 North Dakota Priv. Manufacturing 208 28,218 1,935 2,087 6.9 7.4
31 Ohio Total 4,104 5,053,712 639,909 722,137 12.7 14.3
31 Ohio Private 3,509 4,339,541 319,239 365,283 7.4 8.4
31 Ohio Public 595 714,171 320,669 356,854 44.9 50.0
31 Ohio Priv. Construction 178 217,985 53,072 56,806 24.3 26.1
31 Ohio Priv. Manufacturing 655 788,751 85,996 85,996 10.9 10.9
73 Oklahoma Total 2,267 1,585,658 90,114 117,567 5.7 7.4
73 Oklahoma Private 1,852 1,302,652 31,812 45,036 2.4 3.5
73 Oklahoma Public 415 283,005 58,301 72,531 20.6 25.6
73 Oklahoma Priv. Construction 126 92,544 0 2,566 0.0 2.8
73 Oklahoma Priv. Manufacturing 219 155,064 4,438 5,125 2.9 3.3
92 Oregon Total 2,274 1,740,902 241,150 255,193 13.9 14.7
92 Oregon Private 1,913 1,471,630 103,813 110,846 7.1 7.5
92 Oregon Public 361 269,272 137,337 144,346 51.0 53.6
92 Oregon Priv. Construction 114 89,721 21,083 21,890 23.5 24.4
92 Oregon Priv. Manufacturing 289 222,244 10,849 12,271 4.9 5.5
23 Pennsylvania Total 4,424 5,582,104 700,130 747,837 12.5 13.4
23 Pennsylvania Private 3,975 5,022,581 403,529 421,495 8.0 8.4
23 Pennsylvania Public 449 559,523 296,601 326,341 53.0 58.3
23 Pennsylvania Priv. Construction 210 261,680 68,890 72,326 26.3 27.6
23 Pennsylvania Priv. Manufacturing 565 698,345 85,332 85,332 12.2 12.2
15 Rhode Island Total 1,604 479,727 83,165 88,538 17.3 18.5
15 Rhode Island Private 1,350 405,979 35,675 38,672 8.8 9.5
15 Rhode Island Public 254 73,748 47,490 49,866 64.4 67.6
15 Rhode Island Priv. Construction 64 20,052 4,316 4,623 21.5 23.1
15 Rhode Island Priv. Manufacturing 171 51,713 3,052 3,241 5.9 6.3
57 South Carolina Total 2,381 2,015,923 55,369 71,816 2.7 3.6
57 South Carolina Private 1,991 1,690,773 27,099 36,625 1.6 2.2
57 South Carolina Public 390 325,150 28,270 35,191 8.7 10.8
57 South Carolina Priv. Construction 146 127,931 2,678 3,341 2.1 2.6
57 South Carolina Priv. Manufacturing 316 268,015 4,699 6,612 1.8 2.5
45 South Dakota Total 1,961 387,490 21,701 27,474 5.6 7.1
45 South Dakota Private 1,664 327,365 9,674 12,518 3.0 3.8
45 South Dakota Public 297 60,126 12,026 14,956 20.0 24.9
45 South Dakota Priv. Construction 124 25,532 2,315 2,579 9.1 10.1
45 South Dakota Priv. Manufacturing 273 52,881 1,749 2,714 3.3 5.1
62 Tennessee Total 2,998 2,814,396 154,128 178,588 5.5 6.3
62 Tennessee Private 2,511 2,370,656 76,243 89,579 3.2 3.8
62 Tennessee Public 487 443,740 77,885 89,009 17.6 20.1
62 Tennessee Priv. Construction 165 155,994 8,019 8,961 5.1 5.7
62 Tennessee Priv. Manufacturing 392 359,119 22,386 25,856 6.2 7.2
74 Texas Total 9,231 11,986,298 511,944 653,595 4.3 5.5
74 Texas Private 7,882 10,275,839 271,941 349,343 2.6 3.4
74 Texas Public 1,349 1,710,458 240,002 304,252 14.0 17.8
74 Texas Priv. Construction 740 988,261 39,417 50,884 4.0 5.1
74 Texas Priv. Manufacturing 791 1,026,887 52,347 63,846 5.1 6.2
87 Utah Total 2,580 1,343,388 55,634 75,857 4.1 5.6
87 Utah Private 2,170 1,134,982 28,286 39,483 2.5 3.5
87 Utah Public 410 208,405 27,347 36,374 13.1 17.5
87 Utah Priv. Construction 184 97,834 7,094 7,981 7.3 8.2
87 Utah Priv. Manufacturing 290 152,547 4,328 4,874 2.8 3.2
13 Vermont Total 2,255 291,645 30,619 33,839 10.5 11.6
13 Vermont Private 1,893 246,514 11,514 12,468 4.7 5.1
13 Vermont Public 362 45,130 19,106 21,372 42.3 47.4
13 Vermont Priv. Construction 112 14,969 662 662 4.4 4.4
13 Vermont Priv. Manufacturing 245 31,940 794 794 2.5 2.5
54 Virginia Total 3,123 3,878,308 167,784 213,206 4.3 5.5
54 Virginia Private 2,500 3,119,390 98,354 117,764 3.2 3.8
54 Virginia Public 623 758,917 69,431 95,442 9.1 12.6
54 Virginia Priv. Construction 201 257,731 5,789 8,240 2.2 3.2
54 Virginia Priv. Manufacturing 219 275,400 33,889 35,194 12.3 12.8
91 Washington Total 3,015 3,273,608 648,139 669,914 19.8 20.5
91 Washington Private 2,472 2,692,851 346,489 360,720 12.9 13.4
91 Washington Public 543 580,757 301,651 309,194 51.9 53.2
91 Washington Priv. Construction 179 192,218 48,063 49,060 25.0 25.5
91 Washington Priv. Manufacturing 352 384,410 100,868 102,798 26.2 26.7
55 West Virginia Total 3,075 684,142 68,464 73,791 10.0 10.8
55 West Virginia Private 2,548 570,439 44,055 46,396 7.7 8.1
55 West Virginia Public 527 113,703 24,410 27,395 21.5 24.1
55 West Virginia Priv. Construction 152 33,333 6,339 6,544 19.0 19.6
55 West Virginia Priv. Manufacturing 343 75,166 11,308 11,522 15.0 15.3
35 Wisconsin Total 2,325 2,697,847 218,590 233,325 8.1 8.6
35 Wisconsin Private 2,005 2,331,270 129,232 133,481 5.5 5.7
35 Wisconsin Public 320 366,577 89,358 99,844 24.4 27.2
35 Wisconsin Priv. Construction 104 119,894 20,209 20,209 16.9 16.9
35 Wisconsin Priv. Manufacturing 469 545,538 56,274 58,541 10.3 10.7
83 Wyoming Total 2,241 235,762 15,376 18,017 6.5 7.6
83 Wyoming Private 1,697 179,121 8,002 9,371 4.5 5.2
83 Wyoming Public 544 56,641 7,374 8,647 13.0 15.3
83 Wyoming Priv. Construction 117 12,541 843 843 6.7 6.7
83 Wyoming Priv. Manufacturing 90 9,259 703 703 7.6 7.6
                   
Data Sources: Current Population Survey (CPS) Outgoing Rotation Group (ORG) Earnings Files, 2018. Sample includes
employed wage and salary workers, ages 16 and over. Variable definitions are: State Code=Census state code used
in CPS, Obs=CPS sample size, Employment=wage and salary employment, Members=employed workers who are union
members, Covered=workers covered by a collective bargaining agreement, %Mem=percent of employed workers who
are union members, and %Cov=percent of employed workers who are covered by a collective bargaining agreement.
2019 by Barry T. Hirsch and David A. Macpherson. The use of data requires citation.